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Radium Isotope Ratio as a Tracer for Estimating the Influence of Changjiang Outflow to the Northern Part of the East China Sea (라듐 동위원소 방사능비를 추적자로 사용한 동중국해 북부 해역에서 장강 유출수의 영향 추정)

  • Kim, Kee-Hyun;Kim, Seung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2009
  • In order to understand the present environmental condition and future impingement of Changjiang(Yangtze River) outflow upon the adjacent seas after the scheduled completion of the Sanxia (Three Gorges) Dam in 2009, we tried to estimate the mixing ratios among surface waters of three end-members: Changjiang Water (CW), Kuroshio Water (KW), and East China Sea Water (ECSW) using $^{228}Ra/^{226}Ra$ activity ratio and salinity as tracers. Water samples were collected from 32 stations in November 2005 (R/V Tamgu 3), from 20 stations in July 2006 (R/V Ocean 2000) and from 17 stations in August 2006 (R/V Ieodo) in the northern part of the East China Sea. Radium isotopes in ~300 liters of surface seawater were extracted onboard by filtering through manganese impregnated acrylic fibers and following coprecipitation as $Ba(Ra)SO_4$. Activities of radium isotopes were determined by a high purity germanium detector. Results show that the fraction of CW was in the range of 1-23% in the study area, while KW was in the range of 0-30 % and ECSW 58-100 %. The eastward plume of Changjiang outflow, commonly observed in satellite images during summer and also displayed by the eastward-decreasing CW fraction in this study, could be attributed to Ekman transport caused by the SE monsoon prevailing in this region during summer. Results of this study showed that in the drought season, there was a little or no fraction of CW in the study area. Concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) showed strong positive relationship with the fraction of CW, suggesting Changjiang as the major source of nitrogen. The mixing curve of DIN indicates the removal of nitrate by biological uptake during the mixing of CW with ambient seawater in the study area.

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Microbiological Hazard Analysis and Verification of Critical Control Point (CCP) in a Fresh-Cut Produce Processing Plant -Case Study of a Fresh-Cut Leaf Processing Plant- (신선편이 농산물 가공업체의 미생물학적 위해 요소 분석 및 중점 관리 지점(CCP)의 검증 -신선편이 엽채류 가공업체를 대상으로-)

  • Kim, Su-Jin;Sun, Shih-Hui;Min, Kyung-Jin;Yoon, Ki-Sun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.392-400
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    • 2011
  • The objectives of this study were to analyze environmental microbial contamination levels by sampling the surfaces of processing lines and equipment and to verify CCPs of the HACCP plan in a fresh-cut produce processing plant The level of airborne microorganisms in the processing plant was $10^1$ log CFU/plate/15min. Total plate counts and coliform groups of the processing facilities were 1~2 log CFU/100 $cm^2$. No E. coli or S. aureus were detected in the processing plant. However, total plate counts on the cutting board for raw materials and on the spin-dryer were $4.20{\pm}2.12$ log CFU/$cm^2$ and $4.57{\pm}0.92$ log CFU/$cm^2$, respectively. These levels were higher than the safe microbial level, and therefore, the chance of cross-contamination during processing was increased. According to the results of microbiological analyses, total aerobic bacteria and coliform groups of the samples were increased after the second washing and spin-drying steps, due to cross-contamination from the spin-dryer. Thus, an effective method that can be used for microbial control during the washing and drying steps is needed for microbial control in fresh-cut produce processing plants. The results of a verification study also suggest that modification of the HACCP plan is needed along with additional CPs, which were identified as a second washing, spin drying, and the cold storage of final products.

The Potential Acid Sulfate Soils Criteria by the Relation between Total-Sulfur and Net Acid Generation (전황함량과 순산발생능력의 상관관계를 통한 잠재특이산성토양 기준 설정)

  • Moon, Yonghee;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Hyun, Byung-Keun;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu;Park, Chan-Won;Song, Kwan-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.904-909
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    • 2012
  • Acid sulfate soil (ASS) and potential acid sulfate soil (PASS) are distribution in worldwide and originate from sedimentary process, volcanic activity, or metamorphism and are problematic in agriculture and environmental due to their present and potential acidity developed by the oxidation. The PASS was defined as soil materials that had sulfidic layer more than 20 cm thick within 4 m of the soil profile and contained more than 0.15% of total-sulfur (T-S). A tentative interpretative soil classification system was proposed weak potential acid sulfate (T-S, 0.15-0.5%), moderate potential acid sulfate (T-S, 0.5-0.75%) and strong potential acid sulfate (T-S, more than 0.75%). PASS due to excess of pyrite over soil neutralizing capacity are formed. It provides no information on the kinetic rates of acid generation or neutralization; therefore, the test procedures used in acid base account (ABA) are referred to as static procedures. The net acid generation (NAG) test is a direct method to measure the ability of the sample to produce acid through sulfide oxidation and also provides and indication. The NAG test can evaluated easily whether the soils is PASS. The samples are mixed sandy loam and the PAS from the hydrothermal altered andesite (1:3, 1:8, 1:16, 1:20, 1:40, 1:80 and 1:200 ratios) in this study. We could find out that the NAG pH of the soil containing 0.75% of T-S was 2.5, and that of the soil has 0.15% of T-S was 3.8. NAG pH test can be proposed as soil classification criteria for the potential acid sulfate soils. The strong type has NAG pH of 2.5, the moderate one has NAG pH of 3.0, and the weak one has NAG pH of 3.5.

Carbon Storage and Uptake by Deciduous Tree Species for Urban Landscape (도시 낙엽성 조경수종의 탄소저장 및 흡수)

  • Jo, Hyun-Kil;Ahn, Tae-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.160-168
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    • 2012
  • This study generated regression models to estimate the carbon storage and uptake from the urban deciduous landscape trees through a direct harvesting method, and established essential information to quantify carbon reduction from urban greenspace. Tree species for the study included Acer palmatum, Zelkova serrata, Prunus yedoensis, and Ginkgo biloba, which are usually planted as urban landscape trees. Tree individuals for each species were sampled reflecting various diameter sizes at a given interval. The study measured biomass for each part including the roots of sample trees to compute the total carbon storage per tree. Annual carbon uptake per tree was quantified by analyzing radial growth rates of stem samples at breast height. The study then derived a regression model easily applicable in estimating carbon storage and uptake per tree for the 4 species by using diameter at breast height(dbh) as an independent variable. All the regression models showed high fitness with $r^2$ values of 0.94~0.99. Carbon storage and uptake per tree and their differences between diameter classes increased as the diameter sizes got larger. The carbon storage and uptake tended to be greatest with Zelkova serrata in the same diameter sizes, followed by Prunus yedoensis and Ginkgo biloba in order. A Zelkova serrata tree with 15cm in dbh stored about 54kg of carbon and annually sequestered 7 kg, based on a regression model for the species. The study has broken new grounds to overcome limitations of the past studies which substituted, due to a difficulty in direct cutting and root digging of urban landscape trees, coefficients from the forest trees such as biomass expansion factors, ratios of below ground/above ground biomass, and diameter growth rates. Study results can be useful as a tool or skill to evaluate carbon reduction by landscape trees in urban greenspace projects of the government.

Chemical Compositions of Sewage Sludges and Nitrogen Mineralization in Sewage Sludge Applied Soil (하수오니의 화학적 조성과 토양중 질소 무기화)

  • Park, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Heon;Yoo, Sun-Ho;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 1998
  • Swage sludge cakes produced from domestic wastewater treatment plants were collected from 21 different sites throughout Korea, and chemical properties of the sludge samples were determined. Inorganic nutrient contents did not indicate great differences among swage sludges from each sites, whereas the toxic heavy metal contents differed greatly. T-N, $NH_4{^+}-N$ and $NO_3{^-}-N$ contents from 21 sites sludges ranged 2.3-6.0, 291-4284, $1.4-58.8mg\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contents ranged 2.86-58.22, 144.0-5417.3, N.D.-943.5, and $N.D.-8,083mg\;kg^{-1}$, respectively. One of the sludges was treated to soils at rates of 12.5, 25, 50. and 100, $Mg\;ha^{-1}$ and incubated for 12 weeks to determine nitrogen materialization rate. Ammoniun nitrogen content decreased sharply at higher rates of sludge treatment up to 8 weeks after treatment and did not change much, while $NO_3{^-}$ increased at all treatment levels. The net amount of mineralized N of sludge treatment rates (12.5, 25, 50, and $100Mg\;ha^{-1}$) during 12weeks incubation were 189.0, 277.2, 303.8 and $376.6mg\;kg^{-1}$.

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Ecology of the Macrozoobenthos in Chinhae Bay, Korea 3. Community Structure (진해만 저서동물의 군집생태 3. 군집구조)

  • LIM Hyun-Sig;HONG Jae-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.175-187
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    • 1997
  • Benthic community structure was studied in Chinhae Bay during 3 years from June 1987 to May 1990, based on the samples from 12 stations on the seasonal, bimonthly or monthly basis (lim and Hong, 1994a, b). A total of 287 species was sampled with mean density of $1045.5\;ind./m^2$ and biomass of $98.48g/m^2$ during studyperiods. Of these species, there were 91 species of crustaceans $(31.7\%)$, 88 of polychaetes $(30.7\%)$, 56 of molluscs $(19.5\%)$, 22 of echinoderms and 30 of the micellaneous species. Polychaetes were density-dominant faunal group with a density of $824.7\;ind./m^2$, comprising of $18.6\%$ of the total density of the benthic animals. It was followed by molluscs with $14.62\;ind./m^2$ $($14.4\%\;of\;the\;total\;density)$ crustaceans with $50.5\;ind/m^2\;(4.6\%)$ and echinoderms with $13.4\;ind/m^2\;(4.6\%)$. Molluscs were the biomass-dominant faunal group with a mean biomass of $54.62\;g/m^2$. It was followed by polychaetes with $21.74\;g/m^2$ and echinoderms with $6.66\;g/m^2$. Based on community analysis, species richness, diversity and evenness showed decreasing trends toward the inner bay from outer stations, whereas dominance showed increasing. The three most dominant species Lumbrineris longifolia, Paraprionospio pinnata and Theora fragilis had densities over $40\%$ of the total density of benthic organisms in Chinhae Bay. Seasonal changes of benthic communities in the inner bay were high compared to those of the outer bay. It was mainly due to the occurrence of hypoxic condition in the inner area of the bay. Cluster analysis showed that the benthic community could be divided into four stational groups, that is, Group 1, the innermost area, which received the most heavy anthropogenic effects including seawage and waste water, Group II, the central area of the bay, Group III, the transitional area, Group IV, the mouth pan of the bay exposed to the open sea. The areal groups based on the environmental factors coincided with the zonal groups from the species composition. This fact suggests that the overall spatial distribution of macrobenthos in Chinhae Bay was controlled by the sediment organic carbon content of the bay.

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Health Assessment for Glass Fibre Landfill at Gozan-dong, Inchon (인천시 고잔동에서 제기된 유리섬유에 의한 건강피해 역학 조사)

  • Cho, Soo-Hun;Ju, Yeong-Su;Kim, Kyung-Ryul;Lee, Kang-Kun;Hong, Kug-Sun;Eun, Hee-Chul;Song, Dong-Bin;Hong, Jae-Woong;Kwon, Ho-Jang;Ha, Mi-Na;Han, Sang-Hwan;Seong, Joo-Heon;Kang, Jong-Won
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.77-101
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    • 1997
  • In September 1994, residents of Gozan-dong, Incheon City, made a petition to the government about their health problems which might be caused by previous glass fibre landfill nearby 'H' company. In february 1995, at regular academic meeting of occupational and environmental medicine, a research team of 'D' University presented that they had found glass fibres in groundwater of the area through their survey. They were suspicious of probable association between ingestion of groundwater contaminated with glass fibres and skin tumors among residents. A joint research team was formed and carried out the survey of environment concerning groundwater and its glass fibre existence, and health assessment of residents in the area and industrial workers of 'H' company during May to November, 1995. Analysis of groundwater flow system indicates that the flow lines from the glass fibre landfill pass through or terminate at the 6 houses around the landfill. This means that the groundwater of the 6 houses around the glass fibre landfill could be affected by some possible contaminants from the landfill, but the groundwater quality of the other houses was irrelevant to the landfill. The qualitative and qualitative analyses for glass fibres in 54 groundwater samples including those from the nearby 6 houses, were carried out using SEM equipped with EDS, resulting in no evidence for the presence of glass fibres in the waters. Major precipitates, formed in waters while boiling, were identified as calcium carbonates, in particulary, aragonites in needle form. The results of health assessments of 889 residents in Gozan-dong, participated in this study, showed statistically significant differences in past medical histories of skin tumor and respiratory disease between the exposed group (31 persons who inhabited in 6 houses around the landfill) and the control group, but no significant differences in past medical histories of other diseases, such as cancer mortality, current gastroscopic findings, current skin diseases and respiratory diseases, etc. Also, we could not prove any glass fibres in excised specimens of 9 skin tumors in both groups and there were no health problems possibly associated with glass fibres in employees of the 'H' company. After all, we could not authenticate the association, raised by prior investigators, between groundwater streams, assumedly contaminated with glass fibres or not, and specific disease morbidities or common disease/symptom prevalences. That is, we could not find any glass fibres in groundwater as the only exposure factor of this study hypothesis, and there were not enough certain evidences such as increasing disease prevalences, for examples, skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases etc, possibly related to glass fibre exposure, in exposed group. As a matter of course, the conditions for confirming causal association, for example, strength of the association, consistency of the association, specificity of the association, temporality of the association and dose-response relationship etc, have not been satisfied. In conclusion, we were not able to certify the hypothesis that contamination of groundwater with glass fibres might cause any hazardous health effects in residents who used it for drinking.

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Community Structure of Macrobenthos in the Subtidal Soft Bottom in Semi- enclosed Youngsan River Estuarine Bay, Southwest Coast of Korea (반폐쇄적인 영산강 하구역 조하대 연성저질의 저서동물 군집)

  • LIM Hyun-Sig;PARK Kyung-Yang
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.320-332
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    • 1999
  • Investigations were made on the community structure of macrobenthos in the subtidal soft bottom around semi-enclosed Youngsan River estuarine bay, southwest coast of Korea during the period from April 1995 to February 1996. Three macrobenthos samples were collected at 40 stations using a van Veen grab(0.1 m^2) during the study period. A total of 206 species of macrobenthos was identified. Their mean density and biomass (wet-weight, wwt) were $1,137 ind./m^2$ and $65.28 gwwt/m^2$, respectively. Of these, there were 74 species of polychaetes ($36\%$), 60 molluscs ($39\%$), 51 crustaceans ($25\%$) and 21 miscellaneous taxa. Molluscs were represented as a density- and biomass-dominant faunal group with a mean density of $601 ind./m^2$($53\%$ of the total benthic animals) and biomass of $25.37 gwwt/m^2$($39\%$ of total biomass): It was followed by polychaetes with $405 ind./m^2$($40\%$ of the total density). Total number of species and diversity were Bow in the inner estuarine bay containing high mud content and organic matter, whereas they were high in the outer stations containing low mud content and organic matter. Major dominant species were one biralve, Theora fragilis and three Polychaetes, Tharyx sp., Poeciloceatus johnonni and Lumbrineris lontifolia whose mean densities were $490ind./m^2$, $96ind./m^2$, $74ind./m^2$and $52 ind./m^2$, respectively. Cluster analysis indicated that the study area could be divided into four station groups: two innermost station groups, a central bay and an outer station group. The species diversity increased from the inner station group toward the outer groups. These results were discussed in terms of both the environmental factors and distribution of benthic community.

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Variations in Ammonium Removal Rate with Tidal State in the Macrotidal Han River Estuary: Potential Role of Nitrification (한강기수역에서의 암모늄 제거율 변화 및 질산화의 잠재적 역할)

  • Hyun, Jung-Ho;Chung, Kyung-Ho;Park, Yong-Chul;Choi, Joong-Ki
    • The Sea
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 1999
  • In order to understand the importance of tidal action and $NH_4{^+}$ -nitrification in the removal of dissolved oxygen (DO) and $NH_4{^+}$, concentrations of DO, $NH_4{^+}$, $NO_2{^-}$ and $NO_3{^-}$ were measured with time for water samples collected at different tidal state in the eutrophic macrotidal Han River estuary. Field measurements indicated that most environmental parameters, except for the water temperature and DO concentration, were tightly controlled by the eutrophic freshwater runoff and large-scale tidal action. Dark incubation of the water sample at $25^{\circ}C$ showed that the removal rates of DO and $NH_4{^+}$ in high tide sample were 2.76 ${\mu}M\;O_2\;d^{-1}$ and 1.76 ${\mu}M\;N\;d^{-1}$ respectively, and increased to 5.66 ${\mu}M\;O_2\;d^{-1}$ and 3.36 ${\mu}M\;N\;d^{-1}$ respectively, in low tide sample. These changes indicated that microbial degradation and uptake of organic matter and inorganic nutrients were more active during low tide. $NH_4{^+}$-nitrification responsible for total DO removal in low tide (23.81%) and $NH_4{^+}$ turnover rates due to $NH_4{^+}$-nitrification in low tide (0.18 $d^{-1}$) were approximately 3.7 times and 3 times, respectively, higher than those in high tide. These results indicated that $NH_4{^+}$ -nitrifying bacteria introduced into the Han River estuary during low tide played a significant role in the removal of DO and $NH_4{^+}$. The decreasing removal rates in DO and $NH_4{^+}$ with the increasing tidal level seemed to be associated with the salinity impact on the halophobic freshwater $NH_4{^+}$-nitrifying bacteria. The results implied that anthropogenic $NH_4{^+}$ sources should be treated prior to the freshwater runoff into the estuary for the effective control of $NH_4{^+}$ in the Han River estuary. These results also suggest that parallel ecological studies on the chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria are essential for the elucidation of nitrogen cycles in the eutrophic Han River estuary.

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Morphological characteristics and genetic diversity of Calanthe species native to Korea (한국 자생 새우난초의 형태적 특성 및 유전적 다양성)

  • Cho, Dong-Hoon;Choi, Young-Whan;Kang, Jum-Soon;Lee, Yong-Jae;Choi, In-Soo;Lee, Young-Geun;Jee, Sun-Ok;Kim, Kyung-Min;Son, Beung-Gu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.312-317
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to research the morphological characteristics and analyze the genetic diversity by using RAPD in Calanthe species native to Korea. Nine samples were selected by flower color and 19 morphological characteristics. In the length and width of leaf, dorsal sepal, the lateral sepal, the petal, the central lip, and the lateral lip, C. discolor was the shortest and narrowest, respectively, but C. sieboldii was the longest and the widest, respectively. The flower stalk length was the shortest in C. discolor, and the longest in C. sieboldii. Three variants were the intermediate between C. discolor and C. sieboldii in the above morphological characteristics, but spur length was the longest in C. discolor, the shortest in C. sieboldii, and intermediate in the variants. The ovary length in C. discolor was shortest and C. sieboldii and variants were similar with each other. The flower color of C. discolor were brownish red, the value of CIE Lab was between 40 and 50. The flower color of C. sieboldii was yellowish, the value of CIE Lab was between 110 and 130. And variants had various colors between 50 to 70 in the value of CIE Lab. By analyzing multiple band patterns of PCR products, 154 bands were selected as polymorphic RAPD markers. The analysis of genetic similarity of Calanther species using RAPD showed that C. discolor and C. sieboldii are more distant from each other than variants, and these results demonstrated that genetic position of variants located between C. discolor and C. sieboldii.