• Title, Summary, Keyword: essential amino acids

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Effect of Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in North Carolina State University (NCSU)-23 Medium on Development of Porcine In vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Hashem, Md. Abul;Bhandari, Dilip P.;Hossein, Mohammad Shamim;Jeong, Yeon Woo;Kim, Sue;Kim, Ji-Hye;Koo, Ok-Jae;Park, Seon Mi;Lee, Eu Gine;Park, Sun Woo;Kang, Sung Keun;Lee, Byeong Chun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.693-700
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    • 2007
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of essential and nonessential amino acid in NCSU-23 medium on the in vitro-produced porcine embryo as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage. Four experiments were performed, each with a completely randomized design involving 5 to 8 replications of treatments. In order to know the effect of nonessential amino acids in NCSU-23 medium, 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM were supplemented there to, (Exp. 1) and the medium was supplemented with same level of essential amino acids (Exp. 2). The combined effect of nonessential (0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM) and essential amino acids (0, 5, 10 and $10{\mu}/ml$ MEM) in NCSU-23 medium (Exp. 3), first 72 h with non-essential amino acids (at 0, 5, 10 and $20{\mu}/ml$ MEM), and last 4 d with essential amino acids with the same level as NEAA (Exp. 4) were examined. The embryo development was monitored and the quality of blastocysts was evaluated by counting the number of total cells and determining the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to trophoectoderm (TE) cells. When Eagle's nonessential amino acids (MEM) added to NCSU-23 medium, it significantly increased the likelihood of development to the 2- to 4-cell stage and subsequent blastocyst development. Supplementation of different levels of essential amino acids in the NCSU-23 medium decreased cleavage rate, rate of morula and blastocyst development and the number of ICMs. In the case of the combined effect of essential and nonessential amino acids, better and significant results were found for blastocysts, hatching blastocysts and for ICM numbers which were also dose dependent. With respect to the biphasic effect of nonessential and essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids increased cleavage whereas essential amino acids increased the total cell number. Neither the nonessential nor the essential group of amino acids, on their own, affected blastocyst cell number or the differentiation of cells in the blastocyst. In conclusion, this study determined the role of nonessential and essential amino acids in the culture of the porcine embryo and showed that the embryo requires different levels of amino acids as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage.

Central Functions of Amino Acids for the Stress Response in Chicks

  • Yamane, H.;Kurauchi, I.;Denbow, D.M.;Furuse, Mitsuhiro
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.296-304
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    • 2009
  • The nutritional significance of essential amino acids, as well as non-essential amino acids, is well documented in poultry production with regards to growth performance and protein accretion. However, the function of amino acids in the stress response is still unclear. L-Pipecolic acid, a L-lysine metabolite in the brain, induced a hypnotic and sedative effect acting via the ${\gamma}$- aminobutyric acid receptors. L-Arginine also induced a sedative effect via its metabolism to L-ornithine. In addition, three-carbon nonessential amino acids like L-alanine, L-serine and L-cysteine also induced sedative effects. These facts suggest that the requirement for amino acids in both essential and non-essential types may require reconsideration to add the concept of stress amelioration in the future.

Comparative analysis of amino acid contents of the fruiting bodies in Ganoderma spp. (영지버섯 균주별 자실체의 아미노산함량 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Jae-Han;Noh, Hyung-Jun;Kang, Don-Ho;Lee, Jee-Young;Lee, Min-Jung;Park, Hye-Sung;Sung, Gi-Ho;Jhune, Chang-Sung
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.208-215
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    • 2012
  • Ingredient content for the general composition of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids were analyzed by the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma sp. The results obtained are as followes. The ASI 7004 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(His, Ile, Leu, Phe, Thr, Val) and the non-essential amino acids(Ala, Ser, Gly). In addition, The ASI 7002 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(Lys) and the non-essential amino acids(Asp, Glu). ASI 7022 showed that high concentrations than other strains in essential amino acids(Met) and the non-essential amino acids(Pro). In General, contents of Amino acid was higher than Phellinus.

Effect of Essential and Non-essential Amino Acids, Taurine or Glycine Supplemented to Fertilization Medium on In Vitro Cleavage and Development of Bovine Oocytes Matured and Fertilized In Vitro (체외수정배양액내에 첨가된 필수 .비필수아미노산, Taurine 또는 Glycine이 소 난자의 분할 및 체외발육에 미치는 영향)

  • 이은송;이병천;황우석
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.131-138
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    • 1995
  • Essential and non-essential amino acids supplemented to culture medium stimulate mammalian embryo development in vitro. Amino acids such as glycine, taurine and alanine are concentrated in the lumen of oviduct and uterus and it can he thought that these amino acids may have physiological role on fertilization and embryo development. Our aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of essential and non-essential amino acids, taurine or glycine supplemented to fertilization medium on the cleavage and subsequent in vitro development of bovine oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro. Immature oocytes were obtained from slaughtered Holstein cows and heifers and matured in TCM199 containing 10% fetal calf serum, 2.5 $\mu$g /mL of FSH and LH and 1 $\mu$g / mL of estradiol with granulosa cells in vitro. After maturation, oocytes were coincubated with sperm in fertilization medium supplemented with Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) essential and non-essential amino acids, taurine (3.75 mM) or glycine (10 mM) for 30 hours in vitro. Inseminated oocytes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid medium (SOEM) containing MEM essential, non-essential amino acids and 1 mM glutarnine up to 8 days after fertilization.Supplementation of fertilization medium with MEM essential and non-essential amino acids lowered significantly (p<0.05 and p<0.001) the cleavage rate after 30 hours of IVF (53.3%) and at Day 3 (62.7%: Day 0: the day of I VF) compared to control (64.3% and 77.3%, respectively). Subsequent developmental rates to morulae (Mo) and expanding blastocysts (ExBL) also significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.05 for Mo and ExBL) when oocytes were coincubated with sperm in the medium containing MEM amino acids. Taurine added to fertilization medium have not increased the cleavage rate over the control, whereas glycine showed significantly lower (p<0.01) cleavage rate at Day 3 than that of taurine, but there was no significant difference in the developmental rates to Mo and ExBL of bovine embryos irrespective of the supplementation of taurine or glycine to fertilization medium. In conclusion, supplementation of fertilization medium with essential and non-essential amino acids, taurine or glycine has no beneficial effect on in vitro cleavage and development of bovine oocytes matured and fertilization in vitro.

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Effects of Refeeding with a Protein-Free Diets Supplemented with Various Essential Amino Acids on the Plasma Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Concentration in Fasting Young Chickens

  • Kita, K;Shibata, T.;Nagao, K.;Hwangbo, J.;Okumura, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.406-409
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    • 2002
  • The effect of refeeding with various single essential amino acids on the recovery of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration in fasted young chickens was examined. Young chickens (29 days of age) were divided into 15 experimental groups. Chickens in one group were fed on the commercial diet ad libitum for 4 days. The remaining 56 chickens in 14 experimental groups were fasted. After 2 days of fasting, 52 chicks in 13 fasted groups were refed with one of the following experimental diets for 2 days. Eleven experimental diets were protein-free diets supplemented with one of 11 essential amino acids (Arg, Gly, His, Ileu, Leu, Met, Phe, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val). The remaining 2 experimental diets were a protein-free diet containing 11 essential amino acids and a protein-free diet not supplemented with amino acids. Birds in the remaining fasted group continued to be fasted for 2 days. Fasting for 2 days markedly reduced plasma IGF-I concentration. When fasted chickens were refed the protein-free diet containing either Gly alone or all essential amino acids, plasma IGF-I concentration was recovered to the level similar to that of fed chickens. Protein-free diet alone, however, failed to restore the reduced IGF-I concentration in plasma. Body weight loss modulated by feeding with protein-free diets supplemented with various single essential amino acids was associated with changes in plasma IGF-I concentrations. We concluded that body weight loss by feeding with a protein-free diet was lower than that of fasted chickens and that body weight loss associated with the decrease in plasma IGF-I concentration was modulated by feeding with protein-free diets containing various single essential amino acids.

Serum Free Amino Acid Levels in Korean Adult Males and Females (한국 성인 남자 및 여자의 혈청 유리 아미노산의 정상치)

  • Yoon, Tai-Heon;Im, Kyung-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.421-426
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    • 1984
  • Mean values for the fasting serum levels of the individual amino acids are given for 34 adult males and 35 adult females, ranging in age from 20 to 39 years. Threonine plus glutamine, alanine and lysine accounted for about 40% of total amino acids, and total essential amino acids was significantly lower than total nonessential amino acids. There were highly significant differences between men and women in the mean serum amino acid levels. Men had significantly .higher levels than women for most of the amino acids except lysine and histidine. Total essential amino acids, and the molar ratios of total essential to total nonessential amino acids and total amino acids showed significantly higher levels in men than in women. The molar ratios of each essential amino acid to total essential amino acids were also examined.

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The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks

  • Wei, Hen-Wei;Kuo, Hsin-Mei;Chiu, Wen-Zan;Chen, Bao-Ji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1194
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.

A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (저단백영양(低蛋白營養)에 있어서 성숙(成熟)흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acid에 대하여)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1972
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats(body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24 B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the noprotein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein-30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (低蛋白營養에 있어서 成熟흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acids에 대하여)

  • Hyun-Ki Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1971
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats (body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the no-protein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine, glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein- 30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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Free Amino Acid Composition of Korean Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Cultivars as Influenced by Different Harvesting Time

  • Yoon, Young-Eun;Kuppusamy, Saranya;Kim, Song Yeob;Kim, Jang Hwan;Lee, Yong Bok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.104-110
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: There is lack of comprehensive compositional data of the amino acid profile of spinach with regard to different cultivars. A more detailed knowledge in this aspect will be of benefit in the future selection of spinach genotypes with improved nutritional quality.METHODS AND RESULTS: The effects of cultivar type (Jeoncheonhu, Sagyejul, Namdongcho and Mustang) and harvest time (79th, 116th and 145th days after sowing or DAS) on the concentrations of free amino acids in field-grown spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were examined. About 35 different free amino acids were detected and quantified by the amino acid analyzer. Glutamic acid and proline were identified as the major amino acids, while α -aminoadipic acid and α-aminobutyric acid were present in much lower concentrations. Spinach constituted 1468.4 mg/100 g total free amino acids (TAA), of which essential amino acids, neutral/acidic amino acids and sulphur containing amino acids constituted around 15, 45 and 2% of the TAA, respectively. The most limiting amino acids among the leafy vegetables - cysteine was recorded only in Mustang harvested at 116 DAS. Free amino acid contents did not differ significantly among the spinach cultivars and also at different harvest times.CONCLUSION: The data show that, either of the spinach cultivars, preferably Mustang harvested on or after 116 DAS can serve as a significant source of nutritionally relevant amino acids to meet the demand of the growing populations.