• Title, Summary, Keyword: equilibrium constant

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Modal Analysis of Constrained Multibody Systems Undergoing Constant Accelerated Motions

  • Park, Dong-Hwan;Yoo, Hong-Hee
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1086-1093
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    • 2004
  • The modal characteristics of constrained multibody systems undergoing constant accelerated motions are investigated in this paper. Relative coordinates are employed to derive the equations of motion, which are generally nonlinear in terms of the coordinates. The dynamic equilibrium position of a constrained multibody system needs to be obtained from the nonlinear equations of motion, which are then linearized at the dynamic equilibrium position. The mass and the stiffness matrices for the modal analysis can be obtained from the linearized equations of motion. To verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the proposed method, two numerical examples are solved and the results obtained by using the proposed method are compared with those obtained by analytical and other numerical methods. The proposed method is found to be accurate as well as effective in predicting the modal characteristics of constrained multibody systems undergoing constant accelerated motions.

Steady-State Equilibrium Analysis of a Multibody System Driven by Constant Generalized Speeds

  • Park, Dong-Hwan;Park, Jung-Hun;Yoo, Hong-Hee
    • Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.1239-1245
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    • 2002
  • A formulation which seeks steady-state equilibrium positions of constrained multibody systems driven by constant generalized speeds is presented in this paper. Since the relative coordinates are employed, constraint equations at cut joints are incorporated into the formulation. To obtain the steady-state equilibrium position of a multibody system, nonlinear equations are derived and solved iteratively. The nonlinear equations consist of the force equilibrium equations and the kinematic constraint equations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed formulation, two numerical examples are solved and the results are compared with those of a commercial program.

A Kinetic Study on the Phosphorus Adsorption by Physical Properties of Activated Carbon (활성탄 물성에 따른 인 흡착의 동력학적 연구)

  • Seo, Jeongbeom;Kang, Joonwon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.491-496
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    • 2010
  • This study aimed to obtain equilibrium concentration on adsorption removal of phosphorus by activated carbon, to express the adsorption characteristics following Freundlich isotherm and also, based on the value obtained, to investigate the relationship between physical properties of activated carbon and dynamics of phosphorus removal by obtaining rate constant and effective pore diffusivity. The results summarized from this study are as follows. Phosphorus adsorption equilibrium reaching time of powdered activated carbon was reduced as the dosage of activated carbon increases, while granular activated carbon despite increased dosage did not have influence on adsorption equilibrium reaching times of phosphorus as well, taking more than 10 hours. It was also noted that powdered activated carbon showed better adsorption ability than granular activated carbon. The value of constant (f) of Freundlich isotherm of powered activated carbon on phosphorus was 4.26 which is bigger than those of granular activated carbon. The adsorption rate constant on phosphorus of powered activated carbon with low effective diameter and iodine number was highest as $8.888hr^{-1}$ and the effective pore diffusivity ($D_e$) was lowest as $2.45{\times}10^{-5}cm^2/hr$, and the value of phosphorus adsorption rate constant of granular activated carbon was $0.174{\sim}0.372hr^{-1}$, It was revealed that, with the same amount of dosage, the adsorptive power of activated carbon with lower effective diameter was better and its rate constant was also high.

Treatment to induce long-term non-progressor with constant drug dosage (일정한 약물 투여를 통한 HIV 환자의 long-term non-progressor 전환 치료)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Kim, Won-Hee;Ko, Ji-Hyun;Chung, Chung-Choo
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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    • pp.2233-2235
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    • 2004
  • This paper presents a therapy that uses a constant drug dosage for leading a HIV patient to a LTNP (Long-Tenn Non-Progressor). From analysis of CTLp (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte precursor) concentration at equilibrium point and bifurcation of equilibrium points, we found the therapy with a drug whose efficacy is less than one brings higher CTLp concentration at the equilibrium point. From this fact, we propose a treatment with constant drug dosage. which can induce LTNP.

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Solvent Extraction of Zinc from Strong Hydrochloric Acid Solution with Alamine336

  • Lee, Man-Seung;Nam, Sang-Ho
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.1526-1530
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    • 2009
  • Solvent extraction reaction of Zn(II) by Alamine336 from strong HCl solution up to 10 M was identified by analyzing the data reported in the literature. The equilibrium constant of this reaction was estimated by considering the complex formation between zinc and chloride ion. The necessary thermodynamic parameters, such as equilibrium constant for the formation of complexes and the interaction parameters, were evaluated from the thermodynamic data reported in the literature. The following solvent extraction reaction and the equilibrium constant was obtained by considering the activity coefficients of solutes present in the aqueous phase with Bromley equation. $Zn^{2+}\;2Cl^{-}\;+\;R_3NHCl_{org}\;=\;ZnCl_3R_3NH_{org},\;K_{ex}\;=\;6.33\;{\times}\;10^2$ There was a good agreement between measured and calculated distribution coefficients of Zn(II).

Determination of Equilibrium Moisture Content of Rough Rice (벼의 평행함수율 측정에 관한 연구)

  • 고학균
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.62-68
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    • 1978
  • Equilibrium moisture content of rough rice is an important factor because it has a close relationship to storage and drying problems. Determination of the EMC for 10 different varieties of rough rice were made in atmospheres of various constant humidities at three different constant temperatures. In addition , some physical properties were also measured for two different levels of moisture content of the samples. The results may be summarized as follows ; 1. Several physical properties of ten different varieties of rough were measured. Significant difference of the properties was appeared between the varieties in which the difference was pronounced in the dimensions of the varieties. Also, all the dimensions were increased as the moisture content of the rough rice was increased from 14 % to 16%. 2. Significant difference of the equilibrium moisture content was also appeared between some of the varieties in which the equilibrium moisture content of Josaengtongil and Minehikari was 24.26% while that of the others was in the range between 18 to 19% at the conditions of relative humidity of 84% and temperature of 47℃ , respectively. Similar pattern was also observed in other conditions. 3. The values of the constant of Henderson's equation were calculated from the data obtained but they are believed to be useful until more precise and complete data are obtained. There was a good agreement between the calculated and experimental results.

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Steady-state Equilibrium Analysis of a Multibody System Driven by Constant Generalized Speeds (일정 일반속력으로 구동되는 다물체계의 정상상태의 평형해석)

  • Choi, D.H.;Park, J.H.;Yoo, H.H.
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.465-470
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    • 2001
  • This paper presents an algorithm which seeks steady-state equilibrium positions of constrained multibody systems driven by constant generalized speeds. Since the relative coordinates are employed, the constraint equations at cut joints are incorporated into the formulation. The proposed algorithm leads to nonlinear equations that need to be solved iteratively. This algorithm should satisfy both types of conditions: the force equilibrium equations and the kinematic constraint equations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two numerical examples are solved and the results are compared with those of a commercial program. This method, compared to the conventional method of using dynamic analysis, has the advantage of computational efficiency and stability.

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Equilibrium Moisture Content of Shiitake Mushroom(Lentinus edodes) (표고버섯의 평형함수율에 관한 연구)

  • 최병민;한은정;최주호;홍지형;서재신
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 1999
  • The equilibrium moisture content(EMC) of Shiitake mushroom is and important factor because it has a close relationship to storage and drying problems. The determination of the EMC for Shiitake mushroom was made in atmospheres of various constant humidities at four different constant temperatures and the fitting of the five selected EMC models were performed with the experimental EMC data. The desorption equilibrium moisture contents for Shiitake mushroom were increased as the temperature was decreased and the relative humidity was increased. The significant difference of the equilibrium moisture content was appeared between the cap and the stipe of Shiitake mushroom. The Henderson-Thompson model was fitter than the others with the experimental data.

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