• Title, Summary, Keyword: enrichment factor analysis

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Natural Background and Enrichment Characteristics of the Stream Sediments from the Hamyang-Sancheong Area (함양-산청지역 하상퇴적물의 자연배경치 및 부화특성)

  • Park, Young-Seog;Park, Dae-Woo;Kim, Jong-Kyun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.195-206
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    • 2009
  • We investigated natural background and enrichment characteristics and predicted geochemical disaster for stream sediments in the Hamyang-Sancheong area. Stream sediments samples were collected 95 ea in study area. The stream sediments were well known that had not possibility of contamination effect and represented drainage basins. We got the major and hazardous elements concentrations by XRF, ICP-AES and NAA analysis methods. Acid decomposition for the ICP-AES has been used $HClO_4$ and HF with $200^{\circ}C$ heating at 1st and after that $HClO_4$ HF and HCl with $200^{\circ}C$ heating at 2nd stage. We could know the characteristics that concentration of Cu and Co decreased when concentration of $SiO_2$ increased in correlation analysis. The enrichment factor of the stream sediments was below 2 in study area. This result indicated that study area belonged to moderate enrichment. The stream sediments of Hamyang area were enriched in order of Pb>Th>Cr>V>Co>Cu and those of Sancheong area were enriched in order of Pb>Th>Cr>Co>V>Cu. The enrichment factor(E.F.) of the Pb, Cr, Co and V was similar between Hamyang and Sancheong area. The enrichment factor of the Th was higher in Hamyang area and that of the Cu was higher in Sancheong area. The enrichment factor of the Pb was highly enriched in all study area than earth crust mean. But we could know that study area was not exposed to the pollution of the Pb through the tolerable level.

Preconcentration of Cd by Continuous Hydroxide Precipitation-Dissolution in Atomic Emission Spectrometry

  • 연평흠;허걸;박용남
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.766-770
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    • 1998
  • On-line preconcentration by direct precipitation with hydroxide has been developed and applied for the analysis of Cd in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry. Cadmium is continuously precipitated with hydroxide and dissolved by nitric acid in on-line mode. Currently, the enrichment factor is more than 90 times for 20.0 mL of sample and could be further increased very easily. For a large sample throughput, 1.0 mL of sample loop is used and the enrichment factor is 4.5 with the sampling speed of 15/hr. The method has been applied to the analysis of NIST reference sample and has yielded good results with the certified value.

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Trace Metals of Ambient TSP in Daegu Area (대구지역 총 부유분진중 중금속)

  • 이찬형
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to characterize the behavior and sources of particulate trace metal in Daegu city. TSP (Total Suspended Particulate matter) was collected by filters on High Volume Air Sampler from the four areal (reference, residential, commercial, industrial area). The moult were analyzed by AAS after preliminary treatment. The average centration trend of trace metals contained in TSP was shown as follows : Fe > Cu > Pb > Mn > Ni > Cr > Cd. The trace metals showed the highest concentration in the industrial area. This study showed the seasonal variation of trace metals. Fe and Mn showed high concentration in spring, whereas Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb showed high concentration in winter. Also this study showed the regional variation of trace metals. The order of the average concentration of trace metals was : industrial > commercial > residential > reference area. Using Mn as a reference element, the enrichment factor analysis were used for identifying the trace element contributors. The enrichment factors of Cr, Fe < 10 were considered to have a significant dust and soil source and termed nonenriched. Pb, Cd, Cu >>10 were enriched and had a significant fraction which was contributed by anthropogenic sources.

The influences of work-family conciliation strategies on work-family conflict and enrichment in dual-earner couples who live in Daegu with children (대구광역시에 거주하는 맞벌이부부의 일-가족조정전략이 일-가족 갈등과 일-가족 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Yoon-Ok;Jeong, Seo-Leen
    • Korean Family Resource Management Association
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.73-93
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of work-family conciliation strategies on work-family conflict and enrichment in dual-earner couples who live in Daegu with children. The subjects of this study were 176 dual-earner couples, who have under 16 youngest children and work over 15 hours each week. The research tool was questionnaires. For data analysis, factor analysis, Cronbach ${\alpha}$, paired t-test and multiple regression were performed. The main results of this study were as following. First, there were significant differences in management and planning skill strategy, work-family conflict and enrichment according to gender. Second, positive attitudes strategy toward multiple responsibilities, wives use, had an influence on work${\rightarrow}$family conflict in wives. Also, partner coping, management and planning skill, and positive attitudes strategy, wives use, and management and planning skill strategy, husbands use, had an influence on family${\rightarrow}$work conflict in wives. And management and planning skill and professional adjustment strategy, husbands use, had an influence on family${\rightarrow}$work conflict in husbands. work-family conciliation strategies had no influence on work${\rightarrow}$family conflict. Third, positive attitudes strategy toward multiple responsibilities, wives use, had an influence on work${\rightarrow}$family enrichment in wives. Also, partner coping strategy, wives use, and management and planning skill strategy, husbands use, had an influence on family${\rightarrow}$work enrichment in wives. And positive attitudes strategy toward multiple responsibilities, husbands use, had an influence on work${\rightarrow}$family enrichment in husbands. Also management and planning skill strategy, wives use, and partner coping, professional adjustment and management and planning skill strategy had an influence on family${\rightarrow}$work enrichment in husbands.

Characteristics of Aerosol Particle Concentration by the Versatile Aerosol Concentration Enrichment System (VACES) (VACES을 이용한 대기 중 입자상물질의 농축기술 및 특성 연구)

  • Park, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1339-1348
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    • 2012
  • The versatile aerosol concentration enrichment system (VACES) have proven useful for providing elevated levels of atmospheric aerosol to human and animal exposures. In this study, we describe a VACES and tests conducted to both optimize the enhancement factor (EF) and characterize how it depends on experiment conditions. Particle number concentrations were measured from upstream and downstream of the system by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) with a long differential mobility analyzer (DMA) in combination with a condensation particle counter (CPC). SMPS was used for to determine VACES particle EF. Particle EF tends to increase for higher the saturator temperature ($T_{Sat}$) and lower the condenser temperature ($T_{Con}$). $T_{Con}$ higher than $0^{\circ}C$ and $T_{Sat}$ lower than $50^{\circ}C$ was the best to obtain the most increase in particle concentration. Correlation analysis of EF with factor variables of $T_{Sat}$ and $T_{Con}$ resulted in correlation 0.662 and 0.416, respectively. With all five predictor variables included in a multiple regression model, the EF had a liner correlation with $R^2=0.643$.

The distribution characteristics of trace elements of fine ambient particulate in Korea

  • Lim, Jong-Myoung;Lee, Jin-Hong;Kim, Ki-Hyun
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2005
  • In this study, instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of about 30 trace elements in airborne particulate (PM2.5) samples at urban area of Daejeon city located in the southwestern region of Korea. An inspection of the measurement data indicates that the distribution patterns of trace elements could clearly distinguish the elements with their concentrations ranging over five orders of magnitude. The mean values for Lu and Dy were found to be the lowest at values of 0.01 and $0.04ng/m^3$, while those for K and Fe showed the highest value of 671 and $653ng/m^3$, respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that PM2.5 concentrations can exhibit much more enhanced correlations with the elements of earth crustal components. The results of factor analysis further indicated that there are no more than six factors with statistical significance, which may exert dominant roles in regulating the elemental concentration levels in the study area. Enrichment factor analysis supports explicit interpretation of results found by this factor analysis.

Source Characteristics of Particulate Trace Metals in Daegu Area (대구지역 부유분진 중 미량금속성분의 발생원 특성연구)

  • 최성우;송형도
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.469-476
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    • 2000
  • This study was performed to understand the behavior and source characteristics of particulate trace metals in Daegu area. To do this, total of 84 samples had been collected from January to December 1999. TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and PM-10(particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less 10${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) were collected by filters on portable air sampler, and in TSP and PM-10 were analyzed by ICP(Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer) after preliminary treatment. The results were follow as: first, annul means of TSP and PM-10 concentration were 123 and 69$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎤ respectively. The concentration of TSP adn PM-10 were highest in winter season compared to other seasons. Second, the concentration of Al, Fe, Mn were higher in TSP than in PM-10, indicating that these metals are generally associate with natural contributions. Third, a hierarchical clustering technique was used to group 9 metals. The results from the cluster analysis of TSP and PM-10 shows a similar clustering pattern : Fe, Al in a group and the rest of the metals such as Ni, Cr, As, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn in the other group. One group of metal such as Fe, Al is associated with natural sources such as soil and dust. The other is closely related to urban anthropogenic sources such as fuel combustion, incineration, and refuse burning, Finally, using Al as a reference element, enrichment factors were used for identifying the major particulate contributors. The enrichment factors of Al. Fe<10 (standard value of enrichment factor) were considered to have a significant dust and soil source and termed nonenriched. Ni, Cr, As, Mn, Cd, Pb, Zn》10 is enriched and has a significant which is contributed by athropogenic sources.

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Application of multivariate statistics towards the geochemical evaluation of fluoride enrichment in groundwater at Shilabati river bank, West Bengal, India

  • Ghosh, Arghya;Mondal, Sandip
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.279-288
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    • 2019
  • To obtain insightful knowledge of geochemical process controlling fluoride enrichment in groundwater of the villages near Shilabati river bank, West Bengal, India, multivariate statistical techniques were applied to a subgroup of the dataset generated from major ion analysis of groundwater samples. Water quality analysis of major ion chemistry revealed elevated levels of fluoride concentration in groundwater. Factor analysis (FA) of fifteen hydrochemical parameters demonstrated that fluoride occurrence was due to the weathering and dissolution of fluoride-bearing minerals in the aquifer. A strong positive loading (> 0.75) of fluoride with pH and bicarbonate for FA indicates an alkaline dominated environment responsible for leaching of fluoride from the source material. Mineralogical analysis of soli sediment exhibits the presence of fluoride-bearing minerals in underground geology. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was carried out to isolate the sampling sites according to groundwater quality. With HCA the sampling sites were isolated into three clusters. The occurrence of abundant fluoride in the higher elevated area of the observed three different clusters revealed that there was more contact opportunity of recharging water with the minerals present in the aquifer during infiltration through the vadose zone.

A Geo-statistical Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Soil Around a Ship Building Yard in Busan, Korea (통계지표를 활용한 부산지역 조선소 주변 토양 내 중금속 오염조사 연구)

  • Choi, Jung-Sik;Jeon, Soo kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.907-915
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    • 2018
  • With the increase of metal usage in various industries, metal pollution and ecological toxicity in the environmental system have become a significant concern. A geo-statistical index has been widely used to determine contamination level with normalization through a background value. In this study, geo-statistical indexes such as an enrichment factor, accumulation index, and potential ecological risk index were used to assess metal pollution in soil at locations associated with shipbuilding manufacturing industries. Metal contamination, especially of Cu and Pb, was observed in some samples located closer to manufacturing sites. Enrichment factor and accumulation (IGEO) values were indicative of concerning levels of soil contamination in specific samples, and the soil contamination could be induced by anthropogenic sources. In further study, after more detailed sampling for soil and potential pollution sources, high interpretation techniques such as Pb isotope analysis and X-ray analysis will be needed to investigate source identification.