• Title, Summary, Keyword: environmental samples

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Concentrations and Distributions of 5 Metals in Groundwater Based on Geological Features in South Korea

  • Jeon, Sang-Ho;Park, Sunhwa;Song, Da-Hee;Hwang, Jong-yeon;Kim, Moon-su;Jo, Hun-Je;Kim, Deok-hyun;Lee, Gyeong-Mi;Kim, Ki-In;Kim, Hye-Jin;Kim, Tae-Seung;Chung, Hyen-Mi;Kim, Hyun-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.357-368
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    • 2017
  • To establish new metal groundwater standard, 5 metals such as aluminum, chromium, iron, manganese, and selenium were evaluated by Chemical Ranking Of groundWater pollutaNts (CROWN) including possibility of exposure, toxicity, interest factor, connection standard for other media, and data reliability. 430 groundwater samples in 2013 and 2014 were collected semiannually from 110 groundwater wells and they were analyzed for selenium, manganese, iron, chromium, and aluminum. For this study, 430 groundwater samples were categorized into 3 geological distribution features, such as igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock region and geological background levels were divided by pre-selection methods. For the results, the average concentrations of aluminum, chromium, iron, manganese, and selenium in 430 groundwater samples were $0.0008mg\;L^{-1}$, $0.0001mg\;L^{-1}$, $0.174mg\;L^{-1}$, $0.083mg\;L^{-1}$, and $0.0004mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. In addition, among various geologies, average concentration of selenium was the highest in igneous rock region, average concentrations of chromium, manganese and aluminum were the greatest in sedimentary rock region, and average concentration of iron was the most high in metamorphic rock region. As a result of the geological background concentration with pre-selection method, background concentrations of selenium and aluminum in groundwater samples were the highest from sedimentary rock as $0.0010mg\;L^{-1}$ and $0.0029mg\;L^{-1}$ and background concentrations of manganese and iron in groundwater samples were the greatest from metamorphic rock as $0.460mg\;L^{-1}$ and $1.574mg\;L^{-1}$, and no chromium background concentration in groundwater samples was found from all geology.

A study of asbestos risk at some naturally occurring asbestos areas, Korea (우리나라 일부 자연발생석면 발생가능지역의 석면 위해도에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Joon Sig;Shim, In Keun;Jung, Hyen Sung;Lee, Kyu Mok;Kim, Seong Mi;Kwon, Myung Hee;Chung, Hyen Mi
    • Journal of odor and indoor environment
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.330-336
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether crops and fruits absorb the naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). The concentration of asbestos in various crops and fruits grown in NOA areas was analyzed and background levels of asbestos in ambient air and soil samples were assessed. Actinolite/Tremolite asbestos were detected in all soil samples. Among 21 ambient air samples, 2 samples were recorded to contain 0.0005 f/cc (fiber per cubic centimeter) but no asbestos was detected in the other samples using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, no evidence suggesting that the crops and fruits could be contaminated by NOA was found in this study. The excess lifetime cancer risks (ELCRs) of ABS scenarios (agricultural activities) used in this study were calculated by using the Arithmetic (AM) and Geometric mean (GM) of ELCRs. The AM and GM of ELCRs estimated from digging soil and weeding activities did not exceed $1{\times}10^{-4}$, which was defined as the general acceptable risk range for exposure. The results of this study would be informative to NOA managers and related policy makers to make plans to prevent unexpected exposure to asbestos to residents living in an NOA area.

Health risk assessment for radon of groundwater in Korea

  • Kim, Yeshin;Kim, Jinyong;Park, Hoasung;Park, Soungeun;Dongchun Shin
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Environmental Toocicology Conference
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    • pp.170-170
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    • 2003
  • An initial study has been conducted with Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral resources and National Institute of Environment Research to evaluate the distribution of radon levels and their risk levels of groundwater in Korea. Probability distribution of 616 samples was log-normal one with 1,867pCi/L as arithmetic value, 920pCi/L as median and 40,010pCi/L as maximum during iou. years(1999-2002). In addition, 10% of total samples are in excess of 4,000pCi/L, 20% in excess of 2,700pCi/L, and 30% in excess of 1,700pCi/L, and 15 samples exceeds 10,000pCi/L. Total samples are grouped into 10 areas and 5 rocks unit, and difference of concentrations among areas and rocks are statistically significant(respectively, p<0.0001). The highest area is Daejeon located in ogcheon metamorphic rocks and granitic rocks, and most of all sites with high concentration sites are located in granitic rocks. The lowest area is Jeju located in volcanic rocks. We have estimated excess cancer risks of radon based on these data. To estimate risks, first of all, use patterns of groundwater are categorized with 6 groups: for drinking, household, farming, washing cars, raising stock, and others. We considered risk only for drinking water and household water because radon is rapidly dispersed before it of other use reach human respiratory organs. We select 565 samples for risk analysis, and applied unit risk which is 6.6210-7 per pCi/L to be recommended by NAS committee. Unit risk was derived from considering radon ingestion and radon inhalation from water use. When estimating risk, we analyzed PDF of concentration and represented risk as 50 and 95 percentile values to consider uncertainty with Monte-Carlo simulation. It results in 10-4 level of their excess cancer risk and in 10-2 level in some areas with high concentration of radon. It must be monitor periodically and take adequate actions in these risky sites. We recommend that it needs to take more survey and finally set guideline for radon regulation in groundwater.

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Concentration and Environmental Loading of Veterinary Antibiotics in Agricultural Irrigation Ditches

  • Kim, Sung-Chul;Chung, Doug Young;Kim, Kye Hoon;Lee, Ja Hyun;Kim, Hyo Kyung;Yang, Jae E.;Ok, Yong Sik;Almarwei, Yaser A.O.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.867-876
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    • 2012
  • The concentration of veterinary antibiotics in aqueous and sediment matrices was measured in agricultural irrigation ditches bordering several animal-feeding operations (AFOs) and then compared to its concentration in the watershed. Analytical determination in aqueous samples was based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and appropriate buffer solutions were used to extract residuals in sediment samples. Separation and detection of extracted veterinary antibiotics were performed with high performance liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). In general, higher concentrations of antibiotic were observed in the aqueous phase of irrigation ditches, with the highest concentration of erythromycin hydrochloride (ETM-$H_2O$) of $0.53{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$, than in aqueous watershed samples. In contrast, higher concentrations were measured in river sediment than in irrigation ditch sediment with the highest concentration of oxytetracycline of $110.9{\mu}g\;kg^{-1}$. There was a high calculated correlation ( > 0.95) between precipitation and measured concentration in aqueous samples from the irrigation ditches for five of the ten targeted veterinary antibiotics, indicating that surface runoff could be an important transport mechanism of veterinary antibiotics from field to environment. Further, environmental loading calculation based on measured concentrations in aqueous samples and flow information clearly showed that irrigation ditches were 18 times greater than river. This result suggests the likelihood that veterinary antibiotics can be transported via irrigation ditches to the watershed. The transport via surface runoff and likely environmental loading via irrigation ditches examined in this study helps identify the pathway of veterinary antibiotics residuals in the environment.

Determination of the Concentration and Isotope Ratio of Uranium in Soil and Water by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry

  • Park, Jong-Ho;Park, Sujin;Song, Kyuseok
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.12-15
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    • 2014
  • Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was used to determine the concentration and isotope ratio of uranium contained in samples of soil and groundwater collected from Korea. Quantification of uranium in ground water samples was performed by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. A series of chemical treatment processes, including chemical separation using extraction chromatography, was applied to the soil samples to extract the uranium. No treatments other than filtration were applied to the groundwater samples. Isotopic analyses by TIMS showed that the isotope ratios of uranium in both the soil and water samples were indistinguishable from those of naturally abundant uranium. The concentration of uranium in the groundwater samples was within the U.S. acceptable standards for drinking water. These results demonstrate the utility of TIMS for monitoring uranium in environmental samples with high analytical reliability.

Implementation of Quad Variable Rates ADPCM Speech CODEC on C6000 DSP considering the Environmental Noise (배경잡음을 고려한 4배 가변 압축률을 갖는 ADPCM의 C6000 DSP 실시간 구현)

  • Kim Dae-Sung;Han Kyong-ho
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.727-729
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, we proposed quad variable rates ADPCM coding method and its implementation on C6000 DSP, which is modified from the standard ADPCM of ITU G.726 for speech quality improvement considering the environmental noise Four coding rates, 16Kbps, 24Kbps, 32Kbps and 40Kbps are used for speech window samples and the rate decision threshold is decided by the environmental noise level. The object of the proposed method is to reduce the coding rate while retaining the speech quality and the speech quality is considerably close to 40Kbps single rate coder with the coding rate close to 16Kbps single rate coder under the environmental noise. The environmental noise level affects the coding rate and the noise level is calculated per every speech window samples. At high noise level, more samples are coded at higher rates to enhance the quality, but at low noise level, only the big speech signals are coded at higher rates and more speech samples are coded at lower coding rates to reduce the coding rates. The influence of the noise on tile speech signal is considerably high for small signals and the small signal has the higher ZCR (zero crossing rate). The method is simulated in PC and to be implemented on C6000 floating point DSP board in real time operations.

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Heavy metal profiles of agricultural soils in Sakarya, Turkey

  • Isleyen, Mehmet;Akpinar, Aysegul;Eren, Beytullah;Ok, Gulsun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.427-433
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    • 2019
  • Sakarya is famous for cucurbit productions in Turkey and cucurbits can grow as big as 560 kg of weight per fruit in its agricultural areas. There is no or limited information about contaminant levels and profiles of the agricultural fields in Sakarya. The purpose of this study is to investigate the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene) and heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn) concentrations of the selected fields. Total 33 soil samples were collected from 12 counties of Sakarya where both cucurbits have been produced and organochlorine pesticides have been applied to the fields for more than 30 y during the historical plantation periods. Heavy metal and PAH contents in the soil samples were measured by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy and a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The highest phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene concentrations were measured as 63.50 ng/g, 134.34 ng/g, 140.0 ng/g, respectively in the soil samples from Geyve County. Cu, Ni, and Cr concentrations were measured as 108.2 mg/kg, 219.9 mg/kg, and 173.1 mg/kg, respectively in Geyve's samples which were also the highest and 2-7 times more than the limit values given in the Turkish Soil Pollution Control Regulation. Precautions need to be taken for Sakarya's agricultural fields which are an important milestone of Turkey's cucurbit and fruit productions since the contaminants can be accumulated in the fruits and edible parts of the plants.

Exposure of Selected Chuncheon Residents to Trace Metals and Inorganic Anions in Drinking Water (춘천지역 일부 주민들의 먹는물 중 미량금속 및 무기 음이온에 대한 노출)

  • Kim, He-Kap;Song, Jin-A;Song, Byeong-Yeol
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.293-301
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of the concentrations of selected trace metals and inorganic anions in five types of drinking water samples (mineral spring water, well water, small community water, municipal tap water, and commercial mineral water) collected from Chuncheon, Gangwon-do in 2007. Forty four samples were analyzed for five metals and five anions using an atomic absorption spectrometer and an ion chromatograph, respectively. Arsenic (As) and nitrate (${NO_3}^-$) concentrations in some groundwater samples did not meet the future (10 ${\mu}g/L$) and current (44 mg/L) Korean drinking water standards, respectively. On the other hand, any municipal tap water samples, the sources of which were lake surface water, satisfied the Korean standards. Human health risk assessment results showed that arsenic in all types of water, especially groundwater including commercial mineral water, may pose both noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects on the residents. It is concluded that groundwater is not safe drinking water any longer and that a national survey and follow-up measures need to be taken.

Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Agricultural Waterways in Chungbuk and Gyeongbuk Provinces in Korea

  • Kim, Leesun;Lee, Jong-Hwa;Kim, Jeong-Han;Lee, Sung-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2018
  • An efficient, quick and low-cost extraction and clean up method for the determination of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the agricultural water samples was optimized using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The extraction of the target compounds in water sample was carried out with acetonitrile, followed by partitioning promoted by the addition of salt. As a clean-up procedure, dispersive solid phase extraction was employed to purify the analytes of interest for GC-MS/MS analysis. This method was successfully applied for the quantification of PAHs in real water samples collected for the purpose of monitoring from the waterways located in Chungbuk (15 sites) and Gyeongbuk (6 sites), S. Korea. Phenanthrene (0.54 to $2.53{\mu}gL^{-1}$) was detected in all the water samples collected from both the sites. Fluoranthene was detected in the water samples collected from the two sites in Gyeongbuk province, but other PAHs were not determined in these water sampling sites. Based on these results, the determined PAHs were conducted using an environmental risk assessment. The risk characterization ratios (RCRs) for phenanthrene ranged from 0.37 to 3.21. These RCR values referred to as risk was not controlled because RCR values of some sites were greater than 1. In conclusion, it is proposed that the optimized method in combination with GC-MS/MS could be successfully employed for the determination of PAHs in any environmental samples including water samples.

CHROMIUM LEACHABILITY FROM STABILIZED/SOLIDIFIED SOILS UNDER MODIFIED SEMI-DYNEMIC LEACHING CONDITIONS

  • Moon, Deok-Hyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.294-305
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    • 2005
  • The effectiveness of fly ash-, quicklime-, and quicklime-fly ash-based stabilization/solidification(S/S) in chromium(Cr) contaminated soils was investigated using modified semi-dynamic leaching tests. Artificial soil samples composed of kaolinite or montmorillonite contaminated with chromium nitrate(4000 mg $Cr^{3+}\;kg^{-1}$ of solid) were prepared and then subjected to S/S treatment using quicklime, fly ash, or quick lime-fly ash. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by assessing the cumulative fraction of leached $Cr^{3+}$ as well as, by computing the effective diffusivity ($D_e$) and the leachability index (LX) of the treated samples. The reduction in $Cr^{3+}$ release for the untreated samples was more pronounced in the presence of montmorillonite, which was attributed to sorption. Treatment with quicklime, fly ash, or quick lime-fly ash was significantly effective in reducing $Cr^{3+}$ release most probably due to the formation of pozzolanic reaction products and $Cr(OH)_3$ precipitation. The most effective treatment was observed in montmorillonite-sand soil samples treated with quicklime-fly ash (99.8% removal). The mean $D_e$ decreased significantly and the mean LX was greater than 9 for all treated samples, indicating that the treated soils were acceptable for "controlled utilization". The mechanism controlling $Cr^{3+}$ leaching from all treated samples during the first 5 days appeared to be diffusion.