• Title, Summary, Keyword: epigenetics

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Lessons from Yeast on Emerging Roles of the ATAD2 Protein Family in Gene Regulation and Genome Organization

  • Cattaneo, Matteo;Morozumi, Yuichi;Perazza, Daniel;Boussouar, Faycal;Jamshidikia, Mahya;Rousseaux, Sophie;Verdel, Andre;Khochbin, Saadi
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.851-856
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    • 2014
  • ATAD2, a remarkably conserved, yet poorly characterized factor is found upregulated and associated with poor prognosis in a variety of independent cancers in human. Studies conducted on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATAD2 homologue, Yta7, are now indicating that the members of this family may primarily be regulators of chromatin dynamics and that their action on gene expression could only be one facet of their general activity. In this review, we present an overview of the literature on Yta7 and discuss the possibility of translating these findings into other organisms to further define the involvement of ATAD2 and other members of its family in regulating chromatin structure and function both in normal and pathological situations.

DNA 메틸화 Code와 발생의 Epigenetics - DNA 메틸화 전이효소(Dnmt1) 발현의 Epigenetics 제어 -

  • 고응규
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
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    • pp.176-182
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    • 2004
  • DNA 메틸화는 chromatin의 remodeling에 관여하고 유전자의 silencing 안정화 등, epigenetics 조절기구로서 중요하다. 포유류의 몸을 구성하는 다양한 조직과 세포는 각각 고유의 DNA 메틸화 패턴을 형성하고 있는 것이 최근의 연구에서 밝혀지고 있다. 개체발생 세포의 분화에 DNA 메틸화가 중요한 역할을 하고 있는 것이다. 본 강연에서는 DNA 메틸화 시스템에 대하여 개설하고, DNA 메틸화 전이효소(Dnmt1) 발현의 epigenetics 제어에 대하여 설명한다. Dnmtl은 제lexon의 구분에 따라 만들어지는 3종류의 iso-form이 존재한다. (중략)

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What is Epigenetics? -Focusing on Basic Concepts and Mechanisms- (최근 보건의료분야에서 활발하게 연구되고 있는 "Epigenetics"란 무엇인가? -기본개념 및 기전을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sun-Dong;Park, Sung-Kyun;Ko, Seong-Gyu;Shin, Heon-Tae;Kim, Myung-Dong
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2010
  • The individual differences in disease development and susceptibility have been researched primarily on the subject of genes, environment or the interaction between genes and the environment respectively. However, there have been limitations in explaining complex diseases, and the differences in health and diseases in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Fortunately, thanks to active research on the relationship between genes and the environment, and epigenetics, there has been much progress in the understanding of body's reactions and changes. Epigenetics is referred to as a study of gene expression through the interactions of DNA methylation, chromatin's histone and the change of structure in tail, RNA editing without any change in DNA sequence. In this paper, we introduce the basic concepts and mechanisms of epigenetics. The result of the epigenetics is heritable ; can regulate gene expressions ; is reversible ; and has many variable forms depending on cell types. The influences of epigenetics occur throughout life, but it is mainly determined in utero during early pregnancies. Diseases occur or the risk rises if these influences continue after birth until adult life when problems occur in excess/lack of nutrition, environmental plasticity, or already inputted data. Therefore, there is a need for change and innovation, especially in interest and investment in health education for young women near pregnancies and correct treatment of epigenetic-related diseases.

Epigenetics: Linking Nutrition to Molecular Mechanisms in Aging

  • Park, Joo Hyun;Yoo, Yeongran;Park, Yoon Jung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2017
  • Healthy aging has become a major goal of public health. Many studies have provided evidence and theories to explain molecular mechanisms of the aging process. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms are responsible for life span and the progression of aging. Epigenetics is a fascinating field of molecular biology, which studies heritable modifications of DNA and histones that regulate gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mark that shows progressive changes during aging. Recent studies have investigated aging-related DNA methylation as a biomarker that predicts cellular age. Interestingly, growing evidence proposes that nutrients play a crucial role in the regulation of epigenetic modifiers. Because various nutrients and their metabolites function as substrates or cofactors for epigenetic modifiers, nutrition can modulate or reverse epigenetic marks in the genome as well as expression patterns. Here, we will review the results on aging-associated epigenetic modifications and the possible mechanisms by which nutrition, including nutrient availability and bioactive compounds, regulate epigenetic changes and affect aging physiology.

Epigenetics: general characteristics and implications for oral health

  • Seo, Ji-Yun;Park, Yoon-Jung;Yi, Young-Ah;Hwang, Ji-Yun;Lee, In-Bog;Cho, Byeong-Hoon;Son, Ho-Hyun;Seo, Deog-Gyu
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.14-22
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    • 2015
  • Genetic information such as DNA sequences has been limited to fully explain mechanisms of gene regulation and disease process. Epigenetic mechanisms, which include DNA methylation, histone modification and non-coding RNAs, can regulate gene expression and affect progression of disease. Although studies focused on epigenetics are being actively investigated in the field of medicine and biology, epigenetics in dental research is at the early stages. However, studies on epigenetics in dentistry deserve attention because epigenetic mechanisms play important roles in gene expression during tooth development and may affect oral diseases. In addition, understanding of epigenetic alteration is important for developing new therapeutic methods. This review article aims to outline the general features of epigenetic mechanisms and describe its future implications in the field of dentistry.

Epigenetics and Psychiatric Disorders (Epigenetics와 정신장애)

  • Oh, Daeyoung;Yang, Byung-Hwan;Lee, Yu-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.243-253
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    • 2008
  • In the post-genomic era, the mechanisms controlling activation of genes are thought to be more important. Gene-environment interactions are crucial in both development and treatment of psychiatric disorders as they are complex genetic disorders. Epigenetics is defined as a change of gene expression that occurs without a change of DNA sequence and can be heritable by certain mechanisms. Epigenetic changes play essential roles in control of gene activation. DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling and RNAi act as key mechanisms for epigenetic modifications of genes. Here, we review the basic mechanisms of epigenetics and discuss their potential involvement of human diseases, including psychiatric disorders.

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Zinc and Its Transporters in Epigenetics

  • Brito, Sofia;Lee, Mi-Gi;Bin, Bum-Ho;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.323-330
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    • 2020
  • Epigenetic events like DNA methylation and histone modification can alter heritable phenotypes. Zinc is required for the activity of various epigenetic enzymes, such as DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), histone deacetylases (HDACs), and histone demethylases, which possess several zinc binding sites. Thus, the dysregulation of zinc homeostasis can lead to epigenetic alterations. Zinc homeostasis is regulated by Zinc Transporters (ZnTs), Zrt- and Irt-like proteins (ZIPs), and the zinc storage protein metallothionein (MT). Recent advances revealed that ZIPs modulate epigenetics. ZIP10 deficiency was found to result in reduced HATs, confirming its involvement in histone acetylation for rigid skin barrier formation. ZIP13 deficiency, which is associated with Spondylocheirodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (SCD-EDS), increases DNMT activity, leading to dysgenesis of dermis via improper gene expressions. However, the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Future molecular studies investigating the involvement of zinc and its transporters in epigenetics are warranted.

Environmental Pollutants and Epigenetics (환경오염 물질과 에피제네틱스)

  • Park, Sung-Kyun;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.343-354
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    • 2009
  • Since Barker found associations between low birth weight and several chronic diseases later in life, the hypothesis of fetal origins of adult disease (aka, Barker Hypothesis) and epigenetics have been emerging as a new paradigm for geneenvironment interaction of chronic disease. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene silencing that occur without any change in DNA sequence. Gene expression can be regulated by several epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, which may be associated with chronic conditions, such as cancers, cardiovascular disease, and type-2 diabetes. One carbon metabolism which involves the transfer of a methyl group catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase is an important mechanism by which DNA methylation occurs in promoter regions and/or repetitive elements of the genome. Environmental factors may induce epigenetic modification through production of reactive oxygen species, alteration of methyltransferase activity, and/or interference with methyl donors. In this review, we introduce recent studies of epigenetic modification and environmental factors, such as heavy metals, environmental hormones, air pollution, diet and psychosocial stress. We also discuss epigenetic perspectives of early life environmental exposure and late life disease occurrence.

Molecular Mechanisms of Casticin Action: an Update on its Antitumor Functions

  • Rasul, Azhar;Zhao, Bin-Ji;Liu, Jun;Liu, Bao;Sun, Jia-Xin;Li, Jiang;Li, Xiao-Meng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.21
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    • pp.9049-9058
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    • 2014
  • Casticin (3', 5-dihydroxy-3, 4', 6, 7-tetramethoxyflavone) is an active compound isolated from roots, stems, leaves, fruits and seeds of a variety of plants. It is well known for its pharmacological properties and has been utilized as an anti-hyperprolactinemia, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotetective, analgesic and immunomodulatory agent. Recently, the anticancer activity of casticin has been extensively investigated. The resulkts showed that it exerts protective potential by targeting apoptosis, considered important for cancer therapies. In this article, our aim was to review the pharmacological and therapeutic applications of casticin with specific emphasis on its anticancer functions and related molecular mechanisms. Chemotherapeutic effects are dependent on multiple molecular pathways, which may provide a new perspective of casticin as a candidate anti-neoplastic drug. This review suggests that additional studies and preclinical trials are required to determine specific intracellular sites of action and derivative targets in order to fully understand the mechanisms of its antitumor activity and validate this compound as a medicinal agent for the prevention and treatment of various cancers.

Metabolic Signaling to Epigenetic Alterations in Cancer

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Yeom, Young Il
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.69-80
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    • 2018
  • Cancer cells reprogram cellular metabolism to support the malignant features of tumors, such as rapid growth and proliferation. The cancer promoting effects of metabolic reprogramming are found in many aspects: generating additional energy, providing more anabolic molecules for biosynthesis, and rebalancing cellular redox states in cancer cells. Metabolic pathways are considered the pipelines to supply metabolic cofactors of epigenetic modifiers. In this regard, cancer metabolism, whereby cellular metabolite levels are greatly altered compared to normal levels, is closely associated with cancer epigenetics, which is implicated in many stages of tumorigenesis. In this review, we provide an overview of cancer metabolism and its involvement in epigenetic modifications and suggest that the metabolic adaptation leading to epigenetic changes in cancer cells is an important non-genetic factor for tumor progression, which cooperates with genetic causes. Understanding the interaction of metabolic reprogramming with epigenetics in cancers may help to develop novel or highly improved therapeutic strategies that target cancer metabolism.