• Title, Summary, Keyword: endometrial carcinoma

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Significance of Cytologic Detection of Endometrial Carcinoma in Papanicolaou Smear: The Relevance of Histologic Type, Grade and Stage (Papanicolaou smear에서 자궁내막암의 세포학적 진단의 의의 : 조직유형, 분화도 및 병기와의 관련성)

  • Hong, Sung-Ran;Kim, Hy-Sook;Park, Jong-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Cytopathology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 1993
  • The cytologic detection of endometrial carcinoma in Papanicolaou(Pap) smear according to histologic type, grade and stage was studied in 49 patients. The smears of patients who had histologically confirmed were retrospectively evaluated by the Bethesda System. The cytologic diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma was made in 61% (39/49) of patients, atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGCUS) in 16% (8/49) and within normal limits in 23% (11/49). The positive rate for AGCUS and carcinoma was correlated to the histologic type, grade and stage. The cytologic grade revealed a good correlation with histologic grade, too. In conclusion, the presence of cancer cells in Pap smear suggests the tumor in high grade and high stage. Additionally, cytologic detection of AGCUS or carcinoma needs a further diagnostic evaluation. The Pap smear is a valuable method to screen for endometrial carcinoma.

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$^{18}F-FDG-PET/CT$ in Endometrial Carcinoma (자궁내막암에서 $^{18}F-FDG-PET/CT$)

  • Jeon, Tae-Joo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.42 no.sup1
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    • pp.110-112
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    • 2008
  • Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common gynecologic malignancies and which is predominant in postmenopausal women. Clinically many patients are hospitalized in early stage due to clinical sign and symptom such as vaginal bleeding and in this case, patient's prognosis is known to be good. However, considerable number of patients with advanced and relapsed disease reveal poor prognosis. Therefore, exact staging work up is essential for proper treatment as is primary lesion detection. $^{18}F-FDG-PET$ has been widely used for the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies such as cervical carcinoma and ovarian cancer. In contrast, FDG PET application to endometrial carcinoma is limited until now and there is no sufficient data to validate the usefulness of FDG PET for this disease yet. However, several studies showed promising results that FDG PET is sensitive and specific in detection of recurrent or metastatic lesions. Therefore further active investigation in this field can facilitate the use of FDG PET for endometrial carcinoma.

Metformin Down-regulates Endometrial Carcinoma Cell Secretion of IGF-1 and Expression of IGF-1R

  • Zhang, Yu;Li, Meng-Xiong;Wang, Huan;Zeng, Zheng;Li, Xiao-Mao
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 2015
  • As metformin can inhibit endometrial carcinoma (EC) cell growth and the insulin growth factor (IGF) system is active in EC, the question of whether it can regulate endometrial carcinoma cell secretion of IGF-1 or expression of IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) is of interest. In this study, serum IGF-1 levels in EC patients were found to be comparable with that in the non EC patients (p>0.05). However, the IGF-1 level in the medium of cultured cells after treatment with metformin was decreased (p<0.05). IGF-1R was highly expressed in human endometrial carcinoma paraffin sections, but IGF-1R and phosphor-protein kinase B/protein kinase B (p-Akt/Akt) expression was down-regulated after metformin treatment (p<0.05). In summary, metformin can reduce the secretion of IGF-1 by Ishikawa and JEC EC cell lines and their expression of IGF-1R to deactivate downstream signaling involving the PI-3K/Akt pathway to inhibit endometrial carcinoma cell growth.

Preoperative Staging of Endometrial Carcinoma by MRI (자기공명영상을 통한 자궁내막암의 수술전 병기 결정)

  • Kim, See-Hyung;Cho, Jae-Ho;Park, Bok-Hwan
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.116-125
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    • 2002
  • Background: In patients with endometrial carcinoma, preoperative evaluation of exact staging has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. The incidence of pelvic and aortic lymph node involvement in endometrial carcinoma depends on grade of tumor differentiation and depth of myometrial invasion. Material and method: To evaluate whether MRI provides a preoperative assessment for staging of endometrial carcinoma, MRI was undertaken in 28 patients, a few weeks before operation. Myometrial invasion was devided in three categories, and involvement of cervix, adnexa, and pelvic cavity were classified. Results: The results of MR imaging were compared with these of pathology. The preoperative MRI staging of endometrial carcinoma was correct in 22 out of 28 patients. In the evaluation of myometrial invasion, the MR imaging underestimated in 4 cases and overestimated in 1 case. Conclusion: In patients with endometrial carcinoma, MR imaging is very useful in the assessment of the depth of myometrial invasion, stromal invasion of cevix, lymphatic & pelvic metastases and extent of the lesion.

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Role of exon 7 PTEN Gene in Endometrial Carcinoma

  • Kafshdooz, Leila;Kafshdooz, Taiebeh;Tabrizi, Ali Dastranj;Ardabili, Seyyed Mojtaba Mohaddes;Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl;Gharesouran, Jalal;Ghojazadeh, Morteza;Farajnia, Safar
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4521-4524
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    • 2015
  • Background: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the female genital tract and the fourth most common cancer in Iranian women after breast, colorectal and lung cancers. Various genetic alterations appear to be early events in the pathogenesis of endometrial carcinoma and it seems that PTEN is the most commonly mutated gene in the endometrioid subtype. The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between mutations in exon 7 of PTEN gene and endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five patients with endometrial carcinoma and 75 females whose underwent hysterectomy for non tumoral indication were selected for evaluation of PTEN mutations in exon 7 by PCR-SSCP and sequencing. Correlations between the frequency and type of mutation and the pathologic findings of the cancer (tumor subtype, stage and grade) were assessed. Results: All of the samples were obtained from Iranian patients. 60 % (45 cases) of the tumors were endometriod and 40% (30 cases) were of serous type. The grade distributions of the 75 cases according to the FIGO staging system were as follows: low grade, 20 cases; high grade 55 cases, low stage, 41 cases; high stage 34 cases. For exon 7 of the PTEN gene, the analysis showed that there were no mutations in our cases. Conclusions: Our findings in the present study suggest that exon 7 of PTEN does not play any significant role in the development of endometrial carcinoma in Iranian cases.

Does HBV Infection Increase Risk of Endometrial Carcinoma?

  • Jiang, Xue-Feng;Tang, Qiong-Lan;Zou, Yuan;Xu, Ling;Zeng, Hua;Chi, Cong;Jiang, Jing-Ru;Zhang, Bin-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.713-716
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    • 2014
  • Objective: Connections between chronic inflammation and tumor development and progression are now generally accepted. Recent evidence indicates that hepatitis B is associated with several types of cancer, but whether endometrial carcinoma (EC) is included has not been reported. Methods: We analyzed HBV serum marker status in 398 patients with endometrial cancer, comparing them to 788 control women undergoing health examination. Results: The total prevalence of HBsAg tested positive in cancer group was significantly higher than the control group (12.8% vs 6.0%, P=0.001), while positive HBsAb was significantly lower (41.2% vs 68.5%, P=0.001). Hepatitis B carriers in endometrial cancer group were also more frequent than in the control group (9.3% vs 5.5%, P=0.013). Interestingly, in the endometrial cancer group, 147 cases were HBV serum marker negative, which was also higher than in the control group (36.9% vs 15.6%, P=0.001). Conclusion: There may be a correlation between HBV infection and endometrial carcinoma.

A case of canine bilateral ovary granulosa cell tumor and mammary complex carcinoma

  • Chung, Yung-Ho;Hong, Sunhwa;Han, Sang-Jun;Kim, Okjin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2013
  • An 11-year-old poodle bitch was presented for investigation of multicentric mammary masses. Abdominal sonography and radiography demonstrated abnormal enlargement of uterus and ovaries. Blood analysis revealed high progesterone concentration. The ovariohysterectomy and mastectomy were performed. Histopathologically, the mammary masses revealed complex carcinoma-tubulopapillary carcinoma with papillary pattern and tubule pattern. In the uterus, cystic endometrial hyperplasia was observed. Scattered inflammatory cells were observed in the endometrial stroma and mucinous material was protruded from endometrial surface. Also, in the ovaries, bilateral ovary granulosa cell tumor was detected. The bitch made a complete recovery following the ovariohysterectomy and mastectomy. This case was a very rare multiple tumor occurrence with bilateral ovary granulosa cell tumor and mammary complex carcinoma. High progesterone concentration was characterized clinically in the bitch.

Accuracy of Sentinel Node in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Endometrial Carcinoma

  • Farghali, Mohamed M;Allam, Ihab S;Abdelazim, Ibrahim A;El-Kady, Osama S;Rashed, Ahmed R;Gareer, Waheed Y;Sweed, Mohammed S
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.15
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    • pp.6691-6696
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    • 2015
  • Background: Endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecological cancer and its treatment is still controversial, especially in its early stages. There are conflicting data about the efficacy of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy during abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingoophrectomy treatment. Lymphadenectomy carries a risk of severe complications, especially in women with co-morbidities. Selective lymphadenectomy has been widely employed for staging evaluation of endometrial carcinoma because it is simple and seems to provide reliable data regarding nodal metastasis. This study was designed to evaluate accuracy of sentinel node sampling in detecting lymph node metastasis in primary endometrial carcinoma during staging laparotomy. Materials and Methods: Ninety-three women with endometrial carcinoma at high-risk for nodal metastasis were studied. During laparotomy, methylene blue dye was injected into sub-serosal myometrium, then retroperitoneal spaces were opened and blue lymph nodes within pelvic and para-aortic regions were removed as separate specimens for histopathological examination (sentinel lymph nodes = SLNs). Hysterectomy and selective lymphadenectomy then performed for all women included in this study. Results: Deposition of methylene dye into at least one lymph node was observed in 73.1% (68/93) of studied cases. 18.3% (17/93) of studied women had positive lymph node metastasis and 94.1% (16/17) of them had positive metastasis in SLNs. In this study, SNLs had 94.4% sensitivity and 100% specificity in prediction of lymph node metastasis. Mean number of lymph nodes removed from each case decreased when SLNs biopsy were taken. Conclusions: SLNs are the key lymph nodes in endometrial tumor metastasis and their involvement could be an indicator for whether or not complete systematic lymphadenectomy is needed during staging laparotomy.

Prevalence of Cancers of Female Organs among Patients with Diabetes Type 2 in Kelantan, Malaysia: Observations over an 11 Year Period and Strategies to Reduce the Incidence

  • Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che;Zin, Anani Aila Mat;Othman, Nor Hayati
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7267-7270
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    • 2015
  • Introduction: Kelantan is one of the states in Malaysia which has a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (DM2). Other than with endometrial carcinoma, the association of DM2 with particular female cancers is not known. Objective: To determine the proportion of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial cancers among females with DM2 diagnosed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) over an 11 year period. Materials and Methods: All histologically confirmed cases of breast, endometrial, cervical and ovarian carcinomas admitted to the Hospital were included in the study. The patient diabetic status was traced from the hospital medical records. Results: There was a total of 860 cases of breast, cervical, ovarian and endometrial carcinomas over this period. Breast carcinoma was the commonest, accounting for 437/860 (50.8%) followed by cervix, 159/860 (18.5%), ovarian, 143/860 (16.6%) and endometrial carcinomas, 121/860 (14.1%). Out of these, 228/860 (26.5%) were confirmed diabetics. Endometrial carcinoma patients showed the highest proportion being diabetics, 42.1% (51/121), followed by ovarian cancer, 25.9% (37/143), breast carcinoma, 23.6% (103/437) and cervical cancer 23.3% (37/159). Conclusions: There is a significant proportion of DM2 among women with these four cancers, endometrial carcinoma being the highest followed by ovarian, breast and cervical carcinoma. The rising trend of these four cancers is in tandem with an increasing trend of DM2 in the community. In populations where diabetes is prevalent, screening for epithelial cancers should be rigourous. Diabetic clinics should include screening for these cancers among their female patients and gynecology clinics should screen the women they treat for their diabetes status.

MR Imaging of Uterine Malignant Mixed M$\ddot{u}$llerian Tumor: Comparison with Endometrial Carcinoma (자궁의 악성혼합뮬러리안 종양의 자기공명영상: 자궁내막암과의 비교)

  • Cho, Jae-Ho;Kim, Jeen-Woo;Chang, Jay-Chun;Park, Bok-Hwan;Kim, Jung-Sik
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.296-301
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    • 1999
  • Background: Generally, it is difficult to differentiate uterine malignant mixed M$\ddot{u}$ llerian tumor(MMMT) from endometrial carcinom in radiological and clinical aspects. Our purpose is to investigate MR findings that distinguishes MMMT from endometrial carcinoma. Materials and Methods: We retrogradely evaluated the magnetic resonance imaging findings of pathologically proven 5 cases of malignant mixed M$\ddot{u}$llerian tumor(MMMT) and 14 endometrial carcinomas to know the differential points of these two tumors originating in the endometrial cavity. The size of the mass, presence or absence of myometrial or uterine cervical invasion, growth pattern of the mass, signal intensity and degree and pattern of contrast enhancement were analyzed and compared. Results: The length of the long axis of the MMMT was 1.5-9.0cm(average, 5.7cm) but that of the endometrial carcinoma was 0.5-6.0cm(average, 2.5cm). Invasion of uterine cervix which was found in 3 MMMT cases, dilated the endometrial cavity and the lumen of the uterine cervix and showed the pattern of growing into the external os. Invasion of uterine cervix was found in only one case of endometrial carcinoma. The presence or absence of myometrial invasion, the signal intensity and homogeneity on T1- and T2-weighted images, and the degree and patterns of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Any specific finding to differentiate MMMT from endometrial carcinoma was not ascertained. However, MMMT can be suspected if the size of the endometrial mass is greater than 5cm and if the mass dilates the enocervical canal and invades the uterine cervix.

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