• Title, Summary, Keyword: early-onset

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Clinical Characteristics of Neonatal Status Epilepticus (신생아 간질 중첩증의 임상 특성)

  • Jung, Kyeong Hun;Kim, Yun Hee;Kwon, Young Se;Jun, Yong Hoon;Kim, Soon Ki;Son, Byong Kwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.1342-1347
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : Among perinatal risk factors, neonatal seizures are one of the strongest independent discriminators of adverse outcome, representing high risks of mortality and neurologic morbidity. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neurologic outcome of neonatal status epilepticus according to underlying etiology, seizure pattern, onset time, and duration. Methods : We reviewed retrospectively 36 neonates(19 males, 17 females) with status epilepticus who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, Inha Hospital between July, 1988 and June, 2003. They were evaluated with neurologic examination, laboratory data, EEG findings, and neuroimaging studies etc. Results : The mean gestational period of the patients was $37.0{\pm}3.6$ weeks and birth weight was $2.70{\pm}0.82$ kilogram. Fifty two point eight percent of the neonates were male and 66.7 percent were born at term. The most common cause of neonatal status epilepticus was hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In preterm babies, intracranial hemorrhages showed an especially high frequency(P=0.034). Gestational age and birth weight did not show a correlation with neurologic complications. The incidence of neurological sequelae were significantly related to prolonged seizures lasting more than 1 hour(P=0.002). Neonates with seizures within the first 72 hours tended to be more frequent among those who developed adverse outcomes(P=0.016). Generalized tonic seizures had the worst prognosis, whereas those children who had subtle seizures had better outcomes than any other type(P<0.05). Generalized tonic seizures were primarily represented on EEG by abnormal background, whereas subtle seizure showed a significantly more normal EEG than any other seizures(P<0.05). Conclusion : Our results indicate that neonatal status epilepticus with early onsets, prolonged durations. And generalized tonic types can predict an increased risk for neurologic sequelae. So, those seizures must be perceived as medical emergencies and treated aggressively with antiepileptic drugs.

A Case of Child with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Recurred after Adenotonsillectomy (편도 및 아데노이드 절제술 후 재발한 폐쇄성 수면 무호흡 증후군 소아 1례)

  • Kim, Cu-Rie;Kim, Dong-Soon;Seo, Hyun-Joo;Shin, Hong-Beom;Kim, Eui-Joong;Shim, Hyun-Joon;Ahn, Young-Min
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.94-99
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    • 2008
  • The most common cause of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Adenotonsillectomy improves the symptoms quite well in most cases. However, some patients could experience the OSAS again after adenotonsillectomy, who might have several risk factors such as incomplete operation, misdiagnosis, combined anatomical malformation, sinusitis or chronic allergic rhinitis, obesity, initial severe OSAS, and early onset OSAS. We report a case of 11-year-old obese boy who presented with snoring for several years. He was obese with body mass index (BMI) of $26.3kg/m^2$ and also found to have fatty liver by ultrasonogram. Initial polysomnography (PSG) showed that he met the criteria of severe OSAS with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 70.5. He underwent adenotonsillectomy and symptoms improved immediately. Four months later symptoms were relieved with AHI of 0, but 1 year after the adenotonsillectomy he started to complain snoring again and the subsequent PSG results showed that OSAS has relapsed with AHI of 43. Paranasal sinus X-ray and physical examination showed sinusitis and re-growth of adenoid. Obesity was proved not to be a contributing factor because his BMI decreased to normal range ($23.1kg/m^2$) after diet control and regular exercise. Also, liver transaminase was normalized and fatty liver was disappeared on follow-up abdominal ultrasonogram. After treatment of sinusitis, symptoms were relieved with decreased AHI (8.5). This case suggests that simple adenotonsillectomy might not be the end of OSAS treatment in childhood. Patients who had adenotonsillectomy should be followed by subsequent PSG if symptoms recur. It is also important to be aware of risk factors in the recurrent OSAS for the proper intervention according to the cause.

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Changes in Dormant Phase and Bud Development of 'Fuji' Apple Trees in the Chungju Area of Korea (충주지역에서 '후지' 사과나무의 휴면단계 변화 및 눈 발달)

  • Lee, ByulHaNa;Park, YoSup;Park, Hee-Seung
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.501-510
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    • 2015
  • In this study, we investigated the onset and release of endo-dormancy under natural conditions by observing bud break characteristics in 'Fuji' apple trees using water cuttings. Through examinations of bud break rate and days to bud break, we found that the endo-dormancy of 'Fuji' apple tree continues for 70 d from 165 to 255 d after full bloom (DAFB), from late October to early January of the following year. In addition, within 20 d of first bud break, based on a final bud break rate of 60% or more, we able to identify the timing of the changeover from para-dormancy to endo-dormancy, and endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy. Analysis of the chilling requirement during the endo-dormancy period revealed that chilling accumulation up to 255 DAFB to release endo-dormancy amounted to 666 and 517 h based on the CH and Utah models, respectively. Observation of internal changes in the bud during endo-dormancy showed that flower bud differentiation begins from mid-July, and t ime of inflorescence o f the disk f lower is a vailable to f ind. The f lower buds subsequently developed slowly but steadily during endo-dormancy and in the following year in February, the developmental stage of each organ had progressed. Moreover, the flower buds of 'Fuji' apples were mostly healthy during the dormancy period, but some exhibited necrosis of flower primordium, due partial cell damage from the formation of ice crystals rather than a direct effect of the low temperature. Flower buds were formed in both the axillary buds of bourse shoots and terminal buds of spurs, but lower bud differentiation was observed for the terminal buds of spurs at rate of about 65% of total buds, which was directly related to the bud size and shoot diameter.

Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Circadian Rhythm in Adults (성인 인터넷 중독과 일주기 리듬의 연관성)

  • Kang, Do Won;Soh, Minah;Lee, Tae Kyeong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2015
  • Background and Objectives: Internet addiction is an increasing problem in Korea. The previous studies in this area have targeted adolescents and young adults. This study was conducted to examine the risk of internet addiction in Korean adults and the effect of internet addiction on circadian rhythm. Materials and Methods: For this study, 508 subjects were chosen through population proportional sampling to represent the adult population in Korea, 325 of whom were included based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korea (Audit-K), Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), drug use in the past year, and suicide attempts. In these subjects, sociodemographic factors including age, gender, and residential area were analyzed, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and an online survey examining sleep onset time on weekdays and weekends, wake-up time, and caffeinated drink intake were executed. Results: Of the 325 subjects, 136 (41.8%) belonged to a high-risk internet addiction group ($IAS{\geq}40$), and 189 (58.2%) belonged to a normal group (IAS < 40). There was a high proportion of male subjects (p = 0.03) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group. There was a high proportion of younger subjects (p = 0.055) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Compared to the normal group, there was a high proportion of the evening type ($MEQ{\leq}41$) in the high-risk group (p = 0.024), who also showed a high proportion of caffeinated drink intake (p < 0.001). Also, the high-risk group was found to go to bed and wake up late, but there was no statistically significant difference with the normal group. Conclusion: This study showed that many adults have a high-risk of internet addiction, and there was a significant correlation between internet addiction and sleep in adult, as has been found in adolescents and early adults. In the future, a longitudinal study will be needed to verify the causal relationship between internet addiction and morningness-eveningness.

DENTAL TREATMENT IN A PATIENT WITH FUKUYAMA TYPE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY UNDER TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA USING PROPOFOL (후쿠야마 선천성 근이영양증 환자의 프로포폴을 이용한 전정맥마취 하 치과치료)

  • Jin, Dallae;Shin, Teo-Jeon;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Chong-Chul;Jang, Ki-Taeg
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.66-71
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    • 2013
  • Muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by progressive muscle weakness of variable distribution and severity. Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is an unusual form of muscular dystrophy with autosomal recessive inheritance and is clinically characterized by an early age of onset, severe central nervous system involvement, facial muscle weakness, and multiple joint contractures. Muscular dystrophy is susceptible to perioperative respiratory, cardiac and other complications. Patients with FCMD have upper airway muscle weakness, therefore general anesthesia is preferred to sedation regarding maintaining the airway when treating these patients. The development of malignant hyperthermia in general anesthesia for patients with muscular dystrophy is a concern. Total intravenous anesthesia should be used instead of inhaled anesthetics because of the risk of malignant hyperthermia. A 3-year-9-month old, 13kg girl with Fukuyama type congenital muscular dystrophy was scheduled for dental treatment under general anesthesia. She had multiple caries and 14 primary teeth needed caries treatment. Prior to general anesthesia, oral premedication with 9 mg midazolam was given. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with target controlled infusion of propofol $3{\sim}3.5{\mu}g/mL$. The patient with progressive muscular dystrophy was successfully treated under total intravenous anesthesia with a target controlled infusion of propofol. There were no complications related to anesthesia and dental treatment during or after the operation. This case suggests that target controlled infusion of propofol is a safe and appropriate anesthetic technique in FCMD patients for dental treatment.

Future Changes in Global Terrestrial Carbon Cycle under RCP Scenarios (RCP 시나리오에 따른 미래 전지구 육상탄소순환 변화 전망)

  • Lee, Cheol;Boo, Kyung-On;Hong, Jinkyu;Seong, Hyunmin;Heo, Tae-kyung;Seol, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Johan;Cho, ChunHo
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.303-315
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    • 2014
  • Terrestrial ecosystem plays the important role as carbon sink in the global carbon cycle. Understanding of interactions of terrestrial carbon cycle with climate is important for better prediction of future climate change. In this paper, terrestrial carbon cycle is investigated by Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model, version 2, Carbon Cycle (HadGEM2-CC) that considers vegetation dynamics and an interactive carbon cycle with climate. The simulation for future projection is based on the three (8.5/4.5/2.6) representative concentration pathways (RCPs) from 2006 to 2100 and compared with historical land carbon uptake from 1979 to 2005. Projected changes in ecological features such as production, respiration, net ecosystem exchange and climate condition show similar pattern in three RCPs, while the response amplitude in each RCPs are different. For all RCP scenarios, temperature and precipitation increase with rising of the atmospheric $CO_2$. Such climate conditions are favorable for vegetation growth and extension, causing future increase of terrestrial carbon uptakes in all RCPs. At the end of 21st century, the global average of gross and net primary productions and respiration increase in all RCPs and terrestrial ecosystem remains as carbon sink. This enhancement of land $CO_2$ uptake is attributed by the vegetated area expansion, increasing LAI, and early onset of growing season. After mid-21st century, temperature rising leads to excessive increase of soil respiration than net primary production and thus the terrestrial carbon uptake begins to fall since that time. Regionally the NEE average value of East-Asia ($90^{\circ}E-140^{\circ}E$, $20^{\circ}N{\sim}60^{\circ}N$) area is bigger than that of the same latitude band. In the end-$21^{st}$ the NEE mean values in East-Asia area are $-2.09PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-1.12PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.47PgC\;yr^{-1}$ and zonal mean NEEs of the same latitude region are $-1.12PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.55PgC\;yr^{-1}$, $-0.17PgC\;yr^{-1}$ for RCP 8.5, 4.5, 2.6.

A Clinical Study of Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis with Nephrotic Syndrome (신증후군을 동반한 연쇄상구균 감염후 급성사구체신염의 임상적 고찰)

  • Moon Sang-Ae;Yook Jin-Won;Kim Ji-Hong;Lee Jae-Seung;Jeong Hyun-Joo;Kim Pyung-Kil
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(APSGN) is a renal disease which is characterized by glomerular proliferation and inflammatory changes due to immune reaction. Although the 95% of patients with APSGN seems to recover fully and present as benign course, the remaining patients show poor prognosis. Therefore comparative retrograde study between APSGN with and without nephrotic syndrome was done to find out the any prognostic indicator to predict the outcome in patients with APSGN. Methods: We had retrospectively analyzed seventy-one patients who were diagnosed as APSGN clinically from Mar.1989 to Feb.1999 in Yonsei university medical center. Sixty-four of the patients was APSGN without nephrotic syndrome(Group A) and seven patients were in APSGN with nephrotic syndrome(Group B). Results: Patients who were diagnosed as APSGN with nephrotic syndrome were seven(9.9%) out of seventy-one. In the comparative study, sex ratio was 1:1 in group A and 1.9: 1 in group B, onset mean age was $8.9{\pm}2.6$ in group A and $8.8{\pm}2.6$ in group B. Following clinical profiles were compared but there were no significant difference between these two groups: WBC count($9413{\pm}2964\;vs\;9368{\pm}2650(/mm^3)$), hemoglobin($10.6{\pm}1.2\;vs\;10.0{\pm}0.9(gm/dL)$), ASO($746.1{\pm}640.7\;vs\;614.9{\pm}475.9(IU/ml)$), $C_3(20.1{\pm}17.0\;vs\;16.9{\pm}13.1(mg/dL)$), $C_4(22.8{\pm}9.5\;vs\;22.6{\pm}6.9(mg/dL)$), BUN($25.8{\pm}26.1\;vs\;28.1{\pm}14.5(mg/dL)$), creatinin($0.8{\pm}0.3\;vs\;0.8{\pm}0.3(mg/dL)$), $C_{cr}(80.6{\pm}28.8{\pm}62.4{\pm}31.4(ml/min/1.73\;m^2$)), the duration of edma, gross hematuria, and hypertension. However, we found that there were a significant difference in the duration of proteinuria($1.95{\pm}2.27\;vs\;13.3{\pm}21.1(months)$)(P<0.05), decreased $C_3$ duration($1.9{\pm}2.9\;vs\;7.3{\pm}5.0(weeks)$)(P<0.05) and especially it was proloned according to the amount of early urine protein excretion. Conclusion: Our study showed markedly prolonged duration of proteinuria and decreased $C_3$ duration in patients with APSGN with nephrotic syndrome. We were not able to find the definite prognostic factor that will guide the outcome of patients with APSGN accompaning nephrotic syndrome, but above findings seemed to represent as a relative indication of the outcome of the disease. All patients recovered completely and we did not experience any cases that progressed into the renal failure.

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