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Determining the reuse of metal mine wastes based on leaching test and human health risk assessment

  • Ju, Won Jung;Hwang, Sun Kyung;Jho, Eun Hea;Nam, Kyoungphile
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.82-90
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    • 2019
  • Meeting the regulations based on the short-term leaching tests may not necessarily assure the environmental and human health safety of reusing mine wastes. This study investigated heavy metal leachability of four metal mine waste samples (e.g., Z, Y, H, and M) and human health risk of reusing them as construction materials. The heavy metal leachability did not depend on the total heavy metal contents. For example, the Z sample contained greater amounts of As and Fe than Zn, but the leachates contained only Zn at a detectable level. This can be attributed to the crystalline structure and heavy metal fractions of the mine wastes. The leaching test results suggested that the four mine waste samples are potentially reusable. But the Z and M samples reused in industrial areas imposed carcinogenic risks. This was largely attributed to As that is exposed via dermal contact. The Y and H samples reused in residential areas imposed carcinogenic risk. The major exposure route was the ingestion of crops grown on the mine wastes and Cr was the major concern. The two-stage assessment involving leaching tests and risk assessment can be used to promote safe reuse of mine wastes.

Assessment of Environmental Radioactivity Surveillance Results around Korean Nuclear Power Utilization Facilities in 2017

  • Kim, Cheol-Su;Lee, Sang-Kuk;Lee, Dong-Myung;Choi, Seok-Won
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2019
  • Background: Government conducts environmental radioactivity surveillance for verification purpose around nuclear facilities based on the Nuclear Safety Law and issues a surveillance report every year. This study aims to evaluate the short and the long-term fluctuation of radionuclides detected above MDC and their origins using concentration ratios between these radionuclides. Materials and Methods: Sample media for verification surveillance are air, rainwater, groundwater, soil, and milk for terrestrial samples, and seawater, marine sediment, fish, and seaweed for marine samples. Gamma-emitting radionuclides including $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, $^3H$, and $^{14}C$ are evaluated in these samples. Results and Discussion: According to the result of the environmental radioactivity verification surveillance in the vicinity of nuclear power facilities in 2017, the anthropogenic radionuclides were not detected in most of the environmental samples except for the detection of a trace level of $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, and $^{131}I$ in some samples. Radioactivity concentration ratios between the anthropogenic radionuclides ($^{137}Cs/^{90}Sr$, $^{137}Cs/^{239+240}Pu$, $^{90}Sr/^{239+240}Pu$) were similar to those reported in the environmental samples, which were affected by the global fallout of the past nuclear weapon test, and Pu atomic ratios ($^{240}Pu/^{239}Pu$) in the terrestrial sample and marine sample showed significant differences due to the different input pathway and the Pu source. Radioactive iodine ($^{131}I$) was detected at the range of < $5.6-190mBq{\cdot}kg-fresh^{-1}$ in the gulfweed and sea trumpet collected from the area of Kori and Wolsong intake and discharge. A high level of $^3H$ was observed in the air (Sangbong: $0.688{\pm}0.841Bq{\cdot}m^{-3}$) and the precipitation (Meteorology Post: $199{\pm}126Bq{\cdot}L^{-1}$) samples of the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP). $^3H$ concentration in the precipitation and pine needle samples showed typical variation pattern with the distance and the wind direction from the stack due to the gaseous release of $^3H$ in Wolsong NPP. Conclusion: Except for the detection of a trace level of $^{137}Cs$, $^{90}Sr$, Pu, and $^{131}I$ in some samples, anthropogenic radionuclides were below MDC in most of the environmental samples. Overall, no unusual radionuclides and abnormal concentration were detected in the 2017's surveillance result for verification. This research will be available in the assessment of environment around nuclear facilities in the event of radioactive material release.

Effect of Bioluminescence Stimulating Agent of the Genetically Engineered Strain KG1206 on the Monitoring of the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Groundwater Samples (발광유전자 재조합 균주 활성 촉진 조건이 석유계 탄화수소 오염지하수 모니터링에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Kyung-Seok;Kong, In-Chul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.79-84
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    • 2008
  • This paper describes the application of bioluminescence stimulating agents on a genetically engineered microorganism, Pseudomonas putida mt-2 KG1206, to monitor toluene analogs using in groundwater samples from petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The maximum bioluminescent response with pure chemicals followed in the order: m-methyl benzyl alchohol > m-toluate > toluene > m-xylene > benzoate > p-xylene > o-xylene. Generally, the bioluminescence production of strain mixed with groundwater samples was dependent on the contaminated total inducer concentrations. However, few samples showed opposite results, where these phenomena may be caused by the complexicity of environmental samples. Two chemicals, SL(sodium lactate) and KNO$_3$, were tested to determine a better bioluminescence stimulant. Both chemicals stimulate the bioluminescence activity of strain KG1206, however, a slightly high bioluminescence was observed with nitrogen chemical. This selected stimulant was then tested on samples collected from contaminated groundwater samples. The bioluminescence activity of all samples mixed with the strain was stimulated with KNO$_3$ amendment. This suggests that the low bioluminescence activity exhibited by the environmental groundwater samples can be stimulated by amending the culture with a proper agent, such as nitrogen compound. These findings would be useful, especially, when strain was used to monitor the groundwater samples contaminated with low inducer contaminants. Overall, the results of this study found the ability of bioluminescence producing bacteria to biosensor a specific group of environmental contaminants, and suggest the potential for more efficient preliminary application of this engineered strain in a field-ready bioassay.

Applications of Hydrochemical Models for the Assessment of Groundwater

  • Hwang, Jong Yeon;Park, Sunhwa;Kim, Moon-Su;Jo, Hun-Je;Lee, Gyeong-Mi;Shin, In Kyu;Jeon, Sang Ho;Song, Da Hee;Kim, Deok-Hyun;Kim, Tae-Seung;Chung, Hyen Mi;Kim, Hyun-Koo
    • Journal of The Korea Society For Environmental Analysis
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.156-173
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we focused on the evaluation and comparison of the physico-chemical characteristics and distribution of cations and anions in groundwater sampled from 2015 (485 samples) to 2016 (145 samples) in rural provinces of Korea. The major objectives of this study were as follows: 1) quality assessment of groundwater for special usage, such as agricultural or industrial applications; 2) the determination of groundwater types; and 3) the tracing of ion sources in groundwater. The assessment of the groundwater qualities from 2015 (n=480 samples) to 2016 (n=145 samples)) for agricultural usages were conducted using SAR (Sodium Adsorption Ratio), Na(%), RSC (Residual Sodium Carbonate), PI (Permeability Index), SSP (Soluble Sodium Percent), MH (Magnesium Hazard), KR (Kelly's Ratio) and PS (Potential soil Salinity). Furthermore, the results of samples in 2015 were classified as SAR [Excellent (100%)], Sodium [(Excellent (34%), Good (55%), Permissible (9%), Doubtful (1.6%), Unsuitable (0.4%)], RSC [(Good (95.7%), Medium (3.5%), Bad (0.8%)], PI [(Excellent (40.6%), Good (59%), Unsuitable (0.4%)], SSP [(Excellent (26.3%), Good (59.8%), Fair (13.1%), Poor (0.8%)], MH [(Acceptable (94.4%), Non-Acceptable (5.6%)], and Kelly's Ratio [(Permissible (93%), Non-Permissible (7%)], PS [(Excellent to Good (98%), Good to Injurious (1.2%), and Injurious to Unsatisfactory (0.2%)]. In addition, the groundwater sampled in 2016 was classified as SAR [Excellent (100%)], Sodium [Excellent (2.1%), Good (51.1%), Permissible (39.3%), Doubtful (6.2%), Unsuitable (0.7%)], RSC [Good (100%)], PI [Excellent (100%)], SSP [Excellent (0.7%), Good (37.2%), Fair (61.4%), Poor (0.7%)], MH [Acceptable (96.6%), Non-Acceptable (3.4%)], KR [Permissible (69.7%), (Non-Permissible (30.3%)], and PS [Excellent to Good (100%)]. Evaluations based on the Wilcox diagram were classified as "excellent to good" or "good to permissible" and the water quality evaluated using the U.S. Salinity Laboratory's Diagram was classified as C1S1 (Excellent/Excellent) and C2S1 (Good/Excellent) for all samples from 2015 to 2016. Moreover, in the application of two factors of the Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Corrosive ratio (CR), we obtained similar results for defining the suitability of groundwater for industrial purposes.

Survey of Chemical and Bacterial Contents in Commercial Life Water (시판 생수의 성분에 관한 조사)

  • 채영주;오수경;박성배
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1989
  • In order for analysis of the actual condition of commercial life water, 38 samples were investigated during March to December in 1988. The results were as follows 1. All the samples analyzed were suitable for physico chemical criteria drinking water. The mean value of NH$_{3}$-N, NO$_{3}$-N, and KMnO$_{4}$ ,consumption were 0.014, 1.232 and 0.794 respectively. 2. General bacterial counts was detected higher than standard limit by 31.6% of total samples and the positive rate of coliform was 2.6% of total samples.

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Radioactivity Analysis for Reliability Assessment in the Environmental Samples (환경 시료 중 신뢰도 검증을 위한 방사능 분석)

  • Kang, Tae-Woo;Hong, Kyung-Ae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.186-191
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this research was to assess the reliability of data and to improve nuclear analytical techniques concerning the Domestic Radioactivity Intercomparison program for environmental radioactivity monitoring of Jeju from 1998 to 2006. Gross beta for filter papers and water samples was determined, and gamma nuclides for natural and artificial nuclides in soil and water samples were analyzed. The gross beta activity of all samples except for the water samples of 1998 and 1999 showed a good agreement within the confidence intervals. In gamma nuclides, $^{40}K$ and $^{137}Cs$ of soil samples and most nuclides in the water samples, with the exception of several nuclides, were evaluated to be reliable. Based on these results, it is considered that a reliable method for the analysis and monitoring of environmental radioactivity were established, which may play an important role in case of emergency radiation accident.

Contamination Levels of Pharmaceuticals and Pesticides in the Gotjawal Regions of Jeju Island and Associated Ecotoxicities (곶자왈 지역의 의약물질과 농약의 오염수준과 생태독성영향)

  • Kang, Ha Byeong;Koh, Su Rim;Choi, Yoonsong;Lee, Sangwoo;Kho, YoungLim;Oh, Dalyoung;Choi, Kyungho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.426-437
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Gotjawal refers to a special geographical designation found in Jeju Province, Korea, where vegetation forms over a rocky area. Due to the important ecological value of Gotjawal, international concern about such areas is growing. However, only limited information is available regarding environmental contamination of Gotjawal. This study was conducted in order to investigate the levels of contamination and associated ecotoxicological effects of surface water bodies in Gotjawal. Methods: Surface water samples were collected at three sampling sites in two Gotjawal areas and were analyzed for several pharmaceuticals and pesticides in consideration of the potential sources of contamination. The ecotoxicity of the samples was measured using water fleas (Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa) and zebrafish (Danio rerio). In addition, effects on the gene transcription of zebrafish were investigated following exposure to the samples. Results: Nine pharmaceuticals were detected in the samples, but none of the target pesticides were detected. Following acute exposure to two surface water samples, the survival of waterfleas was significantly reduced, but reproduction was not affected. In zebrafish, time-to-hatch was delayed and fry survival was decreased in some samples. On the other hand, at the transcriptional level, there were no genes significantly influenced by exposure to the samples. Conclusion: This is the first study investigating environmental contamination in Gotjawal areas and associated ecotoxicities. Further studies are warranted to identify the cause of acute Daphnia toxicity and to determine potential consequences of longer-term exposure in Gotjawal areas.

Characteristics of Sulfides Distribution and Formation in the Sediments of Seonakdong River (서낙동강 퇴적물 내 황화물의 분포 및 생성 특성)

  • Park, Seong-Yeol;Hwang, Kyung-Yup;Lee, Nam Joo;Yoon, Young-Sam;Lee, Sang-Ho;Kim, Il-Kyu;Yu, Kwon Kyu;Hwang, Inseong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.843-853
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    • 2009
  • The sediment samples were collected from Seonakdong River and were analyzed for sulfide species such Acid Volatile Sulfide(AVS) and Elemental Sulfur(ES) and Chromium Reducible Sulfide(CRS). Then characteristics of the formation of sulfide species were investigated for six selected samples. Finally the relationship between environmental factors and sulfate reducing rate(SRR) was investigated using two selected samples. Concentrations of AVS and CRS were relatively high, which suggests that organics input to the sediments has been continued until recently and that potential of heavy metals leaching from the sediments is low. SRR in the sediments was closely related to fraction of fine particles(silt+clay) and also to dissolved organic carbon content of the sediment(DOCsed). The dependences of environmental factors such as organic content, temperature, sulfate concentration on the SRR was relatively strong in the selected experiments conducted with the samples from Noksan gate and Daejeo gate samples. The environmental factor dependencies were stronger in the Noksan gate samples than in the Daejeo gate samples, which is probably due to higher surface area of the Noksan gate sediments.

Radionuclides in Environmental Samples and Sample Concentration of Land in the Analysis in the Method of Direct (직접법에서 환경시료중 육상시료의 방사성 핵종 및 농도 분석)

  • Jang, Eun-Sung;Kim, Jin-Seop
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2015
  • In order to measure the Radionuclides and Concentration, the directly grinded land samples (river soil, pine leaves and mugwort) among the environment samples around the nuclear power plant were filled in a 450 mL Marinelli beaker and weighed to obtain the dry mass ratio of the samples. Then the background and land samples were measured for 80,000 sec. The analysis of the collected land samples showed that most of them contained less radiation nuclide than the detection minimum limit in the 'Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Public Notice No. 2010-32.'In others, the natural radionuclides $^{40}K$ were detected. Of the products of nuclear reaction discharged by a nuclear reaction, $^{134}Cs$ and $^{137}Cs$ are more easily detected, and their discharge sources can be traced using the relative ratio. Although the radioactive concentration in the vicinity of Kori Nuclear Power Plant, which is more than 1,100km away from Fukushima, the Japanese nuclear accident site, continuous monitoring is needed as the radionuclides can still be accumulated in the soil or animals and plants.

Biomonitoring of Toxic Effects of Pesticides in Occupationally Exposed Individuals

  • Arshad, Muhammad;Siddiqa, Maryam;Rashid, Saddaf;Hashmi, Imran;Awan, Muhammad Ali;Ali, Muhammad Arif
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 2016
  • Background: Workers in pesticide manufacturing industries are constantly exposed to pesticides. Genetic biomonitoring provides an early identification of potential cancer and genetic diseases in exposed populations. The objectives of this biomonitoring study were to assess DNA damage through comet assay in blood samples collected from industry workers and compare these results with those of classical analytical techniques used for complete blood count analysis. Methods: Samples from controls (n = 20) and exposed workers (n = 38) from an industrial area in Multan, Pakistan, were subjected to various tests. Malathion residues in blood samples were measured by gas chromatography. Results: The exposed workers who were employed in the pesticide manufacturing industry for a longer period (i.e., 13-25 years) had significantly higher DNA tail length ($7.04{\mu}m$) than the controls ($0.94{\mu}m$). Workers in the exposed group also had higher white blood cell and red blood cell counts, and lower levels of mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration, and mean corpuscular volume in comparison with normal levels for these parameters. Malathion was not detected in the control group. However, in the exposed group, 72% of whole blood samples had malathion with a mean value of 0.14 mg/L (range 0.01-0.31 mg/L). Conclusion: We found a strong correlation ($R^2=0.91$) between DNA damage in terms of tail length and malathion concentration in blood. Intensive efforts and trainings are thus required to build awareness about safety practices and to change industrial workers' attitude to prevent harmful environmental and anthropogenic effects.