• Title, Summary, Keyword: enzyme-resistant starch

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The Influence of the Annealing of Corn Starch on the formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.215-220
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    • 1999
  • The Physical properties of corn starch were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry during the formation of enzyme-resistant starch(RS). Samples were studied in their native states and after annealing at 50, 55, 60 and 65℃ in excess water(starch : water=1:3) for 48hr. Starch granules became smaller and more rounded after annealing than in their native state. Annealing did not change the X-ray profile of native corn starch. After autoclaving-cooling cycles, native starch lost most of its crystallinity but annealed ones showed some of their crystallinity left as diffuse or poor B-type, which didn't relate to increasing Rs yields. During formation of RS, however, both native and annealed starches changed their X-ray profile from A-type to poor B-type of retrograded amylose. Annealing caused an increase in gelatinization temperature and enthalpy, but a narrowing of gelatinization temperature range. Only starch annealed at 65℃, however, showed a decrease in enthalpy even though its gelatinization temperature increased, which appeared to be due to the partial gelatinization in the amorphous region during annealing. Peak height index(PHI), the ratio of ΔH to Ti-To, increased by annealing. PHI values, therefore, showed the possibility as an indicator to predict RS yield which cannot be differentiated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction data.

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Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistent Starch on Texture Characterstics of Corn Bread (효소 저항성 전분의 첨가가 옥수수빵의 텍스쳐 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 조아라;안승요
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1996
  • Effects of replacement of corn starch with Amylomaize Vll starch and addition of enzyme-resistant starch on texture characteristics of com bread (CON) were investigated. Amylomaize-substituted corn bread (AMZ) was made by replacing corn starch with Amylomaize Vll starch. 15% (RSl5) and 30% (RS30) of butter, was replaced with enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from Amylomaife Vll starch, respectively. Textu,e describing terms were classified according to their physical properties. Result of sensory evaluation characteristics showed that the size of air cells increased as butter replacement level decreased and that hardness increased but springiness decreased as com starch was replaced with Amylomaize Vll starch. The results of Texture Profile Analysis with deformation of 30% and 50% showed that hardness inclosed but cohesiveness decreased as cooling time increased.

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Influence of Amylose Content on Formation and Characteristics of Enzyme-resistant Starch

  • Yoon, Ji-Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.303-308
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    • 1998
  • Influence of amylose content on formation and characteristics of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and differential scanning calorimetry. RS yield increased up to 36.1 % as the amylose content of corn starch increased. Starch granules of Amyulomaize V and Ⅶ were more rounded and smaller than those of regular corn ; some were elongated and had appendages. After autoclaving -cooling cycles, the granular structure disappeared and a continous spongy-like porous network was visible in regular corn starch ; the granular structure was stillevident in parts in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches. In all isolated RS residues , the porous structures were no longer visible and more compact formations predominated. While regular corn starch showed an A-type X-ray profile, Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches exhibited a combination of B- and V-types. Regular corn starch lost most of its crystallinity during autoclaving , but the crystallinity was still left in Amylomaize starches as diffuse or poor B-types. All RS residues showed the presence of poor B-type regardless of amylose contents. Transition temperatures and enthalypy of native starches were a little higher in Amylomaize V and Ⅶ starches than those of regular corn starch . Regardless of amylose contents, all RS residues exhibited an endothermic transition over a similar temperature range (135 $^{\circ}C$~169$^{\circ}C$), with a mean peak temperature of ~154$^{\circ}C$, which is generally foud for retrograded amylose crystallities. Higher transition temperature, enthalypy, and RS yield of AMylomaize V and Ⅶ starches were related granular stability shown by the microscopic and crystallographic studies.

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Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content, Physical and Sensory Properties of Tarakjuk (Milk-Rice Porridge) with Different Amylose Content (아밀로즈 함량별 타락죽의 효소저항전분 함량, 물리적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Lee, Gui-Chu;Kim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.171-178
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    • 2006
  • Tarakjuk with different amylose content was made up using roasted rice flours that consisted of the highest enzyme-resistant starch (RS), while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was also utilized to measure the gelatinization temperature of these roasted rice flours in order to establish cooking temperature of tarakjuk. The following qualities of tarakjuk with different amylose content were studied: color, viscosity, spreadability, starch fractions involving total starch (TS), rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS) and RS, in vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) and sensory properties. During experimentation, it was found that as the amylose content of the rice flour decreased, the L value of tarakjuk decreased, whereas a value increased significantly (p<0.05). Also, while viscosity showed to increase significantly (p<0.05), on the opposite end, the property of spreadability decreased. TS ranged from $15.95{\sim}17.31%$, RDS $9.36{\sim}10.16%$, SDS $5.46{\sim}6.91%$ and RS $0.33{\sim}1.07%$, on a dry basis. Although the amylose content of rice flours decreased, IVSD increased, however showing no significant difference. When testing the sensory properties of tarakjuk, color and viscosity increased, whereas clumpiness decreased. Ilpum tarakjuk showed the highest score for nutty taste and overall acceptance levels. In fact a high correlation was shown between nutty taste and overall acceptance level (p<0.01), which leads one to believe that nutty taste is a prime factor that greatly influences overall acceptance. Furthermore, viscosity was positively correlated with both a and b values, however negatively correlated with L value (p<0.05). Moreover, roasted nutty taste and overall acceptance were positively correlated with a value (p<0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the above results suggest that tarakjuk could be made by choosing the appropriate rice flour based on the nutritional or sensory purpose.

Comparison of Enzyme Resistant Starches Formed during Heat-Moisture Treatment and Retrogradation of High Amylose Corn Starches (수분-열처리와 노화에 의해 고아밀로오스 옥수수전분으로부터 형성된 효소저항전분의 특성비교)

  • Kweon, Mee-Ra;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.508-513
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    • 1997
  • Thermal characteristics and granular morphology on enzyme-resistant starches (RS) formed during heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and retrogradation were investigated in high amylose corn starches, Hylon V and Hylon VII. With each treatment, both starches showed a similar trend in the increase of RS, but RS yield of Hylon VII is higher than that of Hylon V. Specially, RS was increased remarkably by HMT. It was more than doubled from 11.4% to 26.6% for Hylon V and from 15.9% to 32.8% for Hylon VII. A small increase of RS resulted from retrogradation. HMT on starch increased gelatinization temperature, decreased enthalpy. Retrograded starch exhibited small three endothermic transitions at $94^{\circ}C$, $110^{\circ}C$ and $140^{\circ}C$ in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermogram due to the remained ungelatinized starch granules, dissociation of amylose-lipid complex and melting of recrystallized amylose, respectively. Enzyme-resistant starches isolated from native and heat-moisture treated starches showed a broad endothermic transition at higher temperature than native starch, while retrograded starch exhibited a very sharp peak at ${\sim}150^{\circ}C$ due to the melting of amylose crystallites. Under microscopy, starch granules with HMT was not changed, but retrograded starches showed the aggregates of starch granules because amylose leached out during gelatinization. Iodine stained RS clearly showed the differences in enzyme hydrolysis on the native, heat-moisture treated and retrograded starches.

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Enzyme-Resistant Starch Formation from Mild Acid-Treated Maize Starches (약산처리 옥수수전분으로 호소저항전분의 생성)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Mun, Sae-Hun;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1309-1315
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    • 1997
  • Yields of enzyme-resistant starch (RS) from three kinds of maize starches (Amioca, normal starch and Amylomaize VII) which were treated with 1 N HCl for 24 hr and physicochemical characteristics were investigated. Hydrolysis rate of maize starches decreased with increasing amylose content. Maximum wavelength $({\lambda}_{max})$ and iodine affinity were decreased by the acid treatment. The yields of RS increased with acid treatment up to 12 hr and then decreased. The yield of for 12 hr acid-treated Amioca increased 8 times more than untreated sample, but those of normal starch and Amylomaize VII slightly increased. Using SEM, acid-treated and autoclaved maize starches showed gel like structure, but RS had round and rod shape small particles. X-ray diffraction patterns of autoclaved starches showed amorphous structure in Amioca and B-type in normal starch and Amylomaize VII, and those of RS showed all completely crystalline structure.

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Effect of Cooking Methods and Degree of Milling on the Enzyme-Resistant Starch Content of Nonwaxy and Waxy Rice (취반 방법과 도정정도에 따른 멥쌀과 찹쌀의 난소화성 전분 함량 변화)

  • 이영은
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2003
  • The effects of cooking methods on the total dietary fiber(TDF) and enzyme-resistant starch(RS) contents of nonwaxy and waxy milled and brown rices were investigated. The TDF contents of raw rices were 3.77% for nonwaxy brown, 3.41% for waxy brown, 1.37% for nonwaxy milled and 1.14% for waxy milled rices. The TDF contents were higher in brown rices than milled ones and slightly higher in nonwaxy than waxy ones. However, there were no significant differences among raw and cooked rices with. automatic electric cooker and automatic pressure cooker. The TDF contents of cooked rices did not show any increase, but that of waxy milled ones rather slightly decreased by cooking. The RS contents analysed were not significantly different between automatic electric cooking and automatic pressure cooking. The RS contents of cooked rices were 0.05∼0.06% for nonwaxy milled, 0.09∼0.12% for nonwaxy brown, 0.07∼0.08% for waxy milled, 0.11∼0.13% for waxy brown, which showed higher RS content in brown than milled ones, and in waxy than nonwaxy ones. The ratios of RS/TDF were 4.1∼4.2% for nonwaxy milled, 2.8% for nonwaxy brown, 7.5∼8.9% for waxy milled, 3.6∼3.7% for waxy brown, which showed that the higher the TDF contents, the less the contribution of RS to the TDF.

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Effect of Addition of Enzyme-Resistant Rice RS3 on Quality and Textural Characteristics of Madeleine (효소저항성 쌀전분의 첨가가 마들렌의 품질 및 텍스처 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wan-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.191-201
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    • 2010
  • This study attempted to examine the application of retrograded starch (RS3) isolated from rice flour into Madeleine which is easy to make, supply enough energy and micro nutrients with adequate drinks, and prevent an adult disease. This could be a popular food to anyone regardless of age and gender who avoid rice and become high value-added, processed rice foods. For this, control Madeleine was made from wheat flour and an experimental one was made from 5 or 10% rice RS3 addition as well as wheat flour. Four different types of rice were produced from Premium Ho-Pyong Rice, that is, dry milled rice flour(RFD), soaked for 8 hours and milled, followed by air-dried rice flour(RFW), rice starch(RST), and retrograded rice starch or enzyme-resistant starch(RS3). The results found were as follows: Proximate compositions were decreased with soaking to make RFW, RST and RS3, compared to RFD. RS3 had the highest L, +a and ${\Delta}E$ with the lowest +b, changing it to a dark color, explaining the need for heat control during processing. At $80^{\circ}C$, the swelling power was shown in the order of RST>RFW>RFD>RS3 and the solubility of RS3 was the highest. There were significant differences in viscosities of peak, trough, cold, breakdown and total setback of all rice samples using RVA (p<0.001). Due to the pH of RS3, the Madeleine batter became acidic (p<.01) and expanded, resulting in more air cells and open texture. With an increasing RS3 level in Madeleine, several textural attributes among 'fresh' and 'stored at room temperature' Madeleine samples were significantly different by using Texture Analyzer. While the addition of RS3 in Madeleine did not significantly affect the sensory evaluation, indicating RS3 isolated from rice as a beneficial ingredient for processed rice products.

Effects of Amylose Content on Properties of Lintnerized Maize Starches and Yield of Resistant Starch (아밀로오스 함량이 산처리 옥수수전분의 특성 및 저항전분수율에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Shin-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.395-399
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    • 1997
  • Lintnerization properties and yield of enzyme-resistant starch in maize starches with different amylose content were investigated. Hydrolytic patterns of starches showed two distinct stages. With decreasing the amylose content, hydrolysis extents of starch increased. X-ray diffraction patterns of Amloca, PFP and commercial maize starch were the A crystalline type, and those of Amaizo 5 and Amylomaize VII were the B crystalline type. As acid hydrolysis time increased, the relative crystallinity of starches increased. After heating-cooling treatment was repeated up to 4 times, the yield of RS increased with increasing the amylose content. The yields of RS in lintnerzed maize starches decreased with acid treatment.

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Evaluation of Molecular Weight Distribution, Pasting and Functional Properties, and Enzyme Resistant Starch Content of Acid-modified Corn Starches

  • Koksel, Hamit;Ozturk, Serpil;Kahraman, Kevser;Basman, Arzu;Ozbas, Ozen Ozboy;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.755-760
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to produce resistant starch preparations from acid-modified com starches prepared at various hydrolysis levels (0.5-4.0 hr). Effect of autoclaving cycles on resistant starch (RS) formation was investigated. Molecular weight distribution, pasting and functional properties of acid-modified com starches were determined. For RS formation native and acid-modified starch samples were gelatinized and autoclaved (1 or 2 cycles). While native and acid-modified starches did not contain any RS, the levels increased to 9.0-13.5% as a result of storage at $95^{\circ}C$ after first autoclaving cycle. Second autoclaving cycle together with storage at $95^{\circ}C$ brought final RS contents of the samples incubated at 4 and $95^{\circ}C$ after the first cycle to comparable level. As acid modification level increased, the amount of high molecular weight fractions decreased, resulting in significant decreases in viscosities (p<0.05). The samples produced in this study had low emulsion stability and capacity values.