• Title, Summary, Keyword: essential amino acid

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The Optimum Dietary Essential Amino Acid Pattern for Male Taiwan Country Chicks

  • Wei, Hen-Wei;Kuo, Hsin-Mei;Chiu, Wen-Zan;Chen, Bao-Ji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.8
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    • pp.1186-1194
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to estimate the optimum dietary essential amino acid pattern for male Taiwan country chicks. A series of experiments was conducted with chicks, 14 d of age, for 2 wks. A basal synthetic diet was established using a dose response test for all essential amino acids referring to the broiler requirements recommended by NRC (1994). Twelve chicks were sacrificed at the beginning to provide initial body nitrogen data, and every group of six birds received the basal diet or a diet with a deficiency in a single essential amino acid in twenty one treatments by intubation according to their daily metabolic body weight (MBW). Deposited body nitrogen was determined using comparative slaughtering. According to the daily intake from the limiting amino acid per unit of MBW and the body nitrogen accretion rates for every two deficient groups with the same limiting amino acid but at different levels, a corresponding straight line was computed for each essential amino acid to intersect with a horizontal line made by the body nitrogen accretion rate of the control group. The x coordinate of the intersection represented the daily requirement for growth plus maintenance based on MBW corresponding to the essential amino acid. The amino acid ratios can be considered as the optimum pattern of dietary essential amino acids. The results, expressed with respect to lysine = 100, were arginine 105, methionine 81, histidine 34, tryptophan 18, leucine 103, phenylalanine 135, isoleucine 69, threonine 65 and valine 79. This pattern could be utilized to compute the dietary requirements (g/kg feed) for all essential amino acids by multiplying by the requirement of a single essential amino acid cited from the literature.

A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (저단백영양(低蛋白營養)에 있어서 성숙(成熟)흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acid에 대하여)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 1972
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats(body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24 B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the noprotein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein-30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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A Study of the Free Amino Acids in the Plasma and Erythrocytes in the Male Adult Rats Fed with the Low Protein Diets (低蛋白營養에 있어서 成熟흰쥐의 Plasma 및 Erythrocytes Free Amino Acids에 대하여)

  • Hyun-Ki Lee
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.69-84
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    • 1971
  • An analysis of the free amino acid contained in the plasma and erythrocytes of the six groups of Wistar Strain male adult rats (body weight 200-300g) having fasted for sixteen hours was made by means of the HITACHI Amino Acid Autoanalyzer and the result of which was corrected with RC-24B TOMY Micro Hematocrit Centrifuge. There was a depression of the plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the no-protein diet with ad libitum feeding. But on the 20% casein diet there was an elevation in the levels of free amino acid and consequently alanine, glysine, lysine, serine and arginine level in the erythrocytes and threonine, glutamic acid and taurine level in the plasma increased on the high protein diet. There was more plasma and erythrocytes free amino acid level on the 5% casein- 30% fat diet than on the 5% casein-no fat diet with pair-feeding. In comparison, on the low calorie diet more free amino acids were found in plasma than in erythrocytes, but on the higher calorie diet more free amino acids were found in the erythrocytes than in the plasma. On the 20% casein-30% fat diet with pair-feeding the erythrocytes free amino acids level increased but in plasma free amino acids level decreased. Such as an opposite result was given in plasma and erythrocytes free amino acids level. In the pair-fed four groups, erythrocytes per plasma generally increased in the rate of less than 10.0 as the calorie increased. The essential amino acid per non essential amino acid generally increased in the ratio as protein level and calorie increased, and that ratio range was from 0.2 to 0.7. And essential amino acid per non essential amino acid of plasma was higher than that of erythrocytes.

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A Comparison of the Essential Amino Acid Content and the Retention Rate by Chicken Part according to Different Cooking Methods

  • Kim, Honggyun;Do, Hyun Wook;Chung, Heajung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.626-634
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    • 2017
  • This study set out to identify the changes in the nutrient contents during the chicken cooking process as basic data for the establishment of a national health nutrition policy. Samples were produced using 3 chicken parts (wing, breast, and leg) and 7 cooking methods (boiling, pan-cooking, pan-frying, deep-frying, steaming, roasting, and microwaving), and the essential amino acid contents, principal components, and retention rates were analyzed. Weight loss was observed in all chicken parts with all cooking methods. The protein and essential amino acid contents of the chicken samples differed significantly according to the part and the cooking method (p<0.01). The protein and essential amino acid contents (g/100 g) of raw and cooked chicken parts showed ranges of 16.81-32.36 and 0.44-2.45, respectively. The principal component analysis (PCA) clearly demonstrated that the cooking methods and chicken parts produced similar trends for the essential amino acid contents. The retention rates of the chicken parts varied with the cooking methods, yielding a minimum value of 83% for isoleucine in a roasted wing, 91% for protein in a steamed breast, and 77% for isoleucine and lysine in a roasted leg. Therefore, the protein and amino acid contents of the roasted breast were higher than those of the other cooked chicken parts.

Lipid and Protein Constituents of Crotalaria juncea L.

  • Javed, Muhammad Akhtar;Saleem, Muhammad;Yamin, Muhammad;Chaudri, Tanvir Ahmad
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.148-150
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    • 1999
  • Seed lipids and proteins of Crotalaria juncea L were analyzed for fatty acids and amino acids respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oil gave palmitic acid (16.01%), stearic acid (7.29%), oleic acid (14.41%), linoleic acid (54.44%) and linolenic acid (7.86%). The defatted seed cake contained all the essential amino acids except methionine and six non-essential amino acids.

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Effects of High and Low Sodium Diet on Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Korean Adult Women (고나트륨과 저나트륨 식이시 성인 여성의 혈중 아미노산 농도변화에 관한 연구)

  • 홍원주;승정자;김미현
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 2004
  • This study was performed to determine the effect of dietary Na levels on plasma amino acid levels. Plasma amino acid levels were compared in 20 adult healthy women subjects who were given high Na diet (290.48 mEq/day : NaCl 17g) or low Na diet (51.26 mEq/day : NaCl 3g) for subsequent 6 days. Plasma essential amino acids levels were significantly decreased (36%) while plasma non-essential amino acids levels were significantly increased (22%) when subjects were given low Na diet (p<0.001). Among essential amino acids, threonine was decreased (74%) significantly when subjects were given low Na diet (p<0.01). Among nonessential amino acids, serine (49%), proline (20%) and aspartic acid (14%) were increased (p<0.01), while arginine (48%) and glutamic acid (27%) were decreased (p<0.001). In conclusion, dietary Na contents seemed to be an important factor to affect plasma amino acid levels. It would be appropriate to decrease the dietary Na intakes level considering the various clinical effects of dietary Na on the body fluid. For the patients who need low Na diet, it would be suggested that the level of dietary proteins should be carefully considered along with dietary Na manipulation. (Korean J Nutrition 37(2) : 108-114, 2004)

A Study on the Essential Amino Acid Composition of Chlorella ellipsoidea Isolated Near Suwon (수원(水原) 근교(近郊)에서 분리(分離)한 Chlorella ellipsoidea의 필수(必須) Amino 산(酸) 조성(組成)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) A study on the Essential Amino Acid Composition of Chlorella ellipsoidea Isolated Near Suwon)

  • Chung, Yung-Gun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.98-101
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    • 1976
  • The essential amino acids composition of Green algae (chlorella ellipsoidea) that was isolated near the suwon was compared with that of soy flour and the provisional pattern of amino acids of reference protein of FAO and found that the limit amino acid was methionine. The rest of essential amino acids were distributed widely and abunduntly. While soy flour was defficient in methionine and valine on comparing with the provisional pattern. Slightly more content of methionine was recognized in chlorella protein than that of spirulina maxima which was reported to be eaten in the Lake Chard region of Africa and Mexico as a daily food. It was concluded that good quality protein is able to be synthesised from the wild alage if a qualified alage media was given to them.

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The Content Analysis of Amino Acids Including GABA of Chlorella protothecoides under Mixtrophic Culture (혼합영양 배양에서 Chlorella protothecoides의 GABA를 포함한 아미노산 함량 분석)

  • Jeong, Yu Jeong;Kim, Seong Hak;Min, Hee Gyung;Kim, Sung Chun
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2018
  • Chlorella is quantitatively and qualitatively high in protein with balanced essential amino acid profiles, vitamins and minerals. ${\gamma}-Aminobutyric$ acid (GABA) is broadly distributed in nature and fulfills multi-physiological functions including effect such as a health-promoting functional compound. To improve the GABA production, Chlorella protothecoides were grown through the modified mixtrophic culture medium containing 2L of sterilized bristol medium with 0.01% urea and 4.0% glucose in a 5L fermenter. The results showed that nineteen kinds of amino acid including GABA at C. protothecoides sample were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Glutamic acid in total concentration (%) of amino acid is the most abundant amino acid (33.10%), followed by alanine (20.48%) and GABA (17.48%). Three amino acids including GABA were responsible for more than 70% total concentration in C. protothecoides sample including eight essential and nine non-essential amino acids: aspartic acid, asparagine, serine, glutamine, histidine, glycine, threonine, arginine, tyrosine, valine, methionine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine. As a result of this experiment, it is expected that Chlorella will be developed to a critical product having high value as, GABA, functional food materials.

Protein Quality and Amino Acid Utilization in Chickens

  • Kim, Ji-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2015
  • It is well known that dietary protein affects the growth performance and carcass composition of poultry. Over the last several decades, numerous studies have been carried out to investigate to optimize the level of dietary protein since the protein is an important and expensive constituent in poultry feed. It is generally accepted that dietary protein should represent a balance of amino acids supporting the requirements for growth and maintenance of birds. A protein with balanced essential amino acids that matches a bird's requirement and sufficient non-essential amino acid nitrogen to enable the synthesis of all of the non-essential amino acids, is referred to as an 'ideal protein'. Feeding of excess protein or amino acids may result in an amount of nitrogen emission. Most common method to reduce nitrogen emission is using diet formulation which has lower dietary crude protein level and higher concentration of amino acid supplements. However, there are conflicting reports whether low protein diets supplemented with synthetic amino acids can obtain the growth performance equal to high protein diets. Excessive nitrogen excretion caused by amino acid imbalance also may influence the environment of poultry house due to ammonia production from uric acid. These environmental conditions may increase the incidence of skin problem or respiratory diseases of chickens. Various strategies based on comprehensive understanding should be tested to optimize nitrogen utilization and reduce nitrogen emission while maintaining the performance in poultry production.

Influence of Breed, Slaughter Weight and Gender on Chemical Composition of Beef. Part 1. Amino Acid Profile and Biological Value of Proteins

  • Hollo, G.;Csapo, J.;Szucs, E.;Tozser, J.;Repa, I.;Hollo, I.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1555-1559
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    • 2001
  • In the first study of a series of experiment samples were taken from 11-13th rib of Hungarian Simmental (HS, n=22) and Holstein-Friesian (HF, n=18) cull cows. In the second one, that of females (n=15) and males (n=12) of HF breed was analysed for amino acid composition, and biological value (BV) of proteins. No significant influence of either breed or slaughter weight was established in this study. Thus, the essential amino acid content and biological value of the proteins in Hungarian Simmental breed are practically the same as in the Holstein-Friesian. On the other hand, gender proved to be a significant factor influencing the amino acid profile of beef proteins, as the quantity of essential amino acids turned out to be significantly larger in females than in males. No statistical difference could be established for the non-essential amino acids and BV between the two genders.