• Title, Summary, Keyword: environmental samples

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Analysis of Bacterial Diversity in Water from the Han River Water Source Protection Area via a Pyrosequencing Assay (파이로시퀀싱을 이용한 한강상수원보호구역 수계 중의 세균 다양성)

  • Kim, Heejung;Kaown, Dugin;Kim, Changsoo;Lee, Siwon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.274-279
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: We investigated bacterial diversity in the Han River water resource protection area in order to provide basic microbiological information on the drinking water safety of the Seoul metropolitan region. Methods: Samples were collected in the spring and winter, but not during the rainy season. Pyrosequencing, gene amplification, and extraction of nucleic acids were employed in this study. Results: In total, 57 and 48 operational taxonomic units were respectively analyzed in samples collected during spring and winter. Proteobacteria were predominant in all samples. The samples contained phylogenetically diverse bacterial communities, with eleven major phyla and 36 genera. Cyanobacteria were predominant in the spring samples, but not in the winter samples. The predominant species in the samples collected during both seasons belonged to the genus Aquamicrobium and Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, no pathogenic bacteria were detected in the samples. Conclusion: Proteobacteria were predominant in the samples from the Han River water source protection area. Cyanobacteria were more predominant in the spring samples than in the winter samples, but Aquamicrobium and Bradyrhizobium were predominant in both sampling seasons.

The Determination of Dissolved Total Fe by Flow Injection Analysis in Environmental Samples

  • Kim, Do Hoon;Takeda, Kazuhiko;Sakugawa, Hiroshi;Lee, Jin Sik
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.510-515
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    • 2001
  • There has been an increasing need for analytical methods of dissolved total iron (tFe) that are highly sensitive, rapid, inexpensive and simple for environmental samples. A sensitive flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determining the concentration of tFe in environmental samples was developed. The proposed method required 10 minutes and only $500{\mu}L$ of sample for and analysis. The standard deviation was 5.0% at $0.5{\mu}gL^{-1}$ (n=6), and the detection limit was $0.075{\mu}gL^{-1}$. The developed method was applied to environmental samples such as tap water, mineral water, rain, snow and cloud water. Since this FIA system was free form interferences of coexisting ions commonly found in samples, sub-${\mu}gL^{-1}$ level of tFe could be easily determined without further preconcentration and separation.

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Evaluation of Effluent Toxicity which were Exempted from Applying of Ecotoxicity Criteria (생태독성기준 미적용 업종 사업장 배출수 생태독성 수준 평가)

  • Kim, Jongmin;Shin, Kisik;Lee, Soohyung;Lee, Jungseo;Lee, Taekjune
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2017
  • This paper aimed to evaluate the test results of acute toxicity on effluent samples which were exempted from applying of ecotoxicity criteria. Total 316 effluent samples which were free from controlling of ecotoxicity regulation, were tested. Ratio of effluent samples which were exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) indicated 23.7%. This ratio was a little bit higher than previous study (22.7%) on effluent samples which were controlled under ecotoxicity criteria. These results mean that our ecotoxicity management system is not appropriate and applying of ecotoxicity criteria to all effluent samples (82 industry categories) were needed in order to improve our ecotoxicity system. In addition, the same numeric criteria (TU 1 or 2) for all industry categories were proposed in consideration of these results. Ratio of effluent samples which exceeded the ecotoxicity criteria (TU > 1) with D. magna indicated 23.7%. However V. fischeri showed 14.6%. As a acute toxicity test organism, D. magna seemed to be more sensitive than V. fischeri. Ratio of samples which were exceeded TU 1 with D. magna by 24 h exposure period test indicated 35 %, whereas 48 h showed 41%.

Determination of a Minimum Detectable Activity through a Measurement of Pu Isotopes in Environmental Samples

  • Lee, M. H.;Jung, E. C.;Song, K.S.
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1162-1166
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    • 2008
  • In this paper, several parameters affecting the sensitivity and determining the minimum detectable activity (MDA) for the measurement of the Pu isotopes were investigated. Among the parameters affecting the determination of the MDA values for the Pu isotopes in the environmental samples, amounts of the samples appeared to be crucial factors in decreasing the MDA values. The MDA for the Pu isotopes in the environmental samples were calculated by varying the counting time of the samples and background. The results obtained in this study can be used for an environmental radiation monitoring program regarding the level of concern for a radionuclide beyond which some action may need to be taken.

Sensitive determination of pendimethalin and dinoseb in environmental water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

  • Lim, Hyun-Hee;Park, Tae-Jin;Lee, Soo-Hyung;Shin, Ho-Sang
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.194-204
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    • 2017
  • Direct injection (DI) and solid phase extraction (SPE) methods for the simultaneous determination of pendimethalin (PDM) and dinoseb (DNS) in environmental water have been optimized using the ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. The limits of quantification (LOQs) of PDM and DNS were $0.01{\mu}g/L$ using the DI method and $0.0001-0.0002{\mu}g/L$ using the SPE method. The precision by SPE UPLC-MS/MS was less than 11 % for intra-day and inter-day analyses. When the proposed SPE method was used to analyze two analytes in environmental water, PDM was detected in a concentration range of $0.0002-0.011{\mu}g/L$ in 31 samples of the 114 surface water samples, and DNS was detected in a concentration range of $0.0005-0.045{\mu}g/L$ in 17 samples of the 114 surface water samples analyzed. When the DI method was used to analyze target compounds in the same samples, the detected concentrations of the two analytes were within 21% in samples with concentrations above $0.01{\mu}g/L$. The DI UPLC-MS/MS method can thus be used for the routine monitoring of PDM and DNS in environmental water, and the SPE LC-MS/MS method can be used for the determination of the ultra-trace PDM and DNS residues in environmental water.

Determination of Methylmercury in Biological Samples Using Dithizone Extraction Method Followed by Purge & Trap GC-MS

  • Lee, Jung-Sub;Ryu, Yoon-Jung;Park, Jae-Sung;Jeon, Sung-Hwan;Kim, Sam-Cwan;Kim, Young-Hee
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.2293-2298
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    • 2007
  • In this study, a dithizone extraction technique involving purge & trap GC-MS was developed for the determination of methylmercury in biological samples, especially blood and fish. After alkaline digestion, methylmercury in biological samples was extracted into dithizone and back-extracted into aqueous sulfide solution. The extracted methylmercury was converted to the volatile ethyl derivative, purged and trapped onto a solid-phase collection medium, and then introduced into the GC-MS system. The determined MDLs of the established method were 0.9 ng·g?1 for biological samples and its accuracy and precision were found to be 93% and 3.8%, respectively. The method was validated by analysis of CRMs such as SRM 966, BCR 463 and IAEA 407 and all analytical results were within certified ranges with average RSDs of less than 6%. The analytical results of field-sampled fish also showed that the method can be successfully used as an alternative for commonly used distillation method followed by GC-CVAFS detection.

Validation of Suitability on Proficiency Testing Samples for Acute Toxicity Test with Daphnia magna (생태독성 숙련도 시료의 적절성 평가)

  • Shin, Kisik;Park, Woosang;Lee, Jungseo;Yu, Soonju;Park, Taejin;Kim, Jongmin
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2015
  • Acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna has a variety of factors such as incubation condition of test species, food quality and proficiency of laboratory workers. Therefore, proper proficiency testing samples were required for evaluating the competence of laboratory workers. This study aims to propose some appropriate proficiency testing samples for laboratory workers of acute toxicity test with Daphnia magna. Proposed four kinds of standard samples (Sample A, B, C, and D) for proficiency testing were selected from reference materials which were recommended from Canada and USA WET(Whole Effluent Toxicity) authorities. Proposed standard samples were tested by trial application of proficiency testing, homogeneity and stability checks using repeatability test. Sample A, C and D were estimated ad the suitable candidates for proficiency test standard samples except for Sample B. In addition, Sample A was proved to be the most suitable sample.

Concentration and Characteristic of PBDEs in Pine Needle and Soil of Ansung-city (안성 지역 소나무 잎과 토양 중 PBDEs의 농도 수준 및 특성)

  • Yeo, Hyun-Gu;Cho, Ki-Chul;Chun, Man-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.111-117
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    • 2006
  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in pine needles and soil samples from rural area were analyzed in this study. Concentrations of PBDE congeners were ranged between 0.2 and 3104 pg/g DW(dry weight) in pine needles and between 2.4 and 1997 pg/g DW in soil samples. The most abundant congener both in pine needles and soil samples was BDE-209, which was related to importation and production of deca-BDE technical mixtures in Korean industry. And BDE-99, BDE-47, BDE-100 deposited in pine needles and soil samples were closely matched with the major constituents of the penta-BDE technical mixture. Those can be interpreted as an evidence that transfer of the congeners in deca-BDE and penta-BDE technical mixtures from source to pine needle and soil occurs with broadly similar efficiency. Correlation coefficient(r) of PBDE congeners deposited in pine needles and soil samples is very significant because it implies th at there has been little weathering/degradation/alteration of the congeners generated from sources during atmospheric transport or within pine needles and soil themselves.

Characteristics of PAH Occurrence during Meat Cooking (육류가공식품의 조리방법에 따른 PAHs 발생 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung ho;An, Yu Jin;Park, Dong Yun;Byun, Gi Young;Kim, Kyoung Dong;Lee, Mi Lim;Seo, Jung Bum;Park, Eun Young;Park, Heung Jai
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1459-1466
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in meat process food and for cooking methods (pan-frying and charcoal fire). The methodology involved liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel cartridge clean-up and determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The recovery of 17 PAHs spiked into these samples ranged from 66.6 % to 98.0% and the coefficient of variation was less than 10%, but that of dibenz(a,h)anthracene was 16.39%. The mean concentration of total PAHs in processed samples was ND~7.2 ng/g, whereas that pan-fried and charcoal-fired samples were ND~22.1 ng/g and, 12.7~367.8 ng/g, respectively. Therefore, the concentrations of total PAHs in cooked samples were higher than in original samples and charcoal-fired samples had the highest total PAH levels.

Identification of Cryptosporidium in Environmental Sample using Nested PCR-RFLP and DNA Sequencing (Nested PCR-RFLP 및 DNA Sequencing을 이용한 환경시료에서의 크립토스포리디움 동정)

  • Park, Sangjung;Jeong, Hyanghee
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.817-822
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    • 2008
  • In order to identify various Cryptosporidium species in environment, nested PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing method were used. The sensitivity of nested PCR-RFLP based on 18s rRNA gene was shown to 1 oocyst. Therefore, we applied nested PCR-RFLP method to environmental samples. As a result, only 4 samples out of 8 samples confirmed as Cryptosporidium parvum by standard method of Cryptosporidium were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum by nested PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing method. The rest of 4 samples among 8 samples were identified as Cryptosporidium muris, Cryptosporidium bailey. Therefore, in addition to standard method of Cryptosporidium, supplementary verification through nested PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing should be needed to give more accurate information about risk of Cryptosporidium.