• Title, Summary, Keyword: epithelial ovarian cancer

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Does Human Epididymis Protein 4 (HE4) Have a Role in Prediction of Recurrent Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Innao, Pedrada;Pothisuwan, Methasinee;Pengsa, Prasit
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4483-4486
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    • 2016
  • Background: Despite the fact that ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer in women worldwide and the fifth leading cause of cancer death, It is the most common cause of death due to reproductive cancers in Thailand where epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is commonly found. According to a Thai statistical analysis in 2010 by the Department of Medical Services, epithelial ovarian cancer was the sixth most common cancer in Thailand from 2001to 2003.The incidence of 5.1 per 100,000 women per year. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novo diagnostic tumor marker for EOC. The combination of HE4 and carcinoma antigen 125 (CA 125) is a tool for detecting epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) better than using CA 125 alone. Therefore, the researcher is interested in HE4 does have a role to predict recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. Materials and Methods: The patients who had complete response after diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer by pathology, FIGO stage 3 or more had been treated through surgery and chemotherapy at the Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital from June 2014 until March 2016. The patients were followed up every three months, using tumor marker (CA 125, HE4,Carcinoma antigen 19-9) together with other checkup methods, such as rectovaginal examination, CXR every year and other imaging as indication. Afterwards, the data was analyzed for the ability of HE4 to detect recurrence of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: In 47 patients in this study follow-up for 22 months after complete response treatment from surgery and chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer, 23 had recurrent disease and HE4 titer rising. The patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer demonstrated high levels of both HE4 and CA125 with sensitivity of 91.3% and 52.7% respectively, specificity of 87.5% and 95.6% and positive predictive values of 87.5% and 85.7%. HE4 can predict recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (p-value=0.02242). Comparing HE4 and CA125 in predicting recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer HE4 had more potential than CA125 (p-value =0.8314). Conclusions: The present study showed HE4 to have a role in predicting recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer and HE4 is potentially better than CA125 as a marker for this purpose.

Recurrence Season Impacts the Survival of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Patients

  • Liu, Xiao-Hui;Man, Ya-Nan;Wu, Xiong-Zhi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.1627-1632
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    • 2014
  • Background: Several studies indicated that the diagnosis season affects the prognosis of some cancers, such as examples in the prostate, colon and breast. This retrospective study aimed to investigate whether the diagnosis and recurrent season impacts the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Methods: From January 2005 to August 2010, 161 epithelial ovarian cancer patients were analyzed and followed up until August 2013. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank test were used to make the survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent prognostic factors. Results: The prognostic factors of overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer patients included age, clinical stage, pathological type, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles. Moreover, clinical stage, histological grade, residual disease after primary surgery, recurrent season and adjuvant chemotherapy cycles also impacted the progression-free survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. The diagnosis season did not have a significantly relationship with the survival of operable epithelial ovarian cancer patients. Median overall survival of patients with recurrent month from April to November was 47 months, which was longer (P < 0.001) than that of patients with recurrence month from December to March (19 months). Median progression-free survival of patients with recurrence month from April to November and December to March was 20 and 8 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The recurrence season impacts the survival of epithelial ovarian cancer patients. However, the diagnosed season does not appear to exert a significant influence.

Risk Factors for Appendiceal Metastasis with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Kokanali, Mahmut Kuntay;Guzel, Ali Irfan;Erkilinc, Selcuk;Tokmak, Aytekin;Topcu, Hasan Onur;Gungor, Tayfun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.2689-2692
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To investigate the risk factors for appendiceal metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer and compare findings with the previous studies. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-four patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were assessed in this study. All of them had undergone a surgical procedure including appendectomy. Of these, 21 (15.7%) patients who had appendiceal metastasis were analyzed as the case group and the patients with no metastasis were the controls, compared according to stage, grade, histology of tumor, preoperative Ca125 levels, presence of ascites, peritoneal cytology, diameter and site of tumor considered as risk factors. Results: We found statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of stage, grade, right-sided tumor location, presence of ascites, diameter of tumor${\geq}10cm$ and positive peritoneal cytology (p<0.05). In the logistic regression model, stage, grade, presence of ascites, right-sided location and diameter of tumor were independent risk factors. ROC curve analysis showed that stage, grade and diameter of the tumor were discriminative factors for appendiceal metastasis. Conclusions: In epithelial ovarian cancer, stage, grade, presence of ascites, right-sided location and large tumor size have importance for estimation of risk of appendiceal metastasis. As we compare our findings with previous studies, there is no definite recommendation for the risk factors of appendiceal metastasis in epithelial ovarian cancer and more studies are needed.

DNA Repair Gene Associated with Clinical Outcome of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Treated with Platinum-based Chemotherapy

  • Kang, Shan;Sun, Hai-Yan;Zhou, Rong-Miao;Wang, Na;Hu, Pei;Li, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.941-946
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    • 2013
  • Objective: The nucleotide excision repair (NER) and base excision repair (BER) pathways, two DNA repair pathways, are related to platinum resistance in cancer treatment. In this paper, we studied the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of involved genes and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer. Method: Eight SNPs in XRCC1 (BER), XPC and XPD (NER) were assessed in 213 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and primer-introduced restriction analysis-polymerase chain reaction (PIRA-PCR) techniques. Results: The median progression-free survival (PFS) of patients carrying the Lys/Lys and Lys/Gln+Gln/Gln genotype of the XPC Lys/Gln polymorphism were 25 and 12 months, respectively (P=0.039); and the mean overall survival (OS) of patients was 31.1 and 27.8 months, respectively (P=0.048). Cox's multivariate analysis suggested that patients with epithelial ovarian cancer with the Gln allele had an increased risk of death (HR=1.75; 95% CI=1.06-2.91) compared to those with the Lys/Lys genotype. There are no associations between the XPC PAT+/-, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln, and XPD Asp312Asn, Lys751Gln polymorphisms and the survival of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer when treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Conclusion: Our results indicated that the XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism may correlate with clinical outcome of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer when treated with platinum-based chemotherapy in Northern China.

May the Platelet to Lymphocyte Ratio be a Prognostic Factor for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer?

  • Kokcu, Arif;Kurtoglu, Emel;Celik, Handan;Tosun, Migraci;Malatyalıoglu, Erdal;Ozdemir, Ayse Zehra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9781-9784
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    • 2014
  • Background: The study aimed to evaluate changes in hematologic parameters, including white blood cell, platelet count, platelet indices, the platelet to lymphocyte and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios in patients with early and advanced stages of epithelial ovarian cancers. Materials and Methods: The study included 100 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer who underwent primary staging exploratory laparotomy. Preoperative hematologic parameters, tumor histopathologic type, grade, stage and serum CA-125 levels were retrospectively analyzed. These parameters were compared between the patients with early (stage I-II) and advanced (stage III-IV) ovarian cancer. Results: White blood cell count and platelet indices, including mean platelet volume, platelet distribution width and platelet crit did not show a statistically significant difference between groups with early and advanced ovarian cancer. However, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet count, the platelet to lymphocyte ratio and CA-125 level showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01 respectively). Conclusions: It was found that the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, platelet count and the platelet to lymphocyte ratio increased with the increasing stage of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, it was seen that the platelet to lymphocyte ratio is an independent prognostic factor related to the stage of epithelial ovarian cancer.

Safety Assessment of Ovarian Cryopreservation and Transplantation in Nude Mice Bearing Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Zhu, Gen-Hai;Wang, Sheng-Tan;Yang, Zhao-Xin;Cai, Jun-Hong;Chen, Chun-Ying;Yao, Mao-Zhong;Hong, Lan;He, Guo-Li;Yang, Shu-Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.9
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    • pp.4669-4675
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    • 2012
  • Objective: Nude mice with orthotopic transplantation of human ovarian epithelial cancer were used to investigate screening criteria for paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissue and the security of the freezing and thawing for ovarian tissue transplantation. Methods: Expression of CK-7, CA125, P53, survivin, MMP-2/TIMP-2 in paraneoplastic normal ovarian tissues were detected by RT-PCR as well as immunohistochemistry. The tissues of the groups with all negative indicators of RT-PCR, all negative indicators of immunohistochemistry, negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin, cancer tissues and normal ovarian tissues of nude mice were used for freezing and thawing transplantation, to analyze overt and occult carcinogenesis rates after transplantation. Results: When all indicators or the main indicators, CK-7, CA125 and survivin, were negative, tumorigenesis did not occur after transplantation. In addition the occult carcinogenesis rate was lower than in the group with positive expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin (P<0.01). After subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation of ovarian tissues, rates did not change (P>0.05). There was no statistical significance among rates after transplantation of ovarian tissues which were obtained under different severity conditions (P>0.05). Conclusion: Negative expression of CK-7, CA125 and survivin can be treated as screening criteria for security of ovarian tissues for transplantation. Immunohistochemical methods can be used as the primary detection approach. Both subcutaneous and orthotopic transplantation are safe. The initial severity does not affect the carcinogenesis rate after tissue transplantation. Freezing and thawing ovarian tissue transplantation in nude mice with human epithelial ovarian carcinoma is feasible and safe.

Methylation Status and Expression of BRCA2 in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers in Indonesia

  • Pradjatmo, Heru
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8599-8604
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    • 2016
  • Ovarian cancer is the main cause of mortality in gynecological malignancy and extensive studies have been conducted to study the underlying molecular mechanisms. The BRCA2 gene is known to be an important tumor suppressor in ovarian cancer, thereby BRCA2 alterations may lead to cancer progression. However, the BRCA2 gene is rarely mutated, and loss of function is suspected to be mediated by epigenetic regulation. In this study we investigated the methylation status and gene expression of BRCA2 in ovarian cancer patients. Ovarian cancer pateints (n=69) were recruited and monitored for 54 months in this prospective cohort study. Clinical specimens were used to study the in situ expression of aberrant BRCA2 proteins and the methylation status of BRCA2. These parameters were then compared with clinical parameters and overall survival rate. We found that BRCA2 methylation was found in the majority of cases (98.7%). However, the methylation status was not associated with protein level expression of BRCA2 (49.3%). Therefore in addition to DNA methylation, other epigenetic mechanisms may regulate BRCA2 expresison. Our findings may become evidence of BRCA2 inactivation mechanism through DNA methylation in the Indonesian population. More importantly, from multivariate analysis, BRCA2 expression was correlated with better overall survival (HR 0.32; p=0.05). High percentage of BRCA2 methylation and correlation of BRCA2 expression with overall survival in epithelial ovarian cancer cases may lead to development of treatment modalities specifically to target methylation of BRCA genes.

Expression and Significance of Twist and E-cadherin in Ovarian Cancer Tissues

  • Wang, Wen-Shuang;Yu, Shou-Li;Yang, Xing-Sheng;Chang, Shu-De;Hou, Jian-Qing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.669-672
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    • 2013
  • Objective: To investigate the expression of Twist and E-cadherin in ovarian cancer tissues as well as the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in ovarian cancer metastasis. Method: The expressions of Twist and E-cadherin in 54 cases of ovarian cancer and paracancerous tissues were detected by Western blottin g and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We used RNA interference to silence Twist expression in human ovarian cancer cell line, and detected E-cadherin expression using Western blotting. Results: There was an increase in the relative abundance of Twist proteins and a decrease in E-cadherin in ovarian cancer compared with normal ovary tissues (P < 0.05). The expression levels of Twist and E-cadherin mRNA were $1.49{\pm}0.53$ and $0.82{\pm}0.24$ in ovarian cancer, and $1.14{\pm}0.38$ and $1.08{\pm}0.19$ in paracancerous tissues, respectively. The difference between the indicators in ovarian cancer and in paracancerous tissues was statistically significant (P < 0.05). When the Twist expression was silenced in an ovarian cancer cell line, the expression of the E-cadherin protein increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of Twist is upregulated, whereas that of E-cadherin is downregulated in ovarian cancer. EMT, mediated by Twist, may be correlated with ovarian cancer metastasis.

Detection of Recurrence in a Surveillance Program for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Suprasert, Prapaporn;Chalapati, Wadwilai
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7193-7196
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    • 2013
  • Ovarian cancer patients need a surveillance program for the detection of tumor progression after completion of treatment. The methods generally consist of history taking, physical examination, tumor marker monitoring and imaging. However, the details of recurrence detection with each method are not well defined. To clarify this issue, ovarian cancer patients who achieved complete or partial responses and developed tumor progression at the follow up time between January 2004 and December 2010 in University Hospital Chiang Mai, Thailand, were reviewed. Clinical data, CA 125 level and imaging results at the tumor progression time were recorded and analyzed. There were 144 ovarian cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria with the mean age of 51 years and 62.5% of them were in an advanced stage. Complete response was achieved in 89 patients (61.8%) after primary treatment. The median progression free survival and overall survival were 15.5 months and 37.5 months, respectively. Abnormal symptoms presented in 49.3% of the studied patients and 59.7% developed physical examination abnormalities. In addition, CA 125 was elevated in 89.6% while in 74.3% of tumor progression was identified by CT-scan. Short treatment time period and a high level of CA 125 were significant independent prognostic factors in these patients. In conclusion, careful history taking, physical examination and monitoring of CA 125 levels are important methods for tumor progression detection in a surveillance program for epithelial ovarian cancer patients.

Novel Directions in Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Early Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

  • Sakarya, Derya Kilic;Yetimalar, M Hakan;Ozbasar, Demir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.10
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    • pp.4157-4160
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    • 2015
  • Treatment of early stage ovarian cancer remains controversial despite advances in chemotherapeutic options. Over the past 30 years, molecular and clinicopathologic studies accelerated and treatment of ovarian cancer has undoubtedly improved although there is a debate as to whether this impacts outcome or not. More recently, the introduction of targeted therapy started a new era. Probably it is because early stage disease comprises a small portion of the epithelial ovarian cancer, studies have mostly ignored this group and still there is no clear consensus regarding systemic treatment of early-stage lesions. However this group of patients has the best chance of cure. In this review, we focus on current developments in the treatment of early stage ovarian cancer and query the options.