• Title/Summary/Keyword: emulsion

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Emulsion Inversion and Emulsion Transition (에멀젼 변환과 에멀젼 전이)

  • Lim, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2004
  • It has been 40 years since emulsion inversion was observed. Emulsion inversion is a phenomenon in which O/W emulsion inverts to W/O emulsion or vice versa. In other words, the dispersed and continuous phase of an emulsion is reversed after emulsion inversion takes place. For three-phase emulsions, not only emulsion inversion but also emulsion transition has been observed. In emulsion transition the continuous phase of an emulsion remains unchanged, but the dispersed emulsion drops, which is basically a two-phase emulsion, experience emulsion inversion at a certain temperature. Such temperature is called the emulsion transition temperature. Emulsion transition was a product of theoretical speculation and was experimentally observed for a couple of ternary amphiphile/oil/water systems. This phenomenon is a novel one, which has been unreported to date. In this article emulsion inversion and emulsion transition are compared and discussed.

Formula Optimization of a Perilla-canola Oil (O/W) Emulsion and Its Potential Application as an Animal Fat Replacer in Meat Emulsion

  • Utama, Dicky Tri;Jeong, Haeseong;Kim, Juntae;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.580-592
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    • 2018
  • The formulation of an oil/water (o/w) emulsion made up of a mixture of perilla oil and canola oil (30/70 w/w) was optimized using a response surface methodology to find a replacement for animal fat in an emulsion-type meat product. A 12 run Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was applied to screen the effect of potential ingredients in the (o/w) emulsion, including polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), fish gelatin, soy protein isolate (SPI), sodium caseinate, carrageenan (CR), inulin (IN) and sodium tripolyphosphate. The PBD showed that SPI, CR and IN showed promise but required further optimization, and other ingredients did not affect the technological properties of the (o/w) emulsion. The PBD also showed that PGPR played a critical role in inhibiting an emulsion break. The level of PGPR was then fixed at 3.2% (w/w total emulsion) for an optimization study. A central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the addition levels of SPI, CR or IN in an (o/w) emulsion and to observe their effects on emulsion stability, cooking loss and the textural properties of a cooked meat emulsion. Significant interactions between SPI and CR increased the cooking loss in the meat emulsion. In contrast, IN showed interactions with SPI leading to a reduction in cooking loss. Thus, CR was also removed from the formulation. After optimization, the level of SPI (4.48% w/w) and IN (14% w/w) was validated, leading to a perilla-canola oil (o/w) emulsion with the ability to replace animal fat in an emulsion-type meat products.

Preparation and Evaluation of Vitamine A palmitate Dry Emulsion (비타민 A 팔미틴산 건조 유제의 제조 및 평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Pyo;Han, Kun
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.259-266
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    • 2000
  • Vitamin A palmitate, an oily drug which has low chemical stability and is poorly absorbed in the intestine, was formulated into a novel powdered dosage form. This is designated as a redispersible dry emulsion by freeze-drying technique. Before preparing a dry emulsion, vitamin A palmitate oil in solid in water (O/S/W) emulsion with soybean oil and coconut oil using Aerosil 200 as an emulsion stabilizer and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene-blockcopolymer (Pluronic F68) as a surfactant was prepared. The resultants of the stability tests indicated that vitamin A palmitate O/S/W emulsion was improved on increasing the oil content of the formulation. The resultant dry emulsion particles have a good stabilities and free flow properties and readily released the oily droplets to form stable emulsions on rehydration. The drug releasing property from the resultant dry emulsion particles was dependent on factors such as amount of oily carrier(soybean oil) and surfactant(Pluronic F68) formulated. Above 80% of vitamin A palmitate content was released from the dry emulsion for 1 hour. It was deduced that vitamin A palmitate dry emulsion was definitely suitable for oral administration, since small droplets of vitamine A palmitate from the dry emulsion may alter the drug absorption profile resulting in bioavailability enhancement.

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An Experimental Study on the Combustion Characteristics of Wastewater-Emulsion Fuel (Emulsion(B.C유+폐수)연료의 연소효율에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 정진도
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.267-273
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    • 2003
  • Emulsion fuel is a very attractive fuel because of its energy saving and pollution prevention properties. We investigated and compared the combustion efficiency of B-C oil and emulsion fuel i.e. fuel made from the mixture of B-C oil and waste water. By installing an R-type thermocouple and an optical pyrometer on each side of the boiler, and by placing a combustion analyzer at the point of gas emissions, We were able to measure and compare each flame temperature, combustion rate and the concentration of emitted gas when B-C oil and emulsion fuel are burned. The following results were obtained: The flame temperature of emulsion fuel at the front and rear of the boiler is about 50$^{\circ}C$ lower than the flame temperature of B-C oil. The reason for this difference in temperature is that both latent and sensible heat is lost due to the moisture in the waste water of emulsion fuel. An analysis of emitted gases shows that when emulsion fuel is used polluting substances decrease also the concentration of CO becomes considerably lower. The combustion efficiency for B-C oil and emulsion fuel is 85.5% and 84.8% respectively.

STUDY ON THE STABILITY OF O/W AND MLV EMULSION CONTAINING DIHYDROXYACETONE

  • Joo, Yong-Joon;Han, Yeoung-Jun;Joo, Yong-Ho;Jeon, Young-Hwan
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.123-128
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    • 1998
  • Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) has been used as a self tanning agent and many emulsion formulations containing DHA have been studied. In an emulsion, many factors which have negative effect on DHP and the resultant DHA decomposition can destabilize the emulsion base. In this study, two kinds of emulsion with 5% DHA were prepared, O/W type emulsion and Multilamellavesicle (MLV) type emulsion to compare the stabilization effects of both emulsions on the DHA. The OHA concentration was analyzed quantitatively by high performance liquid Chromatography (HPLC), also the pH and viscosity of both emulsions were measured for stability. This process was carried out over 4 months. For HPLC, a bondaclone $C_{18}$ column with a mobile phase of distilled water and UV detector were used. The results of these experiment showed that DHA is more stable in an MLV emulsion than it is in an O/W type emulsion.

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Effect of protein and oil concentration on the emulsion stability of soy protein isolate (단백질과 기름농도가 분리대두단백질의 유화안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Jae-Kwan;Kim, Young-Sook;Pyun, Yu-Ryang
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.457-461
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    • 1992
  • The emulsion stabilizing properties of soy protein isolate (SPI) were investigated in terms of the protein and oil concentration. Particularly, the dependence of emulsion stability on the oil particle size and viscosity of emulsion was studied in conjunction with the adsorption pattern of protein onto the water/oil interface during emulsification. The data showed that increasing protein concentration decreased the oil particle size and increased the emulsion viscosity, resulting in the enhanced emulsion stability. In contrast, increasing oil concentration increased both the oil praticle size and the emulsion viscosity, and thus emulsion stability varied depending on which factor predominated the overall emulsion system.

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Lymphatic Delivery of Oral Anticancer Tegafur by Emulsion Formulations

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Koh, Ik-Bae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 1993
  • The influence of emulsion type of tegafur, an oral anticancer agent, on lymphatic transport was studied in rats. The water-in-oil-type of emulsion and the oil-in-water-type emulsion of tegafur each in 50 mg, calculated in terms of tegafur, were prepared by adding tegafur aqueous solution to sesame oil containing hydrogenated castor oil following ultrasonic treatment, and then the prepared emulsions and aqueous solution as a comparative formulation were administered orally to rats (50 mg/5 ml/kg). The concentration levels of tegafur in plasma of femoral artery and lymph from thoracic duct cannula were measured simultaneously along a time course after administration and the pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. At the same time, we examined the above described factors of 5-FU which is known as an active metabolite of tegafur. In comparison with tegafur solution, AUC and mean residence time of plasma tegafur were significantly increased in w/o-emulsion but significantly decreased in o/w-emulsion. Lymph flow rates were similar in both solution and w/o-emulsion but half in o/w-emulsion. Ratios between area under the lymph and plasma concentration time curves were always less than 1 reflecting the passive lymphatic delivery after oral administration of the prepared tegafur emulsions, but those to the 5-FU in the case of w/o-emulsion were more than 1. These results suggested that lymphatic delivery of tegafur by w/o-emulsion was more effective than that by o/w-emulsion due to its differences of formation ability of chylomicrons.

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Roles of Fucoidan, an Anionic Sulfated Polysaccharide on BSA-Stabilized Oil-in-Water Emulsion

  • Kim, Do-Yeong;Shin, Weon-Sun
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.128-132
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    • 2009
  • Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, is an important material valued for its various biological functions, including anti-coagulation, anti-aging, and immune system support. In this study, we examined the potential of fucoidan as a novel emulsifying agent in BSA (bovine serum albumin)-stabilized emulsion at a neutral pH. We measured the dispersed oil-droplet size, surface zeta-potential and creaming formation of 0.5 wt% BSA emulsion (20 wt% oil traction) in the absence and presence of fucoidan. The average particle size and zeta-potential value were 625.4 nm and -30.91 mV in only BSA-stabilized emulsion and 745.2 nm and -44.2 mV in 1.0 wt% fucoidan-added BSA emulsion, respectively. This result suggested that some positive charges of the BSA molecules interacted with the negative charges of fucoidan to inhibit the flocculation among the oil droplets. The creaming rate calculated from the backscattering data measured by Turbiscan dramatically decreased in 1.0 wt% fucoidan-added BSA emulsion during storage. Accordingly, the repulsion forces induced among the oil particles coated with 1.0 wt% fucoidan in emulsion solution resulted in significantly increased emulsion stability. The turbidity of the BSA-stabilized emulsion at 500 nm decreased during five days of storage. However, the fucoidan-added BSA emulsion exhibited a higher value of turbidity than the BSA-stabilized emulsion did. In conclusion, an anionic sulfated fucoidan lowered the surface zeta-potential of BSA-coated oil droplets via the electrostatic interaction, and subsequently inhibited the flocculation among the oil droplets, thereby clearly minimizing the creaming and phase separation of the emulsion.

Effects of Basil Extract and Iron Addition on the Lipid Autoxidation of Soybean Oil-in-Water Emulsion with High Oil Content (고지방 물속 콩기름 에멀션의 지방질 자동 산화에서의 바질 추출물과 철 첨가 효과)

  • Kim, Jihee;Lee, Haein;Choe, Eunok
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.113-120
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: Lipid autoxidation of a soybean oil-in-water emulsion with high oil content was studied under after basil extract and/or iron addition. Methods: The emulsion consisted of tocopherol-stripped soybean oil (40 g), citrate buffer (60 g, pH 4.0), and/or $FeSO_4$ (0.5 mg) with 75% ethanol extract (200 mg/kg) of basil (Ocimum basilicum). Lipid oxidation was evaluated using headspace oxygen content, hydroperoxide contents, and p-anisidne values of the emulsion. Polyphenol compound retention in the emulsion during oxidation was determined spectrophotometrically. Results: Addition of basil extract significantly (p<0.05) decreased reduced hydroperoxide contents of the emulsion, and iron significantly (p<0.05) increased anisidine values and decreased oxygen contents. Co-addition of basil extract and iron showed significantly (p<0.05) lower reduced hydroperoxide contents in the emulsion than compared to those of the emulsion with added iron and the control emulsion without basil extract nor or iron. During the emulsion oxidation, polyphenol compounds in the emulsion with added basil extract were degraded, but more slowlywhich was slowed degraded in the presence of iron. Conclusion: The iIron increased the lipid oxidation through hydroperoxide decomposition, and basil extract showed antioxidant activity through radical-scavenging and iron-chelation. Polyphenol degradation was decelerated by iron addition, which suggested suggests iron chelation may be more preferred topreferentially activated over radical scavenging in the antioxidant action by of basil extract in the oil-in-water emulsion with high oil content.

Mesenteric Lymphatic Delivery of Oral Anticancer Tegafur by Emulsion Formulations (유제화에 의한 경구용 항암제인 테가푸르의 장관 임파수송)

  • Lee, Yong-Bok;Nam, Kweon-Ho;Chang, Woo-Ik;Oh, In-Joon;Koh, Ik-Bae
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1995
  • W/O and O/W emulsions of tegafur (50 mg/5 ml/kg) were orally administered to rats to compare with their mesenteric lymphatic delivery effects. And also in order to demonstrate the lymph targeting associated to the oral route, it was deemed necessary to investigate the fate of solution after oral administration as a control. Lymph and plasma samples were periodically taken from each subject of mesenteric lymphatic duct cannulated rats. Then, lymph and plasma levels of tegafur and its active metabolite, 5-FU, were simultaneously observed. Also pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with each others. On the other hand, most previous studies of lymphatic transport have not addressed the question of whether an increase in mesenteric or thoracic lymph transport by the manipulation of a suspected variable was due to a selective delivery to the intestinal lymphatics or an overall increase availability. Therefore, based on a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model which represents the characteristics of lymphatic systems, we are also going to determine the contributions of mesenteric lymph transport versus thoracic lymph transport of tegafur reported in reference(13). In comparison with tegafur solution, AUC and mean residence time of plasma tegafur were significantly increased in W/O emulsion but significantly decreased in O/W emulsion. Lymph flow rates were similar in both solution and W/O emulsion but half in O/W emulsion. AUC of tegafur in mesenteric lymph and in plasma for W/O emulsion were 3.7 times and 2.9 times more than those for O/W emulsion, respectively. And AUC of 5-FU in thoracic lymph for W/O emulsion was 3.7 times more than that for O/W emulsion. These results suggested that lymphatic delivery or tegafur by W/O emulsion was more effective than that by on emulsion due to its differences or formation ability of chylomicrons.

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