• Title, Summary, Keyword: epidemiological

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Digital Epidemiology: Use of Digital Data Collected for Non-epidemiological Purposes in Epidemiological Studies

  • Park, Hyeoun-Ae;Jung, Hyesil;On, Jeongah;Park, Seul Ki;Kang, Hannah
    • Healthcare Informatics Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.253-262
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: We reviewed digital epidemiological studies to characterize how researchers are using digital data by topic domain, study purpose, data source, and analytic method. Methods: We reviewed research articles published within the last decade that used digital data to answer epidemiological research questions. Data were abstracted from these articles using a data collection tool that we developed. Finally, we summarized the characteristics of the digital epidemiological studies. Results: We identified six main topic domains: infectious diseases (58.7%), non-communicable diseases (29.4%), mental health and substance use (8.3%), general population behavior (4.6%), environmental, dietary, and lifestyle (4.6%), and vital status (0.9%). We identified four categories for the study purpose: description (22.9%), exploration (34.9%), explanation (27.5%), and prediction and control (14.7%). We identified eight categories for the data sources: web search query (52.3%), social media posts (31.2%), web portal posts (11.9%), webpage access logs (7.3%), images (7.3%), mobile phone network data (1.8%), global positioning system data (1.8%), and others (2.8%). Of these, 50.5% used correlation analyses, 41.3% regression analyses, 25.6% machine learning, and 19.3% descriptive analyses. Conclusions: Digital data collected for non-epidemiological purposes are being used to study health phenomena in a variety of topic domains. Digital epidemiology requires access to large datasets and advanced analytics. Ensuring open access is clearly at odds with the desire to have as little personal data as possible in these large datasets to protect privacy. Establishment of data cooperatives with restricted access may be a solution to this dilemma.

Epidemiological Cut-off Values Generated for Disc Diffusion Data from Photobacterium damselae (Photobacterium damselae의 디스크 확산법 결과에 대한 Epidemiological Cut-off Value의 결정)

  • Kwon, Mun-Gyeong;Lim, Yun-Jin;Kim, Myoung-Sug;Seo, Jung-Soo;Kim, Do-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.838-844
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    • 2016
  • In this study, epidemiological cut-off values were estimated for 44 Photobacterium damselae isolates, since clinical breakpoints have not been established for this pathogenic bacterium. The susceptibility of the isolates to 10 antibiotics was evaluated using internationally standardized disc diffusion protocols. Normalized resistance interpretation was used to generate statistically valid epidemiological cut-off values for the susceptibility data. There were not enough strains exhibiting full sensitivity to ampicillin and amoxicillin to allow analysis of these antibiotics. Because there were only a marginally sufficient number of strains exhibiting full sensitivity to oxytetracycline, the cut-off value generated provided only a provisional estimate. The valid wild-type cut-off values were <13, 13, 9, 22, 25, 27, and 28 mm for gentamicin, cephalexin, erythromycin, oxolinic acid, flumequine, florfenicol, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, respectively. The application of these cut-off values should greatly facilitate the rational selection of antibiotics for use in commercial fish farms.

EXISTENCE OF PERIODIC SOLUTION OF SOME ECO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

  • Liu, Zhijun;Sarwardi, Sahabuddin
    • Journal of applied mathematics & informatics
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    • v.28 no.5_6
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    • pp.1359-1378
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    • 2010
  • The effect of impulse in the ecological models makes them more realistic. Recently, the eco-epidemiological models have become an important field of study from the both mathematical and ecological view points. In this article, we consider some eco-epidemiological systems under the influence of impulsive force. A set of sufficient conditions for the permanence of the system are derived. Stability of the trivial solution and at least one strictly positive periodic solution are obtained. Numerical examples are given in support to our analytical findings. Finally, a short discussion concludes the paper.

A Chinese Case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Did Not Show Infectivity During the Incubation Period: Based on an Epidemiological Survey

  • Bae, Jong-Myon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 2020
  • Controversy remains over whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus may have infectivity during the incubation period before the onset of symptoms. The author had the opportunity to examine the infectivity of COVID-19 during the incubation period by conducting an epidemiological survey on a confirmed patient who had visited Jeju Island during the incubation period. The epidemiological findings support the claim that the COVID-19 virus does not have infectivity during the incubation period.

Epidemiological understanding of Taenia tapeworm infections with special reference to Taenia asiatica in Korea

  • Eom, Keeseon-S.;Rim, Han-Joun
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.267-283
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    • 2001
  • In endemic areas of Taenia tapeworms in Korea, most of the reports showed that T. saginata was dominant over T. solium, but eating pigs is the dominant habit over eating cattle. Why do they have more T saginata despite lower consumption of beef This problem actually has long been recognized but until recently there has been no intensive trial to give a scientific explanation on this epidemiological enigma. By summing up the data published between the years 1963 and 1999, the ratio of armed versus unarmed tapeworms in humans was estimated at approximately 1 :5. The ratio of pig-eaters versus cattle-eaters, however, was approximately 5: 1. This inconsistency could be explained with the recently described T. asiatica, which infects humans through the eating of pig's viscera. We re-evaluate the importance of the consumption of visceral organ of pigs, leading us to an improved epidemiological understanding of the T. asiatica infection together with co-existing T. saginata and T. solium in Korea.

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Modulation of MnSOD in Cancer: Epidemiological and Experimental Evidences

  • Kim, Ae-Kyong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2010
  • Since it was first observed in late 1970s that human cancers often had decreased manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protein expression and activity, extensive studies have been conducted to verify the association between MnSOD and cancer. Significance of MnSOD as a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme is unquestionable; results from in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies are in harmony. On the contrary, studies regarding roles of MnSOD in cancer often report conflicting results. Although putative mechanisms have been proposed to explain how MnSOD regulates cellular proliferation, these mechanisms are not capitulated in epidemiological studies. This review discusses most recent epidemiological and experimental studies that examined the association between MnSOD and cancer, and describes emerging hypotheses of MnSOD as a mitochondrial redox regulatory enzyme and of how altered mitochondrial redox may affect physiology of normal as well as cancer cells.

Determination of epidemiological tetracycline MIC cut-off value for Vibrio ichthyoenteri

  • Han, Hyun-Ja;Kim, Do-Hyung;Lee, Deok-Chan;Won, Kyoung-Mi;Lee, Soon-Jeong;Cho, Mi-Young;Jee, Bo-Young;Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2011
  • Normalized resistance interpretation (NRI) analysis for tetracycline was applied to generate information on the epidemiological cut-off value for Vibrio ichthyoenteri isolated from diseased olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) larvae. Thus, 42 strains of V. ichthyoenteri were used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tetracycline using Etest. Also, 11 tetracycline resistance related genes were investigated by PCR method. Most tetracycline-resistant strains harbored both tetB and tetM with a few exceptions. NRI-derived mean and 2 SD above the mean of theoretical normal distributions of susceptible isolates were 0.33 mg/L and 1.66 mg/L, respectively. The epidemiological cut-off value for V. ichthyoenteri from the calculations could be set to S ${\leq}$ 2 mg/L. Of the 42 strains, 15 were classified as non-wild type (NWT), and MIC values of the NWT strains vary regardless of tetB and tetM detection, suggesting that there may be other mechanisms involved in tetracycline resistance in this Vibrio species.

Cervical Cancer in Morocco: Epidemiological Profile from Two Main Oncological Centers

  • Berraho, Mohamed;Bendahhou, Karima;Obtel, Majdouline;Zidouh, Ahmed;Benider, Abdellatif;Errihani, Hassan;Nejjari, Chakib
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3153-3157
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    • 2012
  • Background: In Morocco, the epidemiological profile of cervical cancer is not well established. The focus of the present study was both epidemiological and pathological characteristics. Methods: For all cases of cervical cancer treated between 2003 and 2007 in the National Institute of Oncology and the Oncology Department of the IbnRochd hospital (Casablanca), 900 cases were randomly selected. Results: The mean age was $52.1{\pm}11.8$ years. The most (90.5%) represented histological type was squamous cell carcinoma. For more than 57.0% cases the mean distance between patient's origin and center of treatment was greater than 100km. According to the FIGO classification, only 17.2% of patients were identified as being in early stages (0 and I). For 72.2% patients the follow-up did not exceed 2 years. At 1 year of following-up 55.8% of patients were alive and 43.4% were lost to following-up. Conclusion: Our study addressed the issue of the burden of cervical cancer in Morocco. The result provides a basis for decision-makers for the development of strategic measures to implement the fight against cervical cancer in Morocco.

Gynecological Malignancies: Epidemiological Characteristics of the Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital in India

  • Sarkar, Madhutandra;Konar, Hiralal;Raut, D.K.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2997-3004
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    • 2012
  • Background: This cross-sectional observational study was undertaken to identify the epidemiological characteristics of patients with gynecological malignancies in India, in relation to gynecological cancer risk. Methods: In the gynecology out-patient clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata, India, the patients with suggestive symptoms of gynecological malignancies were screened. One hundred thirteen patients with histopathologically confirmed gynecological malignancies were interviewed. Results: More than two-thirds of the cases (69.0%) occurred in the age range of 35-64 years and the same proportion of patients was from rural areas. Almost all the patients were "ever-married" (96.5%). More than half (54.9%) were illiterate/just literate. Nearly two-thirds (64.6%) were parity 3 or higher. Among the 18 patients with history of multiple sexual partners of the husband, 94.4% (17) were suffering from cervical malignancy, along with all the 3 patients with history of STD syndromes (sexually transmitted diseases) of their husbands. No one had given a history of condom use by her husband. Most of the patients (91.1%) used old / reused cloth pieces during menstruation. Conclusions: There is a need to increase awareness among women and the broader community about different epidemiological factors that may be responsible for increased risk of gynecological malignancies.