• Title, Summary, Keyword: epithelial mesenchymal transition

Search Result 133, Processing Time 0.035 seconds

Membrane Proteins Involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Invasion: Studies on TMPRSS4 and TM4SF5

  • Kim, Semi;Lee, Jung Weon
    • Genomics & Informatics
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.12-20
    • /
    • 2014
  • The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one mechanism by which cells with mesenchymal features can be generated and is a fundamental event in morphogenesis. Recently, invasion and metastasis of cancer cells from the primary tumor are now thought to be initiated by the developmental process termed the EMT, whereby epithelial cells lose cell polarity and cell-cell interactions, and gain mesenchymal phenotypes with increased migratory and invasive properties. The EMT is believed to be an important step in metastasis and is implicated in cancer progression, although the influence of the EMT in clinical specimens has been debated. This review presents the recent results of two cell surface proteins, the functions and underlying mechanisms of which have recently begun to be demonstrated, as novel regulators of the molecular networks that induce the EMT and cancer progression.

Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition is Associated with Acquired Resistance to 5-Fluorocuracil in HT-29 Colon Cancer Cells

  • Kim, A-Young;Kwak, Jae-Hwan;Je, Nam Kyung;Lee, Yun-hee;Jung, Young-Suk
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.31 no.2
    • /
    • pp.151-156
    • /
    • 2015
  • 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is commonly used for the therapy of colon cancer; however, acquired resistance to 5-FU is a critical barrier to successful treatment and the primary cause of chemotherapy failure. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby cells undergo alterations in morphology and molecular characteristics promoting tumor progression and metastasis. Accumulating evidence shows that transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype in cancer cells is associated with their resistance to chemotherapy. However, it is still poorly understood whether EMT is involved in acquired resistance to 5-FU. In this study, we developed an in vitro cell model, 5-FU-resistant HT-29 colon cancer cells, and characterized the differences in cellular morphology and molecular alterations between parental and resistant cells. In accord with mesenchymal-like morphology of 5-FU-resistant HT-29 cells, the expression of the mesenchymal marker fibronectin was significantly increased in these cells in comparision with that in the parental cells. Of interest, we also found a marked increase in the expression of EMT-inducing transcription factors Twist, Zeb1, and Zeb2. Finally, 5-FU-resistant cells showed enhanced migration in comparison with parental HT-29. Taken together, these results indicate that EMT could be associated with 5-FU resistance acquired by HT-29 cells. A specific role of each transcription factor found in this study will require further investigation.

Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Its Role in the Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer

  • Zhu, Qing-Chao;Gao, Ren-Yuan;Wu, Wen;Qin, Huan-Long
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.14 no.5
    • /
    • pp.2689-2698
    • /
    • 2013
  • Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a collection of events that allows the conversion of adherent epithelial cells, tightly bound to each other within an organized tissue, into independent fibroblastic cells possessing migratory properties and the ability to invade the extracellular matrix. EMT contributes to the complex architecture of the embryo by permitting the progression of embryogenesis from a simple single-cell layer epithelium to a complex three-dimensional organism composed of both epithelial and mesenchymal cells. However, in most tissues EMT is a developmentally restricted process and fully differentiated epithelia typically maintain their epithelial phenotype. Recently, elements of EMT, specially the loss of epithelial markers and the gain of mesenchymal markers, have been observed in pathological states, including epithelial cancers. Increasing evidence has confirmed its presence in human colon during colorectal carcinogenesis. In general, chronic inflammation is considered to be one of the causes of many human cancers including colorectal cancer(CRC). Accordingly, epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that patients affected by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease, have an increased risk of developing CRC. A large body of evidence supports roles for the SMAD/STAT3 signaling pathway, the NF-kB pathway, the Ras-mitogenactivated protein kinase/Snail/Slug and microRNAs in the development of colorectal cancers via epithelial-tomesenchymal transition. Thus, EMT appears to be closely involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, and analysis refered to it can yield novel targets for therapy.

Early Growth Response 1 Induces Epithelial-to-mesenchymal Transition via Snail (Egr-1-Snail 작용에 의한 epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition 유도)

  • Jeon, Hyun Min;Lee, Su Yeon;Ju, Min Kyung;Park, Hye Gyeong;Kang, Ho Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.8
    • /
    • pp.970-977
    • /
    • 2013
  • The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an essential role in embryogenesis and is involved in tumor metastasis and invasion; it significantly contributes to tumor progression and aggressiveness. The EMT is characterized by a loss of epithelial cell polarity as a result of the reduced expression of epithelial E-cadherin, a hallmark of the EMT, and the acquisition of mesenchymal-like cell morphology. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as $O_2{^-}$, $H_2O_2$, and $OH^-$ have been demonstrated to induce the EMT; although Snail is involved in ROS-induced EMT by transcriptionally repressing E-cadherin, its mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the effects of early growth response 1 (Egr-1) overexpression in noninvasive breast tumor cell line MCF-7 cells. Upon Egr-1 overexpression, MCF-7 cells lost epithelial cell polarity and became more spindle-shaped, indicating that Egr-1 may induce EMT. We found that Snail is implicated in Egr-1 induced EMT. We further demonstrate that the Egr-1-Snail axis is activated by ROS and plays a critical role(s) in ROS-induced EMT.

Wheatgrass extract inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells

  • Do, Nam Yong;Shin, Hyun-Jae;Lee, Ji-Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.83-89
    • /
    • 2017
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in not only cancer development and metastasis but also non-cancerous conditions. Hypoxia is one of the proposed critical factors contributing to formation of chronic rhinosinusitis or nasal polyposis. Wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum) has antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we analyzed whether wheatgrass has an inhibitory effect on the EMT process in airway epithelial cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions ($CO_2$ 5%/$O_2$ 1%) for 24 h in the presence of different concentrations of wheatgrass extract (50, 75, 100, and $150{\mu}g/mL$) and changes in expression of epithelial or mesenchymal markers were evaluated by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Accordingly, associated EMT-related transcriptional factors, Snail and Smad, were also evaluated. RESULTS: Hypoxia increased expression of N-cadherin and reduced expression of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, E-cadherin levels were recovered during hypoxia by silencing hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$ or administering wheatgrass extract. Wheatgrass inhibited the hypoxia-mediated EMT by reducing the expression of phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3) and Snail. It suppressed the hypoxia-mediated EMT processes of airway epithelial cells via HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and the pSmad3 signaling pathway. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that wheatgrass has potential as a therapeutic or supplementary agent for HIF-1-related diseases.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in osteogenic sarcoma of the neck following oral squamous cell carcinoma (구강 편평세포암종 제거 후 발생한 경부 골육종에서의 상피간엽이행)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sil;Kim, Nam-Hee;Han, Seon-Hui;Cha, In-Ho;Seo, Dong-Jun;Park, Won-Se;Yook, Jong-In;Kim, Hyung-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
    • /
    • v.36 no.3
    • /
    • pp.172-176
    • /
    • 2010
  • Postirradiation extraosseous osteogenic sarcomas are uncommon in the head and neck, despite the extensive use of high-dose radiation. It has been described as de novo radiation-induced neoplasm. We present a 73-year-old male who had been treated by radiotherapy for gingival cancer 7 years earlier and later developed extraosseous osteogenic sarcomas (EOSs) of the neck. Microscopically, the neck mass was composed with mesenchymal malignant cells with cartilaginous and osteogenic differentiation. Immunohistochemical stain demonstrated strong positivity of tumor cells for Snail, the one of major epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducer. The E-cadherin expression was scarce, showing inverse relationship to Snail expression. Compared with previous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the gingiva, the present EOS sample revealed the remained epithelial cells on cytokeratin immunohistochemistry, suggesting the tumor arise from the cells of epithelial origin. We have also reviewed the previous 6 cases of head and neck EOSs carefully. The clinicopathologic features of the unusual lesion suggest that it is an incomplete EMT of precedent epithelial malignancy rather than de novo pathology.

Roles of Signaling Pathways in the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer

  • Liu, Xia;Yun, Fen;Shi, Lin;Li, Zhe-Hai;Luo, Nian-Rong;Jia, Yong-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
    • /
    • v.16 no.15
    • /
    • pp.6201-6206
    • /
    • 2015
  • The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular process though which an epithelial phenotype can be converted into a phenotype of mesenchymal cells. Under physiological conditions EMT is important for embryogenesis, organ development, wound repair and tissue remodeling. However, EMT may also be activated under pathologic conditions, especially in carcinogenesis and metastatic progression. Major signaling pathways involved in EMT include transforming growth factor ${\beta}(TGF-{\beta})$, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog and other signaling pathways. These pathways are related to several transcription factors, including Twist, Smads and zinc finger proteins snail and slug. These interact with each other to provide crosstalk between the relevant signaling pathways. This review lays emphasis on studying the relationship between EMT and signaling pathways in carcinogenesis and metastatic progression.

Transformation of Mouse Liver Cells by Methylcholanthrene Leads to Phenotypic Changes Associated with Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition

  • Oh, Jiyun;Kwak, Jae-Hwan;Kwon, Do-Young;Kim, A-Young;Oh, Dal-Seok;Je, Nam Kyung;Lee, Jaewon;Jung, Young-Suk
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.261-266
    • /
    • 2014
  • Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been implicated in cancer development and progression. However, the effects of PAHs on carcinogenesis are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized a mouse cancer cell line BNL 1ME A. 7R.1 (1MEA) derived by transformation of non-tumorigenic liver cell line BNL CL.2 (BNL) using 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a carcinogenic PAH. RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis were used to determine the expression level of mRNA and proteins, respectively. To determine functionality, cell motility was assessed in vitro using a transwell migration assay. Both mRNA and protein levels of E-cadherin were significantly decreased in 1MEA cells in comparison with BNL cells. While the expression levels of mesenchymal markers and related transcription factors were enhanced in 1MEA cells, which could lead to increase in cell motility. Indeed, we found that 7-day exposure of BNL cells to 3-MC reduced the level of the adhesion molecule and epithelial marker E-cadherin and increased reciprocally the level of the mesenchymal marker vimentin in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results indicate that the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may be activated during premalignant transformation induced by 3-MC. A mechanism study to elucidate the relation between 3-MC exposure and EMT is underway in our laboratory.

Epithelial-mesenchymal Transition and Cell Invasion

  • Son, Hwa-Jin;Moon, Aree
    • Toxicological Research
    • /
    • v.26 no.4
    • /
    • pp.245-252
    • /
    • 2010
  • Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex process in which epithelial cells acquire the characteristics of invasive mesenchymal cells. EMT has been implicated in cancer progression and metastasis as well as the formation of many tissues and organs during development. Epithelial cells undergoing EMT lose cell-cell adhesion structures and polarity, and rearrange their cytoskeletons. Several oncogenic pathways such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-$\beta$, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways, have been shown to induce EMT. These pathways have activated transcription factors including Snail, Slug, and the ZEB family which work as transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, thereby making epithelial cells motile and resistant to apoptosis. Mounting evidence shows that EMT is associated with cell invasion and tumor progression. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of EMT, pathways leading to EMT, and the role of EMT in cell invasion. Three topics are addressed in this review: (1) Definition of EMT, (2) Signaling pathways leading to EMT, (3) Role of EMT in cell invasion. Understanding the role of EMT in cell invasion will provide valuable information for establishing strategies to develop anti-metastatic therapeutics which modulate malignant cellular processes mediated by EMT.

Honokiol Suppresses Renal Cancer Cells' Metastasis via Dual-Blocking Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Cancer Stem Cell Properties through Modulating miR-141/ZEB2 Signaling

  • Li, Weidong;Wang, Qian;Su, Qiaozhen;Ma, Dandan;An, Chang;Ma, Lei;Liang, Hongfeng
    • Molecules and Cells
    • /
    • v.37 no.5
    • /
    • pp.383-388
    • /
    • 2014
  • Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with a high frequency of metastasis and only few therapies substantially prolong survival. Honokiol, isolated from Magnolia spp. bark, has been shown to exhibit pleiotropic anticancer effects in many cancer types. However, whether honokiol could suppress RCC metastasis has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we found that honokiol suppressed renal cancer cells' metastasis via dual-blocking epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. In addition, honokiol inhibited tumor growth in vivo. It was found that honokiol could upregulate miR-141, which targeted ZEB2 and modulated ZEB2 expression. Honokiol reversed EMT and suppressed CSC properties partly through the miR-141/ZEB2 axis. Our study suggested that honokiol may be a suitable therapeutic strategy for RCC treatment.