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Relationship between Juvenile Delinquency, Sensation Seeking, and Impulsivity: Focusing on Delinquency-Onset Type (청소년 비행과 감각추구성, 충동성 간의 관련성: 비행 시발 시기를 중심으로)

  • Yoon, Eon Jung;Kim, Kyong Yeon
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.639-649
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    • 2014
  • The main purpose of this study was to find the relationship between the delinquency-onset time in the source and the continuity of delinquency. In order to achieve this objective, we divided 350 first-year high school students into three groups early-onset type, late-onset type, and non-delinquent adolescents on the basis of the delinquency onset. The results of this study were as follow: (1) for the boys, the early-onset type shows a higher continuity of delinquency than both the late-onset type and the general adolescents. On the other hand, for the girls, the early-onset type shows a higher continuity of delinquency than the late-onset type, but there was no difference in the persistence duration between the late-onset type and the non-delinquent adolescents. (2) For the boys, the examination reveals that the early-onset type has a higher degree of sensation seeking and impulsivity than the general adolescents. In addition, the early-onset type shows a higher degree of sensation seeking than the late-onset type, whereas the two show no difference in impulsivity. For the girls, sensation seeking did not show any difference depending on the delinquency onset. However, more impulsivity appeared in the early-onset type than in the late-onset type or the non-delinquent adolescents. (3) The relative priorities of variables determining the group to which the students belong on the basis of the delinquency onset are in the order of sensation seeking and juvenile impulsivity. Therefore, this study, suggests that the early-onset type requires a different kind of intervention than the late-onset type.

Comparison of Clinical Characteristics between Patients with Early-Onset and Adult-Onset Schizophrenia : A Retrospective Study (조기 발병 조현병과 성인기 발병 조현병의 임상적 특성의 비교 : 후향적 연구)

  • Kim, Pyung-Soon;Shin, Jae-Ho;Lee, Chang-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2013
  • Objectives This study is designed to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with early onset schizophrenia to those of adult onset schizophrenia patients in first episode. Methods Authors reviewed medical records of 16 early-onset schizophrenia patients and 22 adult-onset schizophrenia patients who had been admitted in the psychiatric ward and diagnosed as schizophrenia according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth Edition (DSM-IV) at Eulji University Hospital during 2004-2008. Socio-demographic data and clinical characteristics such as duration between onset and active phase, number of significant positive and negative symptoms, positive and negative symptom scores of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores, duration from onset to admission, duration of admission, and equivalent dose of antipsychotics were reviewed. These clinical characteristics of early-onset group were compared to those of adult-onset group. Correlation between age of onset and other clinical characteristics was also analyzed. Results Early-onset group showed more insidious onset pattern and had longer duration of hospitalization than adult-onset group. Early onset group also exhibited more negative symptoms, higher negative symptom scores, and higher CGI-S scores than adult-onset group after treatment. However, there were no significant differences in family history of psychosis, positive symptom frequency at discharge and equivalent dose of antipsychotics between two groups. Conclusions This study revealed that patients with early-onset schizophrenia exhibited more insidious onset, more negative symptoms, and more severe symptoms than those with adult-onset schizophrenia after treatment.

The Association between Vitamin D Levels and Neonatal Early-onset Sepsis : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (비타민 D 농도와 신생아 조기 패혈증의 연관성에 대한 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Lee, So Yeon;Kim, Ha Eun;An, Sook Hee
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.10-16
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    • 2018
  • Background: Vitamin D has been associated with sepsis in pediatric and adult patients. The association with neonates is unclear. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effect of neonatal and maternal vitamin D levels on neonatal early-onset sepsis. Methods: We searched studies published up to November 2017 in PubMed/Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases. All studies that reported 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in neonates with or without early-onset sepsis were included. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 software. Results: Four studies were eligible. The weighted mean difference of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in neonates with early-onset sepsis and controls was -7.27 ng/mL (95% confidence interval = -7.62, -6.92). Maternal vitamin D levels in neonates with early-onset sepsis were significantly lower than those in controls (weighted mean difference -7.24 ng/mL, 95% confidence interval -8.45, -6.03). All neonates with early onset sepsis had vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/mL). Conclusion: Lower neonatal and maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were associated with neonatal early-onset sepsis. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy may be helpful to prevent neonatal early-onset sepsis. The effects of vitamin D supplementation on early-onset sepsis in neonates warrant further study.

Clinical, Endoscopic and Pathogical Characteristics of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer in Vietnamese

  • Quach, Duc Trong;Nguyen, Oanh Thuy
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.1767-1770
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    • 2012
  • Background: The Asia Pacific consensus for colorectal cancer (CRC) recommends that screening programs should begin by the age of 50. However, there have been reports about increasing incidence of CRC at a younger age (i.e. early-onset CRC). Little is known about the features of early-onset CRC in the Vietnamese population. Aim: To describe the clinical, endoscopic and pathological characteristics of early-onset CRC in Vietnamese. Method: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the University Medical Center from March 2009 to March 2011. All patients with definite pathological diagnosis of CRC were recruited. The early-onset CRC group were analyzed in comparison with the late-onset (i.e. ${\geq}$ 50-year-old) CRC group. Results: The rate of early-onset CRC was 28% (112/400) with a male-to-female ratio of 1.3. Some 22.3% (25/112) of the patients only experienced abdominal pain and/or change in bowel habit without alarming symptoms, 42.9% (48/112) considering their symptoms intermittent. The rate of familial history of CRC in early-onset group was significantly higher that of the late-onset group (21.4% versus 7.6%, p<0.001). The distribution of CRC lesions in rectum, distal and proximal colon were 51.8% (58/112), 26.8% (30/112) and 21.4% (24/112), respectively; which was not different from that in the late-onset group (${\chi}2$, p = 0.29). The rates for poorly differentiated tumors were also not significantly different between the two groups: 12.4% (14/112) versus 8.3% (24/288) (${\chi}2$, p = 0.25). Conclusion: A high proportion of CRC in Viet Nam appear at an earlier age than that recommended for screening by the Asia Pacific consensus. Family history was a risk factor of early-onset CRC. Diagnosis of early-onset CRC needs more attention because of the lack of alarming symptoms and their intermittent patterns as described by the patients.

COMPARISON OF DEMOGRAPHIC, CLINICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENT-ONSET SCHIZOPHRENIA (소아기 발병 및 청소년기 발병 정신분열병 환아의 인구학적, 임상적, 심리학적인 특성)

  • Chungh Dong-Seon;Lim Myung-Ho;Kim Soo-Kyoung;Jung Gwang-Mo;Hwang Jun-Won;Kim Boong-Nyun;Shin Min Sup;Cho Soo-Churl;Hong Kang-E
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.219-230
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    • 2005
  • Objectives : This study was designed to compare the demographic data, clinical characteristics, developmental delay, and psychological tests between childhood-onset and adolescent-onset schizophrenic in-patients. Methods Medical records of the 17 childhood-onset (very early onset) Schizophrenia and 16 adolescent-onset (early onset) Schizophrenia in-patients were reviewed. Sex, age, psychiatric past history, prodromal symptoms and period, subtype, co-morbid disease, developmental delay, prescribed drug and dosage, treatment response, intelligence quotient (IQ), and Rorschach test were evaluated. Results : The mean admission age of childhood-onset (very early onset) group and adolescent-onset (early onset) group were 12.69$({\pm}2.34)$ and 15.13$({\pm}1.04)$ years. The mean onset age of childhood-onset(very early onset) group and adolescent-onset (early onset) group were 10.79$({\pm}1.95)$ and 14.46$({\pm}0.82)$ years. The mean prodromal period of childhood-onset (very early onset) group and adolescent-onset (early onset) group were 15.94$({\pm}12.33)$ and 8.06$({\pm}6.10)$ month. The time to remission period of childhood-onset (very early onset) group and adolescent-onset (early onset) group were 50.58$({\pm}24.67)$ and 30.06$({\pm}18.04)$ days. Longer time to remission period in childhood-osnet (very early onset) group was associated with earlier age of onset. The mean of total IQ, performance IQ, verbal IQ were at an average level. Discussion : Childhood-onset (very early onset) group and adolescent-onset (early onset) group Schizophrenia had different clinical and psychological features including prodromal period, and IQ subtests.

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Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Phenotypic, Genetic and Therapeutic Differences between Early-Onset and Adult-Onset IBD (소아기에 발병하는 염증성장질환(IBD)은 성인 IBD와 다른 질환인가? - 조기발병 소아 IBD의 역학적, 임상적, 유전학적 특성 및 치료 시 고려 사항-)

  • Seo, Jeong-Kee
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-25
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    • 2011
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develops during childhood or adolescence in approximately 25% of patients with IBD. Recent studies on pediatric IBD have revealed that early-onset IBD has distinct phenotype differences compared to adult onset IBD. Pediatric early-onset IBD differs in many aspects including disease type, location of the lesions, disease behavior, gender preponderance and genetically attributable risks. This review examines the currently published data on the clinical, epidemiological and genetic differences between early-onset and adult-onset IBD. And finally, therapeutic considerations in the management of pediatric-onset IBD are also discussed.

The Relationship between Early-onset Androgenetic Alopecia and Metabolic Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (조발성 탈모증과 대사증후군과의 관계: 체계적 문헌고찰 및 메타분석)

  • Jang, Jin-Young;Yoon, Young-Joon
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.166-181
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    • 2017
  • Objectives : The study was done to verify the relation between early-onset androgenetic alopecia(AGA) and metabolic syndrome(MetS). Methods : Data were collected through electronic database including KoreaMed, National Assembly Library, KMBASE, NDSL, KCI, KERIS, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Cochrane CENTRAL and EBSCO MEDLINE. A total of 13 case-control studies related to the MetS of early-onset alopecia patients were used for the systematic review and meta-analysis. Risk of bias of included studies were assessed by RoBANS tool. RevMan5.3, CMA3 were used for the meta-analysis. Results : In 13 evaluated articles, most frequent bias was the participant selection bias that was found in 10 articles. Significant association between early-onset AGA and MetS was found in 10(76.9%) out of 13 articles in the systematic review. In meta-analysis, early-onset male AGA was associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome(OR: 3.73, 95% CI:2.49 -5.61). Conclusions : AGA, particularly early -onset male AGA, is significantly associated with MetS. Therefore all patients with early onset male AGA should be suggested to take preventive treatment to reduce the risk of MetS and various problems associated with it.

Recent Advance in Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

  • Shim, Jung Ok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2019
  • Recent studies on pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have revealed that early-onset IBD has distinct phenotypic differences compared with adult-onset IBD. In particular, very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD) differs in many aspects, including the disease type, location of the lesions, disease behavior, and genetically attributable risks. Several genetic defects that disturb intestinal epithelial barrier function or affect immune function have been noted in these patients from the young age groups. In incidence of pediatric IBD in Korea has been increasing since the early 2000s. Neonatal or infantile-onset IBD develops in less than 1% of pediatric patients. Children with "neonatal IBD" or "infantile-onset IBD" have higher rates of affected first-degree relatives, severe disease course, and a high rate of resistance to immunosuppressive treatment. The suspicion of a monogenic cause of VEO-IBD was first confirmed by the discovery of mutations in the genes encoding the interleukin 10 (IL-10) receptors that cause impaired IL-10 signaling. Patients with such mutations typically presented with perianal fistulae, shows a poor response to medical management, and require early surgical interventions in the first year of life. To date, 60 monogenic defects have been identified in children with IBD-like phenotypes. The majority of monogenic defects presents before 6 years of age, and many present before 1 year of age. Next generation sequencing could become an important diagnostic tool in children with suspected genetic defects especially in children with VEO-IBD with severe disease phenotypes. VEO-IBD is a phenotypically and genetically distinct disease entity from adult-onset or older pediatric IBD.

Comparison of Clinical Symptoms between Early and Late Onset Depression in Elderly Depressive Patients in Korea (한국의 노인우울증 환자에서 조발성 우울증과 만발성 우울증의 임상증상의 비교)

  • Park, Ki-Hong;Lee, Hwa-Young;Ham, Byung-Joo;Lee, Min-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : Clinical differences between elderly patients with early and late onset depression have been described although these have been inconsistent. We aimed to compare differences of clinical symptoms using the 17 items Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression(HAM-D-17) between two groups. Methods : Data of 175 elderly patients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder according to DSM-IV from January 2005 to November 2009 were collected. Seventy five patients were early onset depression and one hundred patients were late onset depression. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Results : There were some differences in HAM-D-17 scores between early and late onset depression. Early onset depression patients scored significantly higher in retardation(t = 2.41, p = 0.017) and somatic symptoms( general)(t = 2.37, p = 0.019) than late onset depression patients. Conclusion : We concluded that early onset depression patients have more severe psychomotor retardation and general somatic symptoms than late onset depression patients in Korea. Because of some limitations of this study, further investigations will be needed to validate this study results.

Comparison of Forensic Demographic Characteristics, Interpersonal Problems, and Personality Disorders between Early and Late Onset Criminal Patients with Schizophrenia (범법 조현병 환자에서 발병연령에 따른 범죄인구특성과 대인관계문제 및 성격장애의 차이)

  • Cha, Seung Min;Choi, Jong Hyuk;Lee, Mi-Ji;Chee, Ik-Seung
    • Journal of the Korean society of biological therapies in psychiatry
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.202-208
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in forensic demographic characteristics, interpersonal problems and personality disorder between early and late onset criminal patients with schizophrenia. Methods : The participants included 187 inpatients with schizophrenia who had committed crimes. They filled out the Korean Inventory of Interpersonal Problem Personality Disorder Scales and Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised. They were divided into early onset group and late onset group according to onset age of schizophrenia at 26 years old(under 26 versus 26 and older) and forensic demographic characteristics, interpersonal problem and personality disorders including psychopathy were compared between two groups. Results : There were no differences in gender, education years and family history between the two groups. Early onset group was associated with lower age, earlier onset of age and earlier age at the time of the crime. Duration from onset to diagnosis was not different between the two groups. Duration from onset to crime and after diagnosis to crime was shorter in late onset group. There were no differences between the two groups in the interpersonal problems, personality disorder and psychopathic personality evaluation. Conclusion : These results suggested that there may be forensic demographic differences related to crime between early and later onset schizophrenia. Psychiatrists should consider the age at onset of schizophrenia when assessing the risk of violence in patients with schizophrenia. In the future. it will be needed other study of age classification such as admixture analysis.