• Title, Summary, Keyword: estimation

Search Result 28,329, Processing Time 0.111 seconds

Estimation of Radio Frequency Electric Field Strength for Dielectric Heating of Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Used for Manufacturing Glulam (구조용 집성재 제조용 접착제(Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin) 유전 가열을 위한 고주파 전기장 세기 추산)

  • Yang, Sang-Yun;Han, Yeonjung;Park, Yonggun;Eom, Chang-Deuk;Kim, Se-Jong;Kim, Kwang-Mo;Park, Moon-Jae;Yeo, Hwanmyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.42 no.3
    • /
    • pp.339-345
    • /
    • 2014
  • For enhancing productivity of glulam, high frequency (HF) curing technique was researched in this study. Heat energy is generated by electromagnetic energy dissipation when HF wave is applied to a dielectric material. Because both lamina and adhesives have dielectric property, internal heat generation would be occurred when HF wave is applied to glulam. Most room temperature setting adhesives such as phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) resin, which is popularly used for manufacturing glulam, can be cured more quickly as temperature of adhesives increases. In this study, dielectric properties of larch wood and PRF adhesives were experimentally evaluated, and the mechanism of HF heating, which induced the fast curing of glue layer in glulam, was theoretically analyzed. Result of our experiments showed relative loss factor of PRF resin, which leads temperature increase, was higher than that of larch wood. Also, it showed density and specific heat of PRF, which are resistance factors of temperature increase, were higher than those of wood. It was expected that the heat generation in PRF resin by HF heating would occur greater than in larch wood, because the ratio of relative loss factor to density and specific heat of PRF resin was greater than that of larch wood. Through theoretical approach with the experimental results, the relative strengths of ISM band HF electric fields to achieve a target heating rate were estimated.

Estimation of $T_2{^*}$ Relaxation Times for the Glandular Tissue and Fat of Breast at 3T MRI System (3테슬러 자기공명영상기기에서 유방의 유선조직과 지방조직의 $T_2{^*}$이완시간 측정)

  • Ryu, Jung Kyu;Oh, Jang-Hoon;Kim, Hyug-Gi;Rhee, Sun Jung;Seo, Mirinae;Jahng, Geon-Ho
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose : $T_2{^*}$ relaxation time which includes susceptibility information represents unique feature of tissue. The objective of this study was to investigate $T_2{^*}$ relaxation times of the normal glandular tissue and fat of breast using a 3T MRI system. Materials and Methods: Seven-echo MR Images were acquired from 52 female subjects (age $49{\pm}12 $years; range, 25 to 75) using a three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence. Echo times were between 2.28 ms to 25.72 ms in 3.91 ms steps. Voxel-based $T_2{^*}$ relaxation times and $R_2{^*}$ relaxation rate maps were calculated by using the linear curve fitting for each subject. The 3D regions-of-interest (ROI) of the normal glandular tissue and fat were drawn on the longest echo-time image to obtain $T_2{^*}$ and $R_2{^*}$ values. Mean values of those parameters were calculated over all subjects. Results: The 3D ROI sizes were $4818{\pm}4679$ voxels and $1455{\pm}785$ voxels for the normal glandular tissue and fat, respectively. The mean $T_2{^*}$ values were $22.40{\pm}5.61ms$ and $36.36{\pm}8.77ms$ for normal glandular tissue and fat, respectively. The mean $R_2{^*}$ values were $0.0524{\pm}0.0134/ms$ and $0.0297{\pm}0.0069/ms$ for the normal glandular tissue and fat, respectively. Conclusion: $T_2{^*}$ and $R_2{^*}$ values were measured from human breast tissues. $T_2{^*}$ of the normal glandular tissue was shorter than that of fat. Measurement of $T_2{^*}$ relaxation time could be important to understand susceptibility effects in the breast cancer and the normal tissue.

A Study of Tasseled Cap Transformation Coefficient for the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) (정지궤도 천리안위성 해양관측센서 GOCI의 Tasseled Cap 변환계수 산출연구)

  • Shin, Ji-Sun;Park, Wook;Won, Joong-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.275-292
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study is to determine Tasseled Cap Transformation (TCT) coefficients for the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). TCT is traditional method of analyzing the characteristics of the land area from multi spectral sensor data. TCT coefficients for a new sensor must be estimated individually because of different sensor characteristics of each sensor. Although the primary objective of the GOCI is for ocean color study, one half of the scene covers land area with typical land observing channels in Visible-Near InfraRed (VNIR). The GOCI has a unique capability to acquire eight scenes per day. This advantage of high temporal resolution can be utilized for detecting daily variation of land surface. The GOCI TCT offers a great potential for application in near-real time analysis and interpretation of land cover characteristics. TCT generally represents information of "Brightness", "Greenness" and "Wetness". However, in the case of the GOCI is not able to provide "Wetness" due to lack of ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) band. To maximize the utilization of high temporal resolution, "Wetness" should be provided. In order to obtain "Wetness", the linear regression method was used to align the GOCI Principal Component Analysis (PCA) space with the MODIS TCT space. The GOCI TCT coefficients obtained by this method have different values according to observation time due to the characteristics of geostationary earth orbit. To examine these differences, the correlation between the GOCI TCT and the MODIS TCT were compared. As a result, while the GOCI TCT coefficients of "Brightness" and "Greenness" were selected at 4h, the GOCI TCT coefficient of "Wetness" was selected at 2h. To assess the adequacy of the resulting GOCI TCT coefficients, the GOCI TCT data were compared to the MODIS TCT image and several land parameters. The land cover classification of the GOCI TCT image was expressed more precisely than the MODIS TCT image. The distribution of land cover classification of the GOCI TCT space showed meaningful results. Also, "Brightness", "Greenness", and "Wetness" of the GOCI TCT data showed a relatively high correlation with Albedo ($R^2$ = 0.75), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) ($R^2$ = 0.97), and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) ($R^2$ = 0.77), respectively. These results indicate the suitability of the GOCI TCT coefficients.

The Influence of Thermal Condition on the Variation of Reaction Product Composition depending on the Constituent of Dolomite in the Absorption Process of SO2 by Dolomite (Dolomite에 의한 SO2 흡수공정에서 Dolomite 조성에 따른 생성물질 구성 변화에 대한 열적 조건 영향)

  • You, Dong-Ju;Kim, Dong-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.17-25
    • /
    • 2014
  • The thermal effect on the compositional change of the $SO_2$ absorption process product was investigated compared with the composition of raw material when dolomite is employed in place of lime in the scrubbing process based on thermodynamic estimation. It was considered that the equilibrium reactions which directly related with the formation of $CaSO_4$ and $MgSO_4$, the absorption process products, are those between $Ca^{2+}$ and $Ca(OH)_2$, $Mg^{2+}$ and $Mg(OH)_2$, and the secondary dissociation reaction of $H_2SO_4$. It was thought to be necessary to examine the enthalpy change for the formation reactions of $CaSO_4$ and $MgSO_4$ along with the thermal feature of the relative reactions to figure out the influence of temperature on the compositional change of absorption process products. The stable regions for $Ca(OH)_2$ and $Mg(OH)_2$ in Pourbaix diagram were found to be increased as temperature rises and the equilibrium reaction between $Ca^{2+}$ and $Ca(OH)_2$ was investigated to be more strongly influence by temperature change compared with the equilibrium reaction between $Mg^{2+}$ and $Mg(OH)_2$. The amounts of $CaSO_4$ and $MgSO_4$ were anticipated to be decreased with temperature considering the thermal characteristics for the equilibrium reactions regarding calcium, magnesium, and $H_2SO_4$. It was understood that the formation ratio between $CaSO_4$ and $MgSO_4$ is greater than the composition ratio between calcium and magnesium contained in dolomite at specific temperature and the decrease of the formation ratio of $CaSO_4$ and $MgSO_4$ with temperature was estimated to be diminished as the content of calcium in dolomite is increased. In addition, the extent of the change in the compositional ratio between absorption process products was examined to be reduced compared with the composition of raw material as the calcium content in dolomite is raised.

A Study on Sample Allocation for Stratified Sampling (층화표본에서의 표본 배분에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Ingue;Park, Mingue
    • The Korean Journal of Applied Statistics
    • /
    • v.28 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1047-1061
    • /
    • 2015
  • Stratified random sampling is a powerful sampling strategy to reduce variance of the estimators by incorporating useful auxiliary information to stratify the population. Sample allocation is the one of the important decisions in selecting a stratified random sample. There are two common methods, the proportional allocation and Neyman allocation if we could assume data collection cost for different observation units equal. Theoretically, Neyman allocation considering the size and standard deviation of each stratum, is known to be more effective than proportional allocation which incorporates only stratum size information. However, if the information on the standard deviation is inaccurate, the performance of Neyman allocation is in doubt. It has been pointed out that Neyman allocation is not suitable for multi-purpose sample survey that requires the estimation of several characteristics. In addition to sampling error, non-response error is another factor to evaluate sampling strategy that affects the statistical precision of the estimator. We propose new sample allocation methods using the available information about stratum response rates at the designing stage to improve stratified random sampling. The proposed methods are efficient when response rates differ considerably among strata. In particular, the method using population sizes and response rates improves the Neyman allocation in multi-purpose sample survey.

Correlation between Antioxidant Capacities and Color Values in Korean Red Grape Juices (국내 적포도주스의 항산화능과 색도의 상관성)

  • Kim, Joo-Young;Seong, Gi-Un;Hwang, In-Wook;Chung, Shin-Kyo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.44 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1206-1211
    • /
    • 2015
  • Grape juice is consumed worldwide and studied due to the high antioxidant activities and contents. The color of grape juice is due to the presence of phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins. Therefore, color values can be an indicator of antioxidant capacities of grape juice. However, the correlation between color values and antioxidant activities in grape juice has not been well studied. In this study, the physicochemical characteristics and correlation between color values and antioxidant capacities of Korean red grape juices (five commercial juices from market and two juices prepared in the laboratory) were investigated to estimate antioxidant capacities. Antioxidant capacities were determined by 1,1-diphenlyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Total phenolic contents, total flavonoid contents, and total anthocyanin contents, including five kinds of polyphenolic compounds, were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results for physicochemical properties showed similar values, except titratable acidity. The color hue values of the prepared juices were higher than those of commercial juices, which was in contrast to the lower color intensity values (P<0.05). The Hunter L, a, and b values showed almost no difference between commercial and prepared juices. The antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of commercial juices were higher than those of prepared ones. Gallic acid, catechin, and quercetin were confirmed by HPLC in all samples. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents showed positive correlation with antioxidant activities. In addition, antioxidant activities and contents correlated with color values. Thus, estimation of antioxidant capacity could be feasible through the spectrophotometric measurement of color values.

Analysis on the Positional Accuracy of the Non-orthogonal Two-pair kV Imaging Systems for Real-time Tumor Tracking Using XCAT (XCAT를 이용한 실시간 종양 위치 추적을 위한 비직교 스테레오 엑스선 영상시스템에서의 위치 추정 정확도 분석에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Hanseong;Kim, Youngju;Oh, Ohsung;Lee, Seho;Jeon, Hosang;Lee, Seung Wook
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.26 no.3
    • /
    • pp.143-152
    • /
    • 2015
  • In this study, we aim to design the architecture of the kV imaging system for tumor tracking in the dual-head gantry system and analyze its accuracy by simulations. We established mathematical formulas and algorithms to track the tumor position with the two-pair kV imaging systems when they are in the non-orthogonal positions. The algorithms have been designed in the homogeneous coordinate framework and the position of the source and the detector coordinates are used to estimate the tumor position. 4D XCAT (4D extended cardiac-torso) software was used in the simulation to identify the influence of the angle between the two-pair kV imaging systems and the resolution of the detectors to the accuracy in the position estimation. A metal marker fiducial has been inserted in a numerical human phantom of XCAT and the kV projections were acquired at various angles and resolutions using CT projection software of the XCAT. As a result, a positional accuracy of less than about 1mm was achieved when the resolution of the detector is higher than 1.5 mm/pixel and the angle between the kV imaging systems is approximately between $90^{\circ}$ and $50^{\circ}$. When the resolution is lower than 1.5 mm/pixel, the positional errors were higher than 1mm and the error fluctuation by the angles was greater. The resolution of the detector was critical in the positional accuracy for the tumor tracking and determines the range for the acceptable angle range between the kV imaging systems. Also, we found that the positional accuracy analysis method using XCAT developed in this study is highly useful and will be a invaluable tool for further refined design of the kV imaging systems for tumor tracking systems.

An Efficient Estimation of Place Brand Image Power Based on Text Mining Technology (텍스트마이닝 기반의 효율적인 장소 브랜드 이미지 강도 측정 방법)

  • Choi, Sukjae;Jeon, Jongshik;Subrata, Biswas;Kwon, Ohbyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
    • /
    • v.21 no.2
    • /
    • pp.113-129
    • /
    • 2015
  • Location branding is a very important income making activity, by giving special meanings to a specific location while producing identity and communal value which are based around the understanding of a place's location branding concept methodology. Many other areas, such as marketing, architecture, and city construction, exert an influence creating an impressive brand image. A place brand which shows great recognition to both native people of S. Korea and foreigners creates significant economic effects. There has been research on creating a strategically and detailed place brand image, and the representative research has been carried out by Anholt who surveyed two million people from 50 different countries. However, the investigation, including survey research, required a great deal of effort from the workforce and required significant expense. As a result, there is a need to make more affordable, objective and effective research methods. The purpose of this paper is to find a way to measure the intensity of the image of the brand objective and at a low cost through text mining purposes. The proposed method extracts the keyword and the factors constructing the location brand image from the related web documents. In this way, we can measure the brand image intensity of the specific location. The performance of the proposed methodology was verified through comparison with Anholt's 50 city image consistency index ranking around the world. Four methods are applied to the test. First, RNADOM method artificially ranks the cities included in the experiment. HUMAN method firstly makes a questionnaire and selects 9 volunteers who are well acquainted with brand management and at the same time cities to evaluate. Then they are requested to rank the cities and compared with the Anholt's evaluation results. TM method applies the proposed method to evaluate the cities with all evaluation criteria. TM-LEARN, which is the extended method of TM, selects significant evaluation items from the items in every criterion. Then the method evaluates the cities with all selected evaluation criteria. RMSE is used to as a metric to compare the evaluation results. Experimental results suggested by this paper's methodology are as follows: Firstly, compared to the evaluation method that targets ordinary people, this method appeared to be more accurate. Secondly, compared to the traditional survey method, the time and the cost are much less because in this research we used automated means. Thirdly, this proposed methodology is very timely because it can be evaluated from time to time. Fourthly, compared to Anholt's method which evaluated only for an already specified city, this proposed methodology is applicable to any location. Finally, this proposed methodology has a relatively high objectivity because our research was conducted based on open source data. As a result, our city image evaluation text mining approach has found validity in terms of accuracy, cost-effectiveness, timeliness, scalability, and reliability. The proposed method provides managers with clear guidelines regarding brand management in public and private sectors. As public sectors such as local officers, the proposed method could be used to formulate strategies and enhance the image of their places in an efficient manner. Rather than conducting heavy questionnaires, the local officers could monitor the current place image very shortly a priori, than may make decisions to go over the formal place image test only if the evaluation results from the proposed method are not ordinary no matter what the results indicate opportunity or threat to the place. Moreover, with co-using the morphological analysis, extracting meaningful facets of place brand from text, sentiment analysis and more with the proposed method, marketing strategy planners or civil engineering professionals may obtain deeper and more abundant insights for better place rand images. In the future, a prototype system will be implemented to show the feasibility of the idea proposed in this paper.

The structural relationships between organizational ethical, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior of private security guards (민간경비원의 조직윤리, 직무만족 및 조직시민행동의 구조적 관계)

  • Kim, Young-Hyun;Park, Kill-Jun
    • Korean Security Journal
    • /
    • no.42
    • /
    • pp.59-85
    • /
    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to establish the structural relationship among organizational ethical climate, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. It was intended for the private security guards who work in the security companies in Seoul and Gyeonggi from Jan. 1st, 2014 to Apr. 1st, 2014 to achieve the purpose like this. Purposive sampling was used as the sampling method according to this and sampling of 400 persons was done. However, the samples of 372 persons were finally used in the analysis through the process to check faithless answers, double answers, and abnormal data. The collected data was analyzed according to the purpose of the study by utilizing STATA 13.0 and AMOS 17.0. And for statistic techniques, frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, multivariate normality, confirmatory factor analysis(CFA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and structural equation model analysis were carried out. The conclusion gotten from this study through the data analyses according to the methods and procedure like this is as follow: First, organizational ethical climate has found to have the positive effect on job satisfaction(Non-standard $B=1.427^{***}$). That is, it can be interpreted that organizational ethical climate positively affects superiors, fellow employees, pay, current duties, and chances of promotion. Second, job satisfaction has found not to have the significant effect on organizational citizenship behavior. That is, it can be interpreted that job satisfaction does not affect altruism, conscience, and participation behavior. Third, organizational ethical climate has found to have the positive effect on organizational citizenship behavior (Non-standard $B=.361^{***}$). That is, it can be interpreted that organizational ethical climate positively affects altruism, conscience, and participation behavior. Fourth, the relationship between organizational ethical climate and organizational citizens has found that there is no any indirect effect in the bootstrapping estimation result to establish the indirect effect of job satisfaction. Fifth, the relationship between organizational ethical climate and job satisfaction has found that there are the moderating effects in the analytical result of the moderating effects of person-organization fit. That is, the effects of organizational ethical climate on job satisfaction have found that the groups with higher person-organization fit are more positive than those with lower person-organization fit. Sixth, the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior has found that there are moderating effects in the analytical result of person-organization fit. That is, the effects of job satisfaction on organizational citizenship behavior have found that the groups with higher person-organization fit are more positive than those with lower person-organization fit.

  • PDF

Weed Flora Diversity and Composition on Upland Field of Korea (우리나라 밭작물 재배지 잡초 발생 및 분포현황)

  • Lee, In-Yong;Oh, Young-Ju;Hong, Sun-Hee;Choi, Jun-Keun;Heo, Su-Jeoung;Lee, Chae-Young;Hwang, Ki-Seon;Park, Kee-Woong;Cho, Seng-Hyun;Kwon, Oh-Do;Im, Il-Bin;Kim, Sang-Kuk;Seong, Deok-Gyeong;Chung, Young-Jae;Kim, Chang-Seok;Lee, Jeongran;Seo, Hyun-A;Jang, Hyung-Mok
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
    • /
    • v.4 no.3
    • /
    • pp.159-175
    • /
    • 2015
  • Surveys of weed species on upland fields were conducted in Korea to investigate the occurrence of weed flora from April to May 2014 for winter crop fields and from July to August 2014 for summer crop fields. From the nation-wide survey, 375 weed species in 50 families were identified and classified to 162 annuals, 78 biennials and 135 perennials. Based on the occurrence ratio, the most weed species belonged to Compositae (73 species). 44 and 25 weed species belonged to Poaceae and Polygonaceae, respectively, and these 183 weed species in the most five families accounted for 49% of total weed occurrence. While 287 weed species in 45 families occurred in the winter crop fields, 339 weed species in 47 families occurred in summer crop fields. The most dominant weed species in Korean upland fields were Digitaria ciliaris, followed by Portulaca oleracea, Acalypha australis, Chenopodium album, Rorippa palustris etc. 129 weed species in 25 families were considered as exotic weeds. Based on the importance analysis, the highest value was C. album followed by Amaranthus lividus, Conyza canadensis etc. This information could be useful for estimation of future weed occurrence, weed population dynamics and establishment of weed control methods in upland fields of Korea.