• Title, Summary, Keyword: equilibrium process

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Study on Adsorption Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters of Murexide by Activated Carbon (입상 활성탄에 의한 Murexide의 흡착 평형, 동력학 및 열역학 파라미터에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong-Jib
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.56-62
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    • 2019
  • The equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of adsorption of murexide by granular activated carbon were investigated. The experiment was carried out by batch experiment with the variables of the amount of the adsorbent, the initial concentration of the dye, the contact time and the temperature. The isothermal adsorption equilibrium was best applied to the Freundlich equation in the range of 293 ~ 313 K. From the separation factor (${\beta}$) of Freundlich equation, it was found that adsorption of murexide by granular activated carbon could be the appropriate treatment method. The adsorption energy (E) obtained from the Dubinin- Radushkevich equation shows that the adsorption process is a physical adsorption process. From the kinetic analysis of the adsorption process, pseudo second order model is more consistent than pseudo first order model. It was found that the adsorption process proceeded to a spontaneous process and an endothermic process through Gibbs free energy change ($-0.1096{\sim}-10.5348kJ\;mol^{-1}$) and enthalpy change ($+151.29kJ\;mol^{-1}$). In addition, since the Gibbs free energy change decreased with increasing temperature, adsorption reaction of murexide by granular activated carbon increased spontaneously with increasing temperature. The entropy change ($147.62J\;mol^{-1}\;K^{-1}$) represented the increasing of randomness at the solid-solution interface during the adsorption reaction of murexide by activated carbon.

Simulation model at continuous steel-making process (연속제강공정의 simulation model)

  • Moon, Il;Song, Hyung-Keun;Shim, Jae-Dong
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.474-478
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    • 1986
  • The phenomenon of a continuous Steel-making process was studied with a set of collected equilibrium data for the steel-oxidation reactions. Mass and Heat balances were also established. Mass transfer constants which are physically unmeasurable but escential for the simulation study in the steel-making process were calculated from the experimental data using an optimization technique. Based on these data various operating conditions and process characteristics were examined.

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Bidding Strategy Determination by Defining Strategic Vector

  • Kang, Dong-Joo;Kim, Balho H.;Chung, Koo-Hyung;Moon, Young-Hwan
    • KIEE International Transactions on Power Engineering
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    • v.3A no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2003
  • This paper presents a schematic process based on the method of eliminating dominated strategies to obtain the optimal bidding strategy Pursuing the Nash equilibrium Point. The Proposed approach is demonstrated for a bidding game in a generation competitive market with 2-dimensional bidding strategy vectors constituting a price-quantity strategy curve.

The Effect of Physicochemical Properties of Salicylate Analogs on Binding to Bovine Serum Albumin (살리실산 유사체류의 물성이 우혈청 알부민 결합에 미치는 영향)

  • Yong, Chul-Soon
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 1993
  • The protein binding of salicylate analogs has been investigated by equilibrium dialysis. A series of binding experiments were performed in order to elucidate the effects of physicochemical properties of salicylate analogs on the binding with bovine serum albumin. Attempts to correlate affinity constants with capacity factor, steric factor and Hammett ${\sigma}$ values suggested hydrophobic forces to be involved in the binding of salicylate analogs. Steric factor contributes to binding process partly, whereas electronic interaction appears to be insignificant.

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Analytical Approach of Sliding Installation Method with Spar Structure

  • Lee, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.575-580
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    • 2011
  • It is important to understand the trajectory of structure in launching process because of the short time of launching process may result in unexpected accidents or damage to structures. The high risk of structural failure is not avoidable without the fully comprehension of changing forces in launching procedure. The commercial software can evaluate the motion of launching event in calm water condition but there is the limitation of research application because of the programmed commercial software. The launching process of the spar hull is suggested with stage concept that is divided into 10 stages in time domain. A force equilibrium diagram is derived for each stage where the changes of force vector and motion characteristics take place. In particular, the effects of changes in buoyancy and drag force due to the progressive submergence of the spar hull are taken into account by means of a touch length concept. The results contained in this paper provide the valuable information of the trajectory motion evaluation with suggested methods in spar launching process with sliding barge. Furthermore, the presented stage concept and touch length concept will provide basic knowledge for understanding launching process and help to develop further research area for launching analysis.

Integrated Trip Distribution/Mode Choice Model and Sensitivity Analysis (통행분포/수단선택 통합모형 및 민감도분석)

  • Im, Yong-Taek
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2011
  • Trip distribution is the second step of the conventional travel demand estimation process, which connects trips between origin and destination, while transport mode choice is the third step of the process, which chooses transport mode among several modes serving for each origin-destination pair. Although these two steps have closely connected, they have been estimated independently each other in the estimation procedure. This paper presents an integrated model combining trip distribution and transport mode choice, and also presents its solution algorithm. The model integrates gravity model adopted for the trip distribution process with logit model employed for the mode choice process. The model would be expected to cope with the inconsistency issue existing in the conventional travel demand estimation procedure. This paper also presents an equilibrium condition, sensitivity of the model, and compares them with those of existing models.

Equilibrium Kinetics and Thermodynamic Parameters Studies for Eosin Yellow Adsorption by Activated Carbon (활성탄에 의한 Eosin Yellow의 흡착에 대한 평형, 동력학 및 열역학 파라미터에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jong Jib
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.3319-3326
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    • 2014
  • Eosin yellow is used a dye and colorant but it is harmful toxic substance. In this paper, batch adsorption studies were carried out for equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic parameters for eosin yellow adsorption by activated carbon with varying the operating variables like pH, initial concentration, contact time. Equilibrium adsorption data were fitted into Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. By estimated Langmuir constant value, $R_L$=0.067-0.083, and Freundlich constant value, $\frac{1}{n}=0.237-0.267$, this process could be employed as effective treatment for removal of eosin yellow. From calculated Temkin constant, value, B=1.868-2.855 J/mol, and Dubinin-Radushkevich constant, value, E=5.345-5.735 kJ/mol, this adsorption process is physical adsorption. From kinetic experiments, the adsorption process were found to confirm to the pseudo second order model with good correlation coefficient($r^2$=0.995-0.998). The mechanism of the adsorption process was determined two step like as boundary and intraparticle diffusion.

A theoretical analysis on the inviscid stagnation-flow solidification problem (비점성 정체 유동 응고 문제에 대한 이론적 해석)

  • 유주식
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2000
  • This study investigates the problem of phase change from liquid to solid in the inviscid stagnation flow. The solution of dimensionless governing equations is determined by the three dimensionless parameters of (temperature ratio/conductivity ratio), Stefan number, and diffusi-vity ratio. The solution at the initial stage of freezing is obtained by expanding it in powers of time, and the final equilibrium state is determined from the steady-state governing equations. The equilibrium state is dependent on (temperature ratio/conductivity ratio), but is independent of Stefan number and diffusivity ratio. The effect of fluid flow on the pure conduction problem can be clearly seen from the solution of the initial stage and the final equilibrium state, and the characteristics of the solidification process for all the dimensionless parameters are elucidated.

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A GENERAL ITERATIVE ALGORITHM COMBINING VISCOSITY METHOD WITH PARALLEL METHOD FOR MIXED EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS FOR A FAMILY OF STRICT PSEUDO-CONTRACTIONS

  • Jitpeera, Thanyarat;Inchan, Issara;Kumam, Poom
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.29 no.3_4
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    • pp.621-639
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this paper is to introduce a general iterative process by viscosity approximation method with parallel method to ap-proximate a common element of the set of solutions of a mixed equilibrium problem and of the set of common fixed points of a finite family of $k_i$-strict pseudo-contractions in a Hilbert space. We obtain a strong convergence theorem of the proposed iterative method for a finite family of $k_i$-strict pseudo-contractions to the unique solution of variational inequality which is the optimality condition for a minimization problem under some mild conditions imposed on parameters. The results obtained in this paper improve and extend the corresponding results announced by Liu (2009), Plubtieng-Panpaeng (2007), Takahashi-Takahashi (2007), Peng et al. (2009) and some well-known results in the literature.

A Study on the Calcuation of NO Formation in Cylinder for Diesel Engines (디젤기관의 연소실내 NO 생성농도 예측에 관한 연구)

  • 남정길
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.543-551
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    • 1999
  • Diesel engine is a major source of the air pollution. In general the concentrations of these pollu-tants in diesel engine exhaust differ from values calculated assuming chemical equibrium. Thus the detailed chemical mechanisms by which these pollutions form and the kinetic of these process-es are important in determining emission levels. In this study the computer program has been developed to calculate the required thermodynam-ic properties of combustion products(10 spacies) for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium in cylin-der for diesel engines. Nitric oxide emissions are calculated by using the extended Zeldovich Kinet-ic mechanism with a steady state assumption for the N concentration and equilibrium values used for H, O, $O_2$ and OH concentrations. By the results it is confirmed that developed simulations program with the NO prediction model is validated against residual mass fraction combustion index of Wiebe's functions pre-mixed com-bustion ration fuel injection timing.

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