• Title, Summary, Keyword: environmental samples

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Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Soil and Pine needle near Industry Complex in Changwon City

  • Kim Sang-Jo;Kim Sung-Yong;Ok Gon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.14 no.7
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    • pp.629-637
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    • 2005
  • Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were investigated in soil and pine needle samples taken from 16 sites of industrial and residential areas in Changwon, Korea to assess their distribution levels and to suggest the influence of industrial activities, PCDDs/DFs levels in the soil samples ranged from 0.57 to 20.79 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight with a mean value of 4.20 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight. PCDDs/DFs levels in the pine needle samples ranged from 0.39 to 8.75 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight with a mean value of 4.09 pg I-TEQ/g dry weight. In both soil and pine needle samples, the PCDDs/DFs concentrations in the industrial area sites were higher than those in the residential area sites. Homologue profiles in pine needle samples showed different patterns compared with soil samples. Based on the results of principal component analysis (PCA), it was confirmed that pine needles reflected a direct influence from local potential sources of PCDDs/DFs, showing a much higher degree of reflection than in soils. Pine needles are very useful as an indicator for monitoring or estimating the contamination of PCDDs/DFs in other areas which have been impacted by point pollution sources.

Concentration Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls(PCBs) in Urban Watershed (도심하천유역의 PCBs 농도 분포)

  • Kim, Hyun-Seung;Kim, Il-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.757-766
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we have examined concentration distribution and patterns of PCBs in waters, sediments and soils in an agricultural area of South Korea to investigate the relationship between PCBs sources and concentration levels. The concentration of PCBs in water samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 8.25 ug/L and the concentration of PCBs in sediment samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 76.67 ug/Kg. The concentration of PCBs in soil samples were ranged from lower values below detection limit to 23.51 ug/Kg. These contamination levels were far below the guideline values suggested for environmental quality assessment. The homologue patterns in samples varied from sample to sample, but isomer patterns were very similar with each other. PCB-138 and PCB-153 were predominant congeners in the soil and sediment, which were similar to the results obtained from previous studies. With these results, the assessment of potential sources of PCBs contamination in the sediments of the Nakdong river basin was performed. The principal components were extracted by Principal Component Analysis(PCA). As the result of PCA, it could be expected that PCBs in samples of this study were more affected by PCB products than combustion processes and mostly affected by already-known sources. The PCBs in the soil and sediment samples were related with commercial PCB products.

Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Agricultural Soils by Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry

  • Nam, Jae-Jak;Lee, Sang-Hak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2003
  • An investigation has been carried out on collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the development of an analytical protocol for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs) by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Two different considerations were used to choose the optimal CID conditions for complex matrix environmental samples, namely, to determine the highest signal-to-noise (SIN) ratio and the other to eliminate the background interferences originated from complex matrix samples. The PAR content of agricultural soil was measured to estimate overall distribution of PAR in throughout the country, we collected and analyzed 226 soil samples from paddy and upland soil. The average content of total PAR in all samples was 236 ${\mu}g$ $kg^{-1}$, and the range was from 23.3 to 2, 834 ${\mu}g$ $kg^{-1}$. The overall distribution of PAR was found to be closely related to the pollution sources, the size of city and the type of industry.

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Micro-PIXE as a Technique for Multi-elemental Detection and Localization in Various Atmospheric Environmental Samples

  • Ma, Chang-Jin;Choi, Sung-Boo
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.24 no.E1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2008
  • Microbeam PIXE, often called micro-PIXE, is one of powerful tools for analyzing a wide range of elements for various samples. Moreover, it has important applications of interest to the atmospheric science. In the present study, a qualitative elemental imagination for various atmospheric environmental species was attempted using micro-PIXE. Especially, in combination with a novel individual droplet collection method and the micro-PIXE analytical technique, the chemical specification of various individual atmospheric samples could be carried out. Here, we briefly introduce the results of an application of micro-PIXE to the study of atmospheric environment. The detailed spatial resolution of multiple elements for various samples like individual ambient particles, individual raindrops, individual fog droplets, and individual snow crystals could be successfully achieved by scanning 2.6 MeV $H^+$ micro beam ($1{\sim}2{\mu}m$) accelerated by 3 MeV single-end accelerator.

Molecular Monitoring of Plankton Diversity in the Seonakdong River and Along the Coast of Namhae (분자 모니터링을 이용한 서낙동강과 남해 연안 플랑크톤 군집 분석)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Lee, Sang-Rae;Lee, Jin-Ae;Chung, Ik-Kyo
    • The Sea
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2010
  • The biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton has commonly been used to evaluate the status of aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, an accurate and rapid method for species identification is needed to reveal the biodiversity of environmental water samples. To date, molecular methods have provided a great deal of information that has enabled identification of the hidden biodiversity in environmental samples. In this study, we utilized environmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and constructed the 18S nuclear ribosomal RNA clone library from environmental water samples in order to develop more efficient methods for species identification. For the molecular analysis, water samples were collected from the Seonakdong River (Gimhae Bridge) and the coast of Namhae,(Namhaedo). Colony PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR (PCR-RFLP) were then adopted to isolate unique clones from the 18S rDNA clone library. Restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern analysis of the Gimhae Bridge sample revealed 44 unique clones from a total of 60 randomly selected clones, while analysis of the Namhae sample revealed 27 unique clones from 150 clones selected at random. A BLAST search and subsequent phylogenetic analysis conducted using the sequences of these clones revealed hidden biodiversity containing a wide range of taxonomic groups (Heterokontophyta (7), Ciliophora (23), Dinophyta (1), Chytridiomycota (1), Rotifera (1) and Arthropoda (11) in the Gimhae Bridge samples Ciliophora (4), Dinophyta (3), Cryptophyta (1), Arthropoda (19) in the Namhae samples). Therefore, the molecular monitoring method developed here can provide additional information regarding the biodiversity and community structure of eukaryotic plankton in environmental samples and helps construct a useful database of biodiversity for aquatic ecosystems.

Establishing of a rapid analytical method on uranium isotopic ratios for the environmental monitoring around nuclear facilities (원자력 시설 주변 환경 감시를 위한 토양 중 우라늄 동위원소 신속 분석법 확립)

  • Park, Ji-Young;Lim, Jong-Myoung;Lee, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Wanno
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.134-142
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    • 2018
  • The uranium isotopic ratio in environmental samples around nuclear facilities is important because it reveals information regarding illegal activities or anthropogenic pollution. Determination of uranium isotopes, however, is a challenging task requiring much labor and time because of the complex separation procedures and lengthy process. In this study, a rapid determination method for uranium isotopes in environmental samples was developed using. The sample was completely decomposed using the alkali fusion method. The separation procedure using extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was simplified in a single step without any further removal process for Si and major matrix elements. The established method can be completed within 3 h from sample dissolution to ICP-MS measurement. Most matrix elements and uranium isotopes in the soil samples were well separated and purified. Five types of were used to assess the method's accuracy and precision for a rapid uranium analysis method. The analytical accuracy for all CRM samples ranged from 95.1 % to 97.8 %, and the relative standard deviation was below 3.9 %. From the analytical results, one may draw conclusions that the evaluated method for uranium isotopes using alkali-fusion, the extraction chromatography process, and ICP-MS measurements is fast and fairly reliable owing to its recovering efficiencies. Thus, it is expected that the evaluated method can contribute to the improvement of environmental monitoring ability.

Evaluation of Toxicity Influenced by Ion Imbalance in Wastewater (폐수에서 이온불균형문제가 생태독성에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Shin, Kisik;Kim, Jongmin;Lee, Soohyung;Lee, Jungseo;Lee, Taekjune
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to evaluate the results of toxicity testing with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri on wastewater samples which might be influenced by ion imbalance. The effluents from factories were found to be more toxic with high salinity levels than those from public wastewater treatment plant (WTP) and sewage treatment plant (SWP). Clion composition was highest in the effluent, in terms of percentage, which was followed by $Na^+$, $SO_4^{2-}$ and $Ca^{2+}$. $K^+$ and $Mg^{2+}$ ion was relatively low. The sensitivity of D. magna test results was higher than V. fischeri. Among samples which were proved by V. fischeri testing to be nontoxic, the composition ratio of each ion whether toxic samples or nontoxic samples which were decided by D. magna toxicity testing, were compared. $Na^+$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$ ion composition ratio showed high level in nontoxic samples whereas $SO_4^{2-}$ and $Cl^-$ ion composition ratio was high in toxic samples. Accordingly, $SO_4^{2-}$ and $Cl^-$ ion seemed to be considered the ions causing toxicity in effluent. Toxicity from some categories of industries (Mining of non-metallic minerals, Manufacture of basic organic petrochemicals, Manufacture of other basic organic chemicals, Manufacture of other chemical products etc.) seemed to be influenced by salinity. The Ion concentration in influent and effluent were similar. Concentration of $Na^+$, $Cl^-$, $K^+$, $Ca^{2+}$ ions were high in influent, however $Mg^{2+}$ and $SO_4^{2-}$ ions were high in effluent.

Studies on the Separation and Concentration Method of $^{90}Sr$ in the Environmental Samples (환경시료 중 $^{90}Sr$의 분석을 위한 분리농축법 연구)

  • Won, Mi Sook;Cho, Kyu Bong;Yoon, Jang Hee;Lee, Dae Won;Shim, Yoon Bo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2001
  • New process to determine $^{90}Sr$ in the environmental samples was established by investigating the existing methods. The environmental samples included soil, milk, seaweed, fishes and clams, pine needles, and marine sediment. Using the developed method combined with fuming nitric acid and ion exchange resin, which could be reduced the treatment step, we could be removed Ca effectively for the determination of $^{90}Sr$. The recovery yield of $^{90}Sr$ in this method was 10% higher than those of using the fuming nitric acid only. This method could be applied to all environmental samples we choose. The content of $^{90}Sr$ in soil was the highest value in the tested environmental samples.

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A Study on Types and Contents of Asbestos in Bulk Samples (국내 석면 고형시료 중 석면의 종류 및 함유량에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Ho-Chun;Ahn, Sun-Hee;Hong, Jwa-Ryung;Jeon, Bong-Hwan;Lee, Young-Pil;Park, Chung-Yill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.201-208
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: According to the compliance of the asbestos-related regulation, every building has to be inspected for asbestos presence before its abatement work. This study was performed for identifying the types and contents of asbestos in building bulk samples. Materials and Methods: Bulk samples were collected during the asbestos inspection in 2010. We grouped the bulk samples into the regulated asbestos containing materials(RACM), presumed asbestos containing materials(PACM), and construction products. Additionally, the types of asbestos in all bulk samples were identified by polarization microscopy(PLM). Results: The RACMs were from building, house, pipe and facility. The RACMs were found mainly building (72.1%) and house (93.7%). The contents of chrysotile in building, house and facility were 66.9% (1-90%), 89.7% (2-90%) and 11.0% (2-90%), respectively. PACMs were surfacing material, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous material. The miscellaneous materials that showed a high detection rate (79.2%) were ceiling, roofing and wall materials. Among them, the roofing materials had high chrysotile content(9.7%, 2-21%), followed by wall (8.7%, 2-21%) and ceiling (3.4%, 1-17%). In the construction products, asbestos was found mainly in slate (92.6%, 2-21%), including chrysotile. The slate had high asbestos content (9.7%, 2-21%), followed by cement flat board (8.7%, 2-19%) and textile (3.4%, 1-17%) Conclusions: Utilizing these results, it would be contributed to construct a useful ACM database and prevent from asbestos exposure to workers in the asbestos abatement and maintenance works.

Acute Hydrogen Cyanide Poisoning in a Plating Worker and Workplace Measurement (도금 사업장 근로자에게 발생한 시안화수소 급성중독과 작업환경평가)

  • Ham, Seunghon;Choi, Won-Jun;Lee, Junhyung;Lim, Yong su;Kang, Jihyun;Kang, Seong-Kyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.336-342
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    • 2019
  • Introduction: An unexpected death was reported in a beginner immediately after starting the work at a plating factory. After the incident, air sampling was performed using a simulation of the situation as it had been at the time. Methods: To evaluate the airborne concentration of hydrogen cyanide, a total of six samples were collected: one personal sample, three area samples, and two background samples (office and outdoors). Hydrogen cyanide measurement was performed according to the standard sampling protocol recommended by the U.S. NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health). Results: The highest concentration of hydrogen cyanide was 0.938 ppm measured in a sample collected from the plating bath area with local exhaust ventilation. This value was approximately 20% of the ceiling occupational exposure limit. The personal sample showed a concentration of 0.135 ppm. Samples collected near the bath in which the incident occurred and a dehydrator showed hydrogen cyanide concentrations of 0.236 ppm and 0.101 ppm, respectively. Hydrogen cyanide was not detected in the background samples (office and outdoors). Conclusions: It is necessary to use proper ventilation systems and respirators in plating factories to prevent acute poisoning. Furthermore, it is important to educate and train new workers dealing with toxic substances.