• 제목, 요약, 키워드: enzyme-resistant starch

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The Influence of the Annealing of Corn Starch on the formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 1999
  • The Physical properties of corn starch were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry during the formation of enzyme-resistant starch(RS). Samples were studied in their native states and after annealing at 50, 55, 60 and 65℃ in excess water(starch : water=1:3) for 48hr. Starch granules became smaller and more rounded after annealing than in their native state. Annealing did not change the X-ray profile of native corn starch. After autoclaving-cooling cycles, native starch lost most of its crystallinity but annealed ones showed some of their crystallinity left as diffuse or poor B-type, which didn't relate to increasing Rs yields. During formation of RS, however, both native and annealed starches changed their X-ray profile from A-type to poor B-type of retrograded amylose. Annealing caused an increase in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy, but a narrowing of gelatinization temperature range. Only starch annealed at 65℃, however, showed a decrease in enthalpy even though its gelatinization temperature increased, which appeared to be due to the partial gelatinization in the amorphous region during annealing. Peak height index(PHI), the ratio of ΔH to Ti-To, increased by annealing. PHI values, therefore, showed the possibility as an indicator to predict RS yield which cannot be differentiated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data.

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효소 저항성 전분의 첨가가 옥수수빵의 텍스쳐 특성에 미치는 영향 (Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistent Starch on Texture Characterstics of Corn Bread)

  • 조아라;안승요
    • 한국식품조리과학회지
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1996
  • 옥수수빵(CON)과 그 구성 성분중 옥수수 전분을 Amylomaize Vll starch로 대체한 제품(AMZ)을 제조하였다 또한 AMZ의 구성 성분중 지방의 일부를 RS 로 대체한 제품(지방의 15%대체시 RSl5, 30%대체 RS30)을 제조하여 총 네 가지 제품에 있어서 품질 특성을 살펴본 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. Sievert and Pomeranz의 방법에 따라 열처리-냉각 과정을 3번 반복하여 제조한 시료에서 분리된 RS의 수율은 28.96%였다. 2.옥수수빵의 텍스쳐 특성 표현어를 Szczesniak의 방법에 따라 분류한 결과 가장 많이 언급된 항목은 시료의 수분 함량에 관련된 촉촉하다였으며 깨짐성 및 검성에 관련된 표현어로서 푸석푸석하다, 부슬부슬하다 및 입자 크기와 관련된 용어로서 부드럽다, 꺼끌꺼 끌하다, 모래같다 등이었다 3. 관능검사 결과 기공의 크기는 지방을 RS로 대체 한 경우 유의적으로 증가하였고 CON에 비해 AMZ, RSl5및 RS30의 견고성이 유의적으로 증가하고 탄성은 유의적으로 감소되는 것을 알 수 있었다. 4. Texture analyser를 이용하여 deformation 30%로 기계적 texture를 관찰한 결과 견고성은 시간이 경과함에 따라 유의적으로 차이가 없거나 증가하는 경향을 보였으며 응집성은 변화가 없거나 감소하였고 탄성은 CON이 AMZ, RSl5 및 RS3O과 비교하여 항상유의적으로 높은 값을 보여 관능검사 결과와 일치하였다. 5. 50% 변형시킨 경우에도 30% 변형시킨 경우와 비슷한 경향을 보였으며 특히 지방의 30%를 RS로 치환했을 경우 물성에 유의적인 변화를 가져온다는 것을 알 수 있었다.

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Influence of Amylose Content on Formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1998
  • Influence of amylose content on formation and characteristics of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. RS yield increased up to 36.1 % as the amylose content of corn starch increased. Starch granules of Amyulomaize V and Ⅶ were more rounded and smaller than those of regular corn ; some were elongated and had appendages. After autoclaving -cooling cycles, the granular structure disappeared and a continous spongy-like porous network was visible in regular corn starch ; the granular structure was stillevident in parts in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches. In all isolated RS residues , the porous structures were no longer visible and more compact formations predominated. While regular corn starch showed an A-type X-ray profile, Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches exhibited a combination of B- and V-types. Regular corn starch lost most of its crystallinity during autoclaving , but the crystallinity was still left in Amylomaize starches as diffuse or poor B-types. All RS residues showed the presence of poor B-type regardless of amylose contents. Transition temperatures and enthalypy of native starches were a little higher in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches than those of regular corn starch . Regardless of amylose contents, all RS residues exhibited an endothermic transition over a similar temperature range (135 $^{\circ}C$~169$^{\circ}C$), with a mean peak temperature of ~154$^{\circ}C$, which is generally foud for retrograded amylose crystallities. Higher transition temperature, enthalypy, and RS yield of AMylomaize V and Ⅶ starches were related granular stability shown by the microscopic and crystallographic studies.

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아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성 (Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content)

  • 이귀주;김정은;김윤선
    • 한국식생활문화학회지
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

수분-열처리와 노화에 의해 고아밀로오스 옥수수전분으로부터 형성된 효소저항전분의 특성비교 (Comparison of Enzyme Resistant Starches Formed during Heat-Moisture Treatment and Retrogradation of High Amylose Corn Starches)

  • 권미라;신말식
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 1997
  • 고아밀로오스 옥수수전분인 Hylon V와 Hylon VII을 사용하여 수분-열처리 및 노화하고 효소저항 전분을 분리하여 열적 특성 및 입자 형태를 각각 DSC와 현미경으로 조사하였다. 처리 후 효소저항 전분의 수율은 두 전분이 비슷한 경향으로 증가하였으나 아밀로오스 함량이 높은 Hylon VII이 Hylon V보다 더 높았다. 특히 수분-열처리에 의해 효소저항성이 크게 증가되어 생전분과 수분-열처리 전분의 효소저항 전분 수율은 Hylon V의 경우는 11.4%에서 26.6%로, Hylon VII의 경우는 15.9%에서 32.8%로 증가하였으나 노화전분은 생전분보다 약간 증가하였다. DSC에 의하면 수분-열처리로 호화온도가 증가되고 엔탈피가 감소하나, 노화된 전분은 $140^{\circ}C$ 근처에서 피크를 보였다. 생전분과 수분-열처리 전분에서 분리한 효소저항 전분은 폭넓은 곡선을 나타낸 반면, 노화전분에서 분리한 효소저항 전분은 $150^{\circ}C$ 근처에서 날카로운 피크를 나타냈다. 수분-열처리에 의해 전분 입자의 형태나 복굴절은 그대로 유지되었으나 노화전분은 호화 중에 용출된 아밀로오스에 의해 입자들이 서로 엉켜 있었다. 수분-열처리 전분에서 분리된 효소저항 전분은 요드 염색으로 남색을 보여 생전분이나 노화전분에서 분리된 효소저항 전분보다 효소저항성이 큼을 알 수 있었다.

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약산처리 옥수수전분으로 호소저항전분의 생성 (Enzyme-Resistant Starch Formation from Mild Acid-Treated Maize Starches)

  • 이신경;문세훈;신말식
    • 한국식품과학회지
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1309-1315
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    • 1997
  • 아밀로오스 함량이 다른 옥수수 전분을 1 N HCl로 산처리하여 약산처리 전분의 특성과 효소저항전분의 수율 및 특성을 비교한 결과 아밀로오스 함량이 증가할수록 산가수분해율은 감소하였고 산처리가 진행됨에 따라 최대흡수파장$({\lambda}_{max})$와 요드친화력이 각각 감소하였다. 산처리 기간에 따른 효소저항전분 수율은 12시간 산처리했을 때까지 모든 시료에서 증가하였으나, 24시간 처리시켰을 때는 오히려 감소하였으며, 찰전분의 수율 증가정도는 12시간 처리시 8배로 다른 전분에 비해 높은 증가를 나타내었다. 약산처리된 효소저항전분 생성전분의 형태는 그물망과 같은 형태를 보였으며, 분리된 효소저항전분은 작은 알갱이와 막대모양의 입자를 관찰할 수 있었다. 효소저항전분 생성전분의 X-선 회절도는 Amioca의 경우 무정형이었으며, 다른 전분은 $20{\theta}=17^{\circ}$, $20^{\circ}$, $23^{\circ}$, 근처의 피크가 나타났고, 분리된 효소저항전분은 형성전분과는 다른 경향을 보여 완전한 결정구조를 나타내었다.

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취반 방법과 도정정도에 따른 멥쌀과 찹쌀의 난소화성 전분 함량 변화 (Effect of Cooking Methods and Degree of Milling on the Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content of Nonwaxy and Waxy Rice)

  • 이영은
    • 한국가정과학회지
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2003
  • The effects of cooking methods on the total dietary fiber(TDF) and enzyme-resistant starch(RS) contents of nonwaxy and waxy milled and brown rices were investigated. The TDF contents of raw rices were 3.77% for nonwaxy brown, 3.41% for waxy brown, 1.37% for nonwaxy milled and 1.14% for waxy milled rices. The TDF contents were higher in brown rices than milled ones and slightly higher in nonwaxy than waxy ones. However, there were no significant differences among raw and cooked rices with. automatic electric cooker and automatic pressure cooker. The TDF contents of cooked rices did not show any increase, but that of waxy milled ones rather slightly decreased by cooking. The RS contents analysed were not significantly different between automatic electric cooking and automatic pressure cooking. The RS contents of cooked rices were 0.05∼0.06% for nonwaxy milled, 0.09∼0.12% for nonwaxy brown, 0.07∼0.08% for waxy milled, 0.11∼0.13% for waxy brown, which showed higher RS content in brown than milled ones, and in waxy than nonwaxy ones. The ratios of RS/TDF were 4.1∼4.2% for nonwaxy milled, 2.8% for nonwaxy brown, 7.5∼8.9% for waxy milled, 3.6∼3.7% for waxy brown, which showed that the higher the TDF contents, the less the contribution of RS to the TDF.

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효소저항성 쌀전분의 첨가가 마들렌의 품질 및 텍스처 특성에 미치는 영향 (Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistant Rice RS3 on Quality and Textural Characteristics of Madeleine)

  • 김완수
    • 한국생활과학회지
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2010
  • This study attempted to examine the application of retrograded starch (RS3) isolated from rice flour into Madeleine which is easy to make, supply enough energy and micro nutrients with adequate drinks, and prevent an adult disease. This could be a popular food to anyone regardless of age and gender who avoid rice and become high value-added, processed rice foods. For this, control Madeleine was made from wheat flour and an experimental one was made from 5 or 10% rice RS3 addition as well as wheat flour. Four different types of rice were produced from Premium Ho-Pyong Rice, that is, dry milled rice flour(RFD), soaked for 8 hours and milled, followed by air-dried rice flour(RFW), rice starch(RST), and retrograded rice starch or enzyme-resistant starch(RS3). The results found were as follows: Proximate compositions were decreased with soaking to make RFW, RST and RS3, compared to RFD. RS3 had the highest L, +a and ${\Delta}E$ with the lowest +b, changing it to a dark color, explaining the need for heat control during processing. At $80^{\circ}C$, the swelling power was shown in the order of RST>RFW>RFD>RS3 and the solubility of RS3 was the highest. There were significant differences in viscosities of peak, trough, cold, breakdown and total setback of all rice samples using RVA (p<0.001). Due to the pH of RS3, the Madeleine batter became acidic (p<.01) and expanded, resulting in more air cells and open texture. With an increasing RS3 level in Madeleine, several textural attributes among 'fresh' and 'stored at room temperature' Madeleine samples were significantly different by using Texture Analyzer. While the addition of RS3 in Madeleine did not significantly affect the sensory evaluation, indicating RS3 isolated from rice as a beneficial ingredient for processed rice products.

아밀로오스 함량이 산처리 옥수수전분의 특성 및 저항전분수율에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Amylose Content on Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches and Yield of Resistant Starch)

  • 이신경;신말식
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1997
  • 아밀로오스 함량이 다른 옥수수전분을 2.2N HCl로 산처리하여 산가수분해 특성 및 효소저항전분의 수율을 비교하였다. 산 가수분해경향은 아밀로오스 함량이 0%인 Amioca는 7일을 경계로, 그외의 전분은 4일을 경계로 2단계로 진행되었으며, 산가수분해 속도상수는 초기에 $4.01{\sim}9.21{\times}10^{-3}hr^{-1}$, 후기에는 $1.60{\sim}5.01{\times}10^{-3}hr^{-1}$로 아밀로오스 함량이 낮을수록 옥수수전분의 가수분해 속도가 빨랐다. 생전분의 X-선 회절양상은 아밀로오스 함량이 적은 Amioca, PFP, CMS(commercial maize starch)는 A형 , 고아밀로오스 함량인 Amaizo 5, Amylomaize VII은 B형의 전형적인 결정형을 보였으며, 산처리 후에도 모든 시료의 결정형은 그대로 유지하였으나 상대적인 결정화도는 증가하였다. 효소저항전분의 수율은 Amioca, CMS, Amylomaize VII이 각각 1.8%, 20.8%, 37.9%로 아밀로오스 함량이 높을수록 수율도 증가하였으며, 가열-냉각 횟수를 4회 반복한 후 분리한 산처리 한 옥수수전분의 효소저항전분의 수율은 1일 산처리한 CMS, Amylomaize VII이 각각 4.5%, 29.1%였으며 7일 산처리시에는 1.5%와 19.4%로 산처리에 의해 효소저항전분의 수율이 감소하였다.

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Evaluation of Molecular Weight Distribution, Pasting and Functional Properties, and Enzyme Resistant Starch Content of Acid-modified Corn Starches

  • Koksel, Hamit;Ozturk, Serpil;Kahraman, Kevser;Basman, Arzu;Ozbas, Ozen Ozboy;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.755-760
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch preparations from acid-modified com starches prepared at various hydrolysis levels (0.5-4.0 hr). Effect of autoclaving cycles on resistant starch (RS) formation was investigated. Molecular weight distribution, pasting and functional properties of acid-modified com starches were determined. For RS formation native and acid-modified starch samples were gelatinized and autoclaved (1 or 2 cycles). While native and acid-modified starches did not contain any RS, the levels increased to 9.0-13.5% as a result of storage at $95^{\circ}C$ after first autoclaving cycle. Second autoclaving cycle together with storage at $95^{\circ}C$ brought final RS contents of the samples incubated at 4 and $95^{\circ}C$ after the first cycle to comparable level. As acid modification level increased, the amount of high molecular weight fractions decreased, resulting in significant decreases in viscosities (p<0.05). The samples produced in this study had low emulsion stability and capacity values.