• Title, Summary, Keyword: early-onset

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Epidemiologic characteristics of malaria in non-malarious area, Jeollabuk-do, Korea in 2000

  • Kim, Myung-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.223-226
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    • 2001
  • In South Korea, the north border area has been under vivax malaria epidemic since 1993. However, Jeollabuk-do, which is about 300 kms from the border, has not experienced the same epidemic. 1 investigated a total of 58 notified cases of malaria in Jeollabuk-do in the year 2000. All of the cases had an exposure history in the epidemic area. Among them were 49 ex-soldiers, 3 soldiers who served near the border area and 6 civilians who traveled there. The causal agent of all cases was Plasmodium vivax. Except the civilians, the soldiers and ex-soldiers were aged in their twenty's. In the present study, the incubation period was from 6 to 520 days with a median of 157 days, and the latent onset type (92%) was more prevalent than the early onset type. illness onset of most cases (86%) peaked during the summer season (June to September) despite of variable incubation periods. The time lag for diagnosis ranged from 2 to 42 days with a median of 11 days. Jeollabuk-do has not been an area of epidemic untill now, but incidences have been increasing annually since 1996. In Jeollabuk-do, early diagnosis and treatment can be a feasible disease control measure to prevent spreading from the epidemic area.

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Early-onset Colorectal Cancer (조기발병 대장암)

  • Jeong, Mo Ah;Kang, Hyoun Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology
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    • v.74 no.1
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    • pp.4-10
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    • 2019
  • The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing among young adults in several countries including the United States. Early-onset colorectal cancer (EO-CRC) is heterogenous group and appears to have a distinct clinical, pathologic, and molecular presentation compared to CRC diagnosed in older patients. EO-CRC patients tend to be diagnosed at later stage and with symptomatic disease. Tumors arise predominantly in the distal colon and rectum and have poorer histological features. Microsatellite and chromosome stable molecular pathway is frequently observed in EO-CRC. Survival data of EO-CRC is conflicting and younger patients tend to be treated more aggressively. It is important to identify high risk and have them screened appropriately to address increasing EO-CRC. Screening and treatment strategies for EO-CRC should be developed through further investigation of molecular mechanism and various environmental risk factors. In Korea, EO-CRC and late-onset CRC have both declined in recent several years, probably due to many screening colonoscopies in young population. Close observation and analysis of EO-CRC in Korea is necessary.

Onset time comparison of solar proton event with coronal mass ejection, metric type II radio burst, and flare

  • Cho, Kyung-Suk;Hwang, Jung-A;Bong, Su-Chan;Marubashi, Katsuhide;Rho, Su-Lyun;Park, Young-Deuk
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.38.3-39
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    • 2010
  • While major solar proton events (SPEs) come from the coronal mass eject (CME)-driven shocks in solar wind, there are many evidences that potentiality of CMEs to generate SPEs depends on its early evolution near the Sun and on different solar activities observed around the CME liftoff time. To decipher origin of SPE release, we have investigated onset time comparison of the SPE with CME, metric type II radio burst, and hard X-ray flare. For this, we select 30 SPEs observed from 1997 to 2006 by using the particle instrument ERNE onboard SOHO, which allows proton flux anisotropy measurement in the energy range ~10 - 50MeV. Onset time of the SPEs is inferred by considering the energy-dependent proton transport time. As results, we found that (1) SPE onset time is comparable to that of type II but later than type III onset time and HXR start time, (2) SPE onset time is mostly later than the peak time of HXR flare, (3) almost half of the SPE onsets occurred after the HXR emission, and (4) there are two groups of CME height at the onset time of SPE; one is the height below 5 Rs (low corona) and the other is above 5Rs (high corona). In this talk, we will present the onset time comparison and discuss about the origin of the SPE onset.

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The Analysis on Pre-hospital Cases of Cardiac Arrest and Drug Intoxication during Local Emergency Activities - Based on Differences between Elderly Group and Non-Elderly Group - (일개지역 구급활동 중 병원 전 심정지 및 약물중독 환자 분석 - 노인대 비노인의 차이를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Jae-Min;Yun, Hyeong-Wan
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine potential differences in pre-hospital cases of cardiac arrest and drug Intoxication between elderly group and non-elderly group on local emergency activity sites of rescue 119 team for those cases, so that it can provide useful reference materials for a system of corresponding emergency medical services. Methods: Patients with cardiac arrest and drug intoxication in the elderly and the non-elderly group were analyzed by analyzing the Ambulance Run Report for 3 years from January 2007 to December 2009. Results: According to analysis on potential differences between elderly and the non-elderly group, it was found that there was no significant difference between elderly cases (evacuated to hospital due to cardiac arrest and drug poisoning) and non-elderly cases in year of onset (p = .247), quarter of onset (p = .813), sex (p = .235), consciousness state (p = .126), place of onset (p = .215) and number of first aid services (applied to emergency cases) respectively, but there were significant differences between elderly cases and non-elderly cases in guardian availability (p = .042), time zone of onset (p = .050), distance from the site of onset (p = .278), type of onset (p = .000), number of first aid services depending on distance of evacuation (p = .008) and effectiveness of emergency care (p = .003) on statistical basis. Conclusion: It is important to establish a system of early emergency case reports for rational emergency case management with lower mortality; shorten distance from the site of onset at each time zone of onset in emergency cases; employ more emergency team members; facilitate firsthand / secondhand medical instructions for emergency teams in specialized emergency care depending on distance of evacuation for each kind of onset (elderly group vs. non-elderly group); and improve rate of resuscitated emergency cases by extending the scope of works for emergency medical technicians into wider applications, so that it will be possible to take timely and appropriate measures for emergency settings of ever-increasing aged population in near future.

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Effects of syllable structure and prominence on the alignment and the scaling of the phrase-initial rising tone in Seoul Korean: A preliminary study

  • Kim, Sahyang
    • Phonetics and Speech Sciences
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2015
  • The present study investigates the effects of syllable structure and prosodic prominence on the patterns of tonal alignment and scaling of the phrase-initial rise in Seoul Korean. Two syllable structures (Onset (/#CVC.../ as in minsa) vs. No-onset (/#VC.../ as in insa)) and two prominence conditions (Focus vs. Neutral) were considered. Results showed that the alignment of the L and the H tones in the phrase-initial rise was affected by syllable structure but not by prominence. The time of L was before the vowel onset of the first syllable in the Onset condition (i.e., within the onset consonant) and it was after the vowel onset in the No-onset condition. The difference was attributable to the fact that the initial L was anchored at a fixed distance from the phrase boundary, which was about 30ms after the onset of the syllable in both cases. The time of H was also consistently observed about 20ms after the second vowel onset (i.e., /a/ in minsa/insa). Moreover, the rise time (the duration from the L to the H tones) was longer as the local syllable duration became longer due to different syllable structure and prominence conditions. Taken together, the results provide a support for the segmental anchoring hypothesis, which claims that both the beginning and the end of F0 movement are consistently aligned with segmental 'anchor' points with relatively high stability (Ladd et al., 1999). Results also showed that the scaling of the early rise was slightly influenced by syllable structure but not by prominence. The differences between the results of the current study and a previous study (Cho, 2011) are further discussed.

Analysis of causative microorganisms and choice of antibiotics according to the onset of neonatal sepsis (신생아 패혈증에서 발현시기에 따른 원인균 분석과 항생제 선택)

  • Sung, June Seung;Kim, Dong Yeon;Kim, Sun Hee;Byun, Hyung Suk;Hwang, Tai Ju;Choi, Young Youn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.623-629
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    • 2006
  • Purpose : The mortality rate of neonatal sepsis has been decreased, however, the incidence has not significantly decreased because of increased invasive procedures. This study was designed to make guidelines for choosing antibiotics by analyzing the causative microorganisms and their antibiotics sensitivity test according to the onset of neonatal sepsis. Methods : One hundred seven cases of culture proven sepsis in 89 patients admitted to the NICU of Chonnam University Hospital from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2004, were enrolled. By reviewing the medical records, clinical data, laboratory findings, causative organisms and their antibiotics sensitivity, and mortality were analyzed. Results : The incidence of neonatal sepsis was 1.7 percent and more prevalent in premature and low birth weight infants. 85.4 percent of neonatal sepsis was late onset. Almost all microorganisms(92.9 percent) were gram-positive in early onset, however, two thirds were gram-positive and one third were gram-negative and Candida in late onset. Gram-negative organisms and Candida were more prevalent in patients who had central line. Gram-positive organisms were sensitive to vancomycin, teicoplanin, and gram-negative were sensitive to imipenem, and cefotaxime. Conclusion : Neonatal sepsis was more prevalent in premature and low birth weight infants. More than 90 percent were gram-positive in early onset, however, one third was gram-negative and Candida in late onset. The first choice of antibiotics were a combination of third generation cephalosporin and clindamycin in early onset, and third generation cephalosporin and glycopeptide in late onset. If there is no response to antibiotics treatment, the use of antifungal agents should be considered.

Identification of LAMP2 mutations in early-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by targeted exome sequencing

  • Gill, Inkyu;Kim, Ja Hye;Moon, Jin-Hwa;Kim, Yong Joo;Kim, Nam Su
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.87-91
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    • 2018
  • X-linked dominant mutations in lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) gene have been shown to be the cause of Danon disease, which is a rare disease associated with clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and mental retardation. Cardiac involvement is a common manifestation and is the leading cause of death in Danon disease. We report a case of a 24-month-old boy with hemizygous LAMP2 mutation who presented with failure to thrive and early-onset hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We applied targeted exome sequencing and found a novel hemizygous c.692del variant in exon 5 of the LAMP2 gene, resulting a frameshift mutation p.Thr231Ilefs*11. Our study indicates that target next-generation sequencing can be used as a fast and highly sensitive screening method for inherited cardiomyopathy.

A Pediatric Case of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Renal Amyloidosis

  • Hyun, Hyesun;Park, Eujin;Kim, Ji Hyun;Cho, Myung Hyun;Kang, Hee Gyung;Moon, Jin Soo;Moon, Kyung Chul;Ha, Il-Soo;Cheong, Hae Il
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2018
  • Amyloidosis is a rare disease that results from the deposition of extracellular protein in various body tissues, causing progressive organ dysfunction. Secondary renal amyloidosis is a rare but serious complication of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in patients with Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We report a case of secondary renal amyloidosis in a pediatric patient who reported a 16-year history of "very early onset inflammatory bowel disease". Intensive treatment including repeated infliximab infusions improved clinical parameters of inflammatory bowel disease, although renal dysfunction showed progression. Amyloidosis should be considered in patients with IBD, particularly if they suffered disease progression.

Newborn Screening of Lysosomal Storage Diseases, Including Mucopolysaccharidoses

  • Kim, Su Jin
    • Journal of mucopolysaccharidosis and rare diseases
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.9-13
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    • 2017
  • Tandem mass spectrometry and other new technologies for the multiplex and quantitative analysis of dried blood spots have emerged as powerful techniques for the early screening and assessment of newborns for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Screening newborns for these diseases is important, since treatment options, including enzyme replacement therapy or hematopoietic transplantation, are available for some LSDs, such as infant-onset Pompe disease, Fabry disease, some types of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs), and Krabbe disease. For these diseases, early initiation of treatment, before symptoms worsen, often leads to better clinical outcomes. Several problems, however, are associated with newborn screening for LSDs, including the development of accurate test methods to reduce low false-positive rates and treatment guidelines for late-onset or mild disease variants, the high costs associated with multiplex assays, and ethical issues. In this review, we discuss the history, current status, and ethical problems associated with the newborn screening for LSDs, including MPSs.

Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation on Glycosylation Products in Diabetic KK Mice (비타민 E 보강식이가 당뇨 KK마우스에서 당화단백질 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • 안현숙;임은영;김해리
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.914-919
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    • 1997
  • We investigated the effects of vitamin E supplementation on the protein glycosylation in vivo. Weaned KK-mice were fed high fat diet containing 20% corn oil(wt/wt), and sacrificed at 4, 6, and 0 months of age. High vitamin E diet was the high fat diet supplemented with an excess amount of 이-$\alpha$-tocopheryl acetate(2080IU/kg diet). We measured $HbA_{1C}$ as a glycosylation early product, and collagen-linked fluorescence (CLF) of skin as a glycosylation and product. We found that diabetic group had increased levels of $HbA_{1C}$ within 2 months after onset of diabetes and during the experiments. The skin CLF increased dramatically 5 months after onset of diabetics. Treatment with vitamin E did not modify the level of blood glucose. However, we observed a significant lowering in CLF and $HbA_{1C}$ in diabetic mice.

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