• Title, Summary, Keyword: elongases

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Carrot Juice Administration Decreases Liver Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1 and Improves Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels, but Not Steatosis in High Fructose Diet-Fed Weanling Wistar Rats

  • Mahesh, Malleswarapu;Bharathi, Munugala;Reddy, Mooli Raja Gopal;Kumar, Manchiryala Sravan;Putcha, Uday Kumar;Vajreswari, Ayyalasomayajula;Jeyakumar, Shanmugam M.
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2016
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent liver diseases associated with an altered lifestyle, besides genetic factors. The control and management of NAFLD mostly depend on lifestyle modifications, due to the lack of a specific therapeutic approach. In this context, we assessed the effect of carrot juice on the development of high fructose-induced hepatic steatosis. For this purpose, male weanling Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, fed either a control (Con) or high fructose (HFr) diet of AIN93G composition, with or without carrot juice (CJ) for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, plasma biochemical markers, such as triglycerides, alanine aminotransferase, and ${\beta}$-hydroxy butyrate levels were comparable among the 4 groups. Although, the liver injury marker, aspartate aminotransferase, levels in plasma showed a reduction, hepatic triglycerides levels were not significantly reduced by carrot juice ingestion in the HFr diet-fed rats (HFr-CJ). On the other hand, the key triglyceride synthesis pathway enzyme, hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), expression at mRNA level was augmented by carrot juice ingestion, while their protein levels showed a significant reduction, which corroborated with decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), particularly palmitoleic (C16:1) and oleic (C18:1) acids. Notably, it also improved the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6) content of the liver in HFr-CJ. In conclusion, carrot juice ingestion decreased the SCD1-mediated production of MUFA and improved DHA levels in liver, under high fructose diet-fed conditions. However, these changes did not significantly lower the hepatic triglyceride levels.

Enrichment of Short-Chain Ceramides and Free Fatty Acids in the Skin Epidermis, Liver, and Kidneys of db/db Mice, a Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Model

  • Kim, Minjeong;Jeong, Haengdueng;Lee, Buhyun;Cho, Yejin;Yoon, Won Kee;Cho, Ahreum;Kwon, Guideock;Nam, Ki Taek;Ha, Hunjoo;Lim, Kyung-Min
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.457-465
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    • 2019
  • Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often suffer from diverse skin disorders, which might be attributable to skin barrier dysfunction. To explore the role of lipid alterations in the epidermis in DM skin disorders, we quantitated 49 lipids (34 ceramides, 14 free fatty acids (FFAs), and cholesterol) in the skin epidermis, liver, and kidneys of db/db mice, a Type 2 DM model, using UPLC-MS/MS. The expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis was also evaluated. With the full establishment of hyperglycemia at the age of 20 weeks, remarkable lipid enrichment was noted in the skin of the db/db mice, especially at the epidermis and subcutaneous fat bed. Prominent increases in the ceramides and FFAs (>3 fold) with short or medium chains ($LXR{\alpha}/{\beta}$ and $PPAR{\gamma}$, nuclear receptors promoting lipid synthesis, lipid synthesis enzymes such as elongases 1, 4, and 6, and fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase were highly expressed in the skin and livers of the db/db mice. Collectively, our study demonstrates an extensive alteration in the skin and systemic lipid profiles of db/db mice, which could contribute to the development of skin disorders in DM.