• Title, Summary, Keyword: environmental samples

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Isolation of Environmental Mycobacteria from Diverse Water Samples Using Cetylpyridinium Chloride

  • Choi, Yeon-Im;Jin, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Gyu-Sang;Kim, Jong-Bae;Song, In-Kenn;Kim, Young-Joon;Lee, Hye-Young
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.133-138
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    • 2010
  • Despite of the increasing importance of environmental mycobacteria, detection and identification of mycobacteria from environmental sources including water have been fraught with technical difficulties. Although, several protocols to optiruize isolation of mycobacteria from water sources have been reported, standard method has not yet been established. In this study, usefulness of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic quaternary ammonium compound, for the isolation of environmental mycobacteria from diverse water samples was evaluated. For this, water samples from diverse water sources such as effluent water, lake water, and underground water were collected, treated with diverse concentrations of CPC, and plated on the solid agar plates. Subsequently individual colonies grown on the plates were sequence analyzed for identification of each colony. In brief, the results from this study showed that the growth of mycobacteria was enhanced by use of CPC as a pre-treatment reagent to water samples by inhibiting growth of other non-mycobacteria in water. In fact, the effect of CPC to decontaminate non-mycobacteria for isolation of mycobacteria was better than 1~4% of NaOH, which is a routinely used decontaminating reagent widely employed for culturing mycobactera from sputum specimens. Therefore, the results from this study seems to support that the CPC pre-treatment may be useful for isolation of mycobacteria from diverse sources including clinical specimens which are often contaminated with other bacteria.

Analysis and Exposure Assessment of Perchlorate in Korean Dairy Products with LC-MS/MS

  • Oh, Sung-Hee;Lee, Ji-Woo;Mandy, Pawlas;Oh, Jeong-Eun
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.26
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    • pp.12.1-12.7
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: Perchlorate is an emerging contaminant that is found everywhere, including various foods. Perchlorate is known to disturb the production of thyroid hormones and leads to mental disorders in fetuses and infants, as well as metabolic problems in adults. In this study, we attempted to establish an LC-MS/MS method for measuring perchlorate in dairy products and used this developed method to investigate perchlorate levels in Korean milk and yogurt samples. Methods: The developed method of perchlorate analysis requires a shaker and 1% acetic acid/acetonitrile as the extracting solvent. Briefly, the samples were extracted and then centrifuged (4000 rpm, 1hour), and the supernatant was then passed through a $Envi^{TM}$ Carb SPE cartridge that had been prewashed sequentially with 6 mL of acetonitrile and 6 mL of 1% acetic acid in water. The final volume of the sample extract was adjusted to 40 mL with reagent water and the final sample was filtered through a 0.20-${\mu}m$ pore size PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene) syringe filter prior to LC-MS/MS. Results: The average levels of perchlorate in milk and yogurt samples were $5.63{\pm}3.49\;{\mu}g/L$ and $3.65{\pm}2.42\;{\mu}g/L$, respectively. The perchlorate levels observed in milk samples in this study were similar to those reported from China, Japan, and the United States. Conclusions: The exposure of Koreans to perchlorate through the consumption of dairy products was calculated based on the results of this study. For all age groups, the calculated exposure to perchlorate was below the reference of dose (0.7 ${\mu}g/kg$-day) proposed by the National Academy of Science, USA, but the perchlorate exposure of children was higher than that of adults. Therefore, further investigation of perchlorate in other food samples is needed to enable a more exact assessment of exposure of children to perchlorate.

Development and Application of Acute Bioassay Method on Solid Samples using Bioluminescence Producing Bacteria (박테리아 발광 특성을 이용한 고형시료 급성 독성법 연구 및 적용)

  • Ko, Kyung-Seok;Kong, In-Chul;Jung, Hong-Gyung;Ro, Yul
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.46-52
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    • 2007
  • A toxicity method using bioluminescence producing bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5 RB1436, was developed and applied on solid environmental samples. In the assay, 1 g soil sample was mixed with 4 ml RB1436 strain. Sets amended with p-buffer were employed for control in soil test, showing approximately 108% of sets amended with combusted soils. Measurable differences were observed between relatively more polluted groups (HP) and less polluted groups (LP) of soil samples, showing average toxicity 43 and 26%, respectively, in direct soil toxicity test. $EC_{50}$'s for all soil groups appeared in the range of $1.8{\sim}4.6\;g$, but those of sediments from dam reservoir and refuses were below 0.22 g. This developed bioassay should prove useful as a screening test for toxicity in various types of environmental solid samples.

A Study on Mercury Exposure Levels among Schoolchildren and Related Factors in High Mercury Exposure Areas in Korea (수은 고노출 지역 초등학생의 수은노출수준과 노출요인 연구)

  • Kim, Dae Seon;Kwon, Young Min;Chung, Hee-Ung;Nam, Sang Hoon;Yu, Seung Do
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.231-240
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Blood mercury levels among adults living in certain areas of the Gyeongsang Provinces have been shown to be very high (Kunwee County $29.6{\mu}g/L$, Yeongcheon-city $26.7{\mu}g/L$). The purpose of this project was to determine mercury exposure levels in schoolchildren and factors related with their mercury levels in high mercury exposure areas identifyed by the 2007 Korea National Environmental Health Survey. Methods: From June to September 2010, 1,097 students from grades 3 to 6 at 19 elementary schools participated in this study, including 294 students from 10 elementary schools in Kunwee County, 529 students from Yeongcheon City, 122 students from two elementary schools in Pohang City, North Gyeongsang Province, and 152 students from two elementary schools in Ulsan Metropolitan City. Biological samples from schoolchildren, including whole blood, urine and hair, were collected to measure total mercury at the time of a health check up. Information about children was collected by questionnaire. Total mercury concentrations in blood were measured using the Direct Mercury Analyzer 80 with the gold-amalgam collection method. Results: The mean mercury levels were $2.70{\mu}g/L$ in 1,091 blood samples, $2.25{\mu}g/g-creat.$ in 820 urine samples and $1.03{\mu}g/g$ in 1,064 hair samples. Blood mercury levels in the schoolchildren was slightly higher than the result of $2.4{\mu}g/L$ from a 2006 survey of elementary school children on exposure and health effects of mercury by the National Institute of Environmental Research. However, 0.3% and 4.5% of participants exceeded the reference level of blood mercury by CHBMII ($15{\mu}g/L$) and the US EPA ($5.8{\mu}g/L$), respectively. The reference level of urine by CHBMII ($20{\mu}g/L$) was exceeded by 0.4% of participants. As factors, residence period in the study areas, residence type, father's education level and income all showed significant associations with mercury level in the biological samples. The number of dental amalgam sides showed an association with urine mercury. Fish intake preference and fish intake frequency were important factors in mercury levels. In particular, intake of shark meat and recent intake of shark meat were associated with higher mercury levels. In this regard, participation in the performance of an ancestral rite showed a relation with higher mercury levels. Conclusion: The intake of shark meat was very important factor to high mercury exposure level. It is recommended to monitor and manage students with high mercury exposures who exceeded CHBM II and EPA guidelines, and include blood mercury testing in the Children's Health check up for this province.

Development and Validation of Crocidolite Quality Control Samples for Proficiency Analytical Testing (청석면 분석 정도관리용 표준시료 개발 및 평가)

  • Lee, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Young;Noh, Su-Jin;Park, Yong-Jin;Jeong, Jee-Yeon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2011
  • Crocidolite quality control (QC) sampling created by the wet generation method has been validated by validation tests such as the accuracy, precision, and storage tests. For this study we designed and developed a manufacturing apparatus and standard operating procedure for making these QC samples. The most important step in the procedure of making QC samples was the stage eliminating static electricity in asbestos fibers. This static electricity hampers the fibers clog functioning. In accuracy and precision tests by phase contrast microscopy analysis, the difference between the reference values and the studied values was at maximum 17.8%. This satisfies the AIHA proficiency analytical test criteria for asbestos. We could confirm the nearly even distribution of crocidolite fibers on the membrane filter. Also, there was no loss of fibers in the storage test after the one month.

Comparative Studies on the Acute Toxicities of Whole Solids and Solids Aqueous Extracts Based on the Inhibition of Bacterial Bioluminescence Production

  • Kong, In-Chul
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.41-45
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    • 2011
  • The aim of this investigation was to demonstrate a rapid bioluminescence bioassay for comparison of the toxicity of whole solids and the aqueous extracts of various environmental solid samples. With regard to the toxicities, those for the soil extracts were mostly found to be lower than those of whole soils, which may have been caused by un-extracted pollutants or dilution during the extraction process. Solid samples from dam-reservoir sediments and municipal refuses were also tested. The toxicities of the solid extracts (0-34%; refuses and sediments) were much lower than those of the whole solids (13-91%). The bioluminescence inhibition test indicated that the harmful effects of the contaminated solids samples were greater than those of the solid extracts.

Detection of PCB77 by Indirect Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay in Sea Sediment Samples

  • Chen, Han-Yu;Zhuang, Hui-Sheng;Yang, Guang-Xin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.922-926
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    • 2013
  • 3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB77) is one of seven indicative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surface sediments. The current study presents a novel polyclonal antibody for the determination of the PCB77 using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Under optimum conditions, PCB77 was determined within the concentration range of 0.01-100 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, with a detection limit of 0.057 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$. The assays were tested for their cross-reactivity profiles using 3 selected congeners and 4 Aroclor products. The assays were highly specific for coplanar PCB congeners, but less specific for Aroclor1248. The spiked recoveries from five sediment samples were 86%-114% for PCB77 from ELISA, which were satisfactory. The current study demonstrated that the developed antiserum and immunoassay procedure can be used to detect PCB77 in environmental samples. The results of the sediment analysis were confirmed by conventional GC/ECD.

International Trends of Environmental Specimen Bank and Our Response (환경시료은행의 국제적 동향 및 우리의 대응)

  • Kim, Myung-Jin;Yoo, Byung-Ho;Lee, Suk-Jo;Lee, Jong-Chun;Lee, Chul-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2008
  • An Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) is an archive for samples that can be used to document and assess the quality of the environment in which we live. An ESB program looks at changes in the concentration of human and environmental specimens over long periods of time through retrospective analysis of archived samples of a particular area collected at regular intervals. The idea of ESB was first proposed by German and American scientists in the early 1970s and has been established since 1979 in Germany, USA, and Japan. Korea plans to establish a National Environmental Specimen Bank (NESB) in 2010. The NESB will be able to assess and improve the quality of analytical measurements as well as to compare the past and current environmental quality as a time capsule. The concept and design for the NESB facility was developed and its Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs) are being developed based on an evaluation of ESBs and SOPs of Germany, USA, and Japan. Environmental specimens proposed for banking are based on typical representatives of every level of the food chain from each type of ecosystem that are widely distributed thus enabling comparisons between different sampling areas. Through retrospective analysis of environmental specimens, the NESB will improve the reliability of environmental monitoring, ecological risk assessment, and health impact assessment.

Water Quality and Cyanobacterial Anatoxin-a Concentration in Daechung Reservoir (대청호의 수질과 남조류 독소 Anatoxin-A 농도의 관계)

  • Joung, Seong-Hyun;Kim, Jee-Hwan;Ahn, Chi-Yong;Choi, Shin-Sok;Kim, Hee-Sik;Oh, Hee-Mock
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.257-265
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    • 2002
  • The current study was performed to elucidate the relationship between the anatoxin -a produced by cyanobacteria and aquatic environmental factors, Algal and water samples were collected from the Daechung Reservoir from June to November 2001. The physical factors of the water quality were measured in sifu, while the biological and chemical factors were examined in the laboratory. The concentrations of anatoxin-a in the algal and water samples were analyzed by HPLC using a fluorescence detector, and ranged from $0.61-8.68\;{\mu}g/g$ dw in the algal samples and $0.01-0.08\;{\mu}g/L$ in the water samples. The suggested maximum concentration of anatoxin-a for safe drinking water is $1\;{\mu}g/L$. The concentrations of anatoxin-a in the algal and water samples were highest in July. The relationships between tile aquatic environmental factors and the anatoxin-a concentration were also analyzed to identify the crucial elements for toxin production. The anatoxin-a concentrations in the algal samples exhibited a high correlation with nitrate, the TN/TP ratio, TDN (P<0.05), and TPN/TPP ratio (P<0.01), whereas the anatoxin-a concentrations in the water samples were highly related to the water temperature, conductivity (P<0.01) , pH, phycocyanin, and phycocyanin/chlorophyll a ratio (P<0.05).

Validation of an analytical method for cyanide determination in blood, urine, lung, and skin tissues of rats using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)

  • Shin, Min-Chul;Kwon, Young Sang;Kim, Jong-Hwan;Hwang, Kyunghwa;Seo, Jong-Su
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to establish the analytical method for the determination of cyanide in blood, urine, lung and skin tissues in rats. In order to detect or quantify the sodium cyanide in above biological matrixes, it was derivatized to Pentafluorobenzyl cyanide (PFB-CN) using pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) and then reaction substance was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS)-SIM (selected ion monitoring) mode. The analytical method for cyanide determination was validated with respect to parameters such as selectivity, system suitability, linearity, accuracy and precision. No interference peak was observed for the determination of cyanide in blank samples, zero samples and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) samples. The lowest limit detection (LOD) for cyanide was $10{\mu}M$. The linear dynamic range was from 10 to $200{\mu}M$ for cyanide with correlation coefficients higher than 0.99. For quality control samples at four different concentrations including LLOQ that were analyzed in quintuplicate, on six separate occasions, the accuracy and precision range from -14.1 % to 14.5% and 2.7 % to 18.3 %, respectively. The GC/MS-based method of analysis established in this study could be applied to the toxicokinetic study of cyanide on biological matrix substrates such as blood, urine, lung and skin tissues.