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Delayed closure effect in preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus (미숙아 동맥관개존증의 지연된 폐쇄가 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Hyun Ju;Sim, Gyu Hong;Jung, Kyung Eun;Lee, Jin A;Choi, Chang Won;Kim, Ee Kyung;Kim, Han Suk;Kim, Beyong Il;Choi, Jung-Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.10
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    • pp.1065-1070
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study aims to determine whether early closure (within 7 d) of significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with indomethacin or ligation reduces neonatal morbidity when compared with delayed closure (after 7 d). Methods : Fifty-eight extremely-low-birth-weight infants admitted to the NICU of Seoul National University Hospital from April 2005 to May 2007 with PDA were studied retrospectively. Results : The mean gestational age (GA) was $26{\pm}2weeks$ (range, 23-32 wk), and the birth weight was $782{\pm}146g$ (range, 430-990 g). The delayed closure group was associated with early GA ($25.7{\pm}1.7wk$ vs $27.1{\pm}2.0wk$, P=0.013), in vitro fertilization (IVF) (55% vs 24%, P=0.017), and the absence of preeclampsia (5% vs. 34%, P=0.013). There was no difference in ductal size between the early closure and delayed closure groups. The incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (95% vs 65%, P=0.012) and intraventricular hemorrhage (70% vs. 39%, P=0.027) increased in the delayed closure group. Using regression analysis adjusted for gestational age, delayed closure correlated positively with the duration of ventilator support (P=0.008), hospitalization (P=0.020), time to full enteral feeding (P<0.001), and total parenteral nutrition (P=0.010). Conclusion : Delayed closure of the hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in extremely-low-birth-weight infants is significantly related to the development of various morbidities. Thus, early closure of PDA is needed within the first week of life.

Interpretation of screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia in preterm infants (미숙아에서의 선천 부신 과형성에 대한 선별검사의 해석)

  • Chung, Hye Rim;Shin, Choong Ho;Yang, Sei Won;Yun, Kyong Ah;Lee, Young Ah;Park, So Eun;Choi, Chang Won;Kim, Byung Il;Choi, Jung Hwan;Song, and Junghan
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.616-621
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : This study was undertaken to identify factors that influence 17-OHP levels in preterm infants and to suggest a reasonable follow-up schedule of screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in preterm infants. Methods : The 17-OHP concentrations in filter paper blood spots of 427 preterm infants were obtained. The effects of gestational age (GA), systemic diseases, and antenatal dexamethasone on screening and follow-up 17-OHP values were investigated. Results : The screening 17-OHP values were markedly variable (range: 0.1-143.3 ng/mL). The screening 17-OHP levels were negatively correlated with GA (r=-0.535, P<0.01). In infants with GA<32 weeks, the screening 17-OHP levels were significantly higher in sick infants or infant with hypotension than in healthy infants. The screening values of prenatal dexamethasone-treated infants had a tendency to be low. In infants with initial 17-OHP values ${\geq}20ng/mL$, the intervals until rescreening 17-OHP <10 ng/mL or serum 17-OHP <20 ng/mL were negatively correlated with GA (r=-0.541, P<0.01) and were prolonged in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (P<0.01). None of the preterm infants were confirmatively diagnosed with CAH. Conclusion : The 17-OHP values of preterm infants were influenced by GA, prenatal dexamethasone, and postnatal diseases. Because the 17-OHP values of preterm infants were markedly variable, a follow-up schedule should be developed considering both 17-OHP values and clinical status.

Treatment of Benign Bone Lesions with Autologous Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Transplantation (자가 골수 기질 세포 이식을 이용한 장관골 양성 골 병변의 치료)

  • Rhee, Seung-Koo;Kang, Yong-Koo;Kim, Yong-Sik;Bahk, Won-Jong;Chung, Yang-Guk;Kim, Hyoung-Jun;Ok, Ji-Hoon
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: We analyzed the result of autologous bone marrow stromal cell transplantation with or without cancellous chip bone allograft for benign long bone lesions. Materials and methods: Since July 1996, eight benign bone lesions treated by curettage, cancellous chip bone allograft and bone marrow or marrow stromal cell transplantation were observed for resolution of clinical symptoms, new bone formation and consolidation. There were 6 males and 2 females. Average age was 24 (range 8 to 47) years old. Histologic diagnoses were 5 fibrous dysplasia, 2 simple bone cysts and one chondroblastoma and fibrous cortical defect each. Mean follow-up period was 16.3 (range 3 to 84) months. Results: In all four symptomatic patients, the pain was subsided in two weeks after surgery. New bone formation in the lesion was observed at 4 weeks, which incorporated into surrounding normal bone around 8 weeks. There were one pathologic fracture through the lesion at 3 weeks and one recurrence of simple bone cyst at 5 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Bone marrow or marrow stromal cell transplantation for bone defects from curettage of benign bone lesions, with or without cancellous chip bone allograft revealed rapid healing. Though it was the result of short-term follow up, it supports that bone marrow stromal cell transplantation will be very useful for the treatment of benign long bone cysts or other lesions. The complete curettage of inner cystic wall is important to prevent later recurrence, and the rigid internal fixation is also needed in selected high risk lesions of fracture.

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Diagnostic Criteria of $^{99m}Tc$-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid Captopril Renal Scan for the Diagnosis of Renovascular Hypertension by Unilateral Renal Artery Stenosis ($^{99m}Tc$-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid 캅토프릴 신장스캔의 단측 신동맥 협착에 의한 신혈관성고혈압 진단 기준)

  • Choi, Seung-Jin;Hong, Il-Ki;Chang, Jae-Won;Park, Su-Kil;Moon, Dae-Hyuk
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.498-505
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: We compared captopril renal scintigraphic criteria for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension by unilateral renal artery stenosis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 24 patients (m/f : 16/8, age: $39{\pm}18$ years) with unilateral renal artery stenosis who underwent renal artery revascularization and captopril renal scintigraphy with $^{99m}Tc$-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid between May 1995 and April 2004. The blood pressure response was classified as cure/improvement or failure. We evaluated captopril-induced changes in relative function (BCfun) and renogram grade (0 to 5: 0=normal, and 5=renal failure pattern without measurable uptake) (CBren) and the difference of renograms between the normal and stenotic kidney on captopril scan (CNren). Results: light of 24 patients were cured and 11 improved and 5 patients were classified as failed revascularization. Significant predictors of a cure or improvement of blood pressure were younger age, stenosis by fibromuscular dysplasia or arteritis, BCfun, CBren and CNren. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of age, BCfun, CBren and CNren were not significantly different. Positive and negative predictive values of predictors were 100% and 42% (age ${\leq}38$): 92% and 50% (BCfun ${\geq}1%$): 92% and 75% (CBren ${\geq}1$), and 90% and 60% (CNren ${\geq}1$), respectively. Conclusion: Captopril induced changes in renal function and renogram can reliably predict hypertension response to revascularization. Renogram pattern on captopril scan can diagnose renovascular hypertension without baseline data in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis.

The Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Musculoskeletal Tumors by F-18 FDG PET/CT Studies - Determination of maxSUV by Analysis of ROC Curve (F-18 FDG PET/CT에서 양성과 악성 근골격 종양의 감별진단 - 수신자 판단특성곡선을 이용한 maxSUV의 절단값 결정)

  • Kong, Eun-Jung;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Chun, Kyung-Ah;Won, Kyu-Chang;Lee, Hyung-Woo;Choi, Jun-Heok;Shin, Duk-Seop
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.553-560
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: We evaluated the standard uptake value (SUV) of F-18 FDG at PET/CT for differentiation of benign from malignant tumor in primary musculoskeletal tumors. Materials and Methods: Forty-six tumors (11 benign and 12 malignant soft tissue tumors, 9 benign and 14 malignant bone tumors) were examined with F-18 FDG PET/CT (Discovery ST, GE) prior to tissue diagnosis. The maxSUV(maximum value of SUV) were calculated and compared between benign and malignant lesions. The lesion analysis was based on the transverse whole body image. The maxSUV with cutoff of 4.1 was used in distinguishing benign from malignant soft tissue tumor and 3.05 was used in bone tumor by ROC curve. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in maxSUV between benign (n=11; maxSUV $3.4{\pm}3.2$) and malignant (n=12; maxSUV $14.8{\pm}12.2$) lesions in soft tissue tumor (p=0.001). Between benign bone tumor (n=9; maxSUV $5.4{\pm}4.0$) and malignant bone tumor (n=14; maxSUV $7.3{\pm}3.2$), there was not a significant difference in maxSUV. The sensitivity and specificity for differentiating malignant from benign soft tissue tumor was 83% and 91%, respectively. There were four false positive malignant bone tumor cases to include fibrous dysplasia, Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (n=2) and osteoid osteoma. Also, one false positive case of malignant soft tissue tumor was nodular fasciitis. Conclusion: The maxSUV was useful for differentiation of benign from malignant lesion in primary soft tissue tumors. In bone tumor, the low maxSUV correlated well with benign lesions but high maxSUV did not always mean malignancy.

Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit : Clinical Manifestations, Ddiagnostic Availability of Endotracheal Tip Culture (신생아 집중치료실에서 인공 환기요법 관련 폐렴의 임상양상과 기관내 삽관의 유용성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Nam Young;Sung, Tae Jung;Shin, Seon Hee;Kim, Sung Koo;Lee, Kon Hee;Yoon, Hae Sun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The incidence of mortality associated with respiratory difficulties is decreasing nowadays contributed to the development of neonatology. However, complications associated with mechanical ventilator are increasing. This study is to determine clinical manifestations, diagnositc availability of the endotracheal tip culture in patients with Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia(VAP) in neonatal intensive care unit(NICU). Methods : A retrospective analysis of 50 neonates who were admitted to the NICU of Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital and had given mechanical ventilator from 1 January 2000 to 30 June 2003. VAP group defined as neonates who had pneumonia with mechanical ventilation longer than 48 hours. They were classified into VAP group(n=13) and control group (n=37) and the prevalence, microorganisms cultured from the endotracheal tube tip and risk factors were investigated. Results : The prevalence of VAP was 26.0%(n=13) and the most dominant microorganism cultured in our NICU was methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococcus(MR-CNS) in 4 cases. Other microorganisms were Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) and Klebsiella. Gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, respiratory distress syndrome, retinopathy of prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, renal failure, pulmonary hemorrhage, pneumothorax were not different significantly between two groups except intraventricular hemorrhage(P<0.001) and patent ductus arteriosus(P<0.05). Duration of hospital stay and mortality rate were also not different significantly. Conclusion : VAP occurred at a significant rate among mechanically ventilated NICU patients. Despite of limitation of encotracheal tip culture, the most common microorganism was MR-CNS. We should be aware of occurrence of VAP in NICU neonate who were with mechanical ventilator and should treat with great care.

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Evaluation of Perinatal and Management Factors Associated with Improved Survival in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants (출생 체중 1,000 g 미만의 초극소 미숙아의 생존율 향상과 연관된 산과 및 치료인자)

  • Park, Sung Eun;Jeon, Ga Won;Choi, Chang Won;Hwang, Jong Hee;Koo, Soo Hyun;Kim, Yu Jin;Lee, Chang Hoon;Chang, Yun Sil;Park, Won Soon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.12
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    • pp.1324-1329
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to evaluate recent improvements in the survival rate of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants and to identify perinatal and management factors that are associated with improved survival. Methods : Two groups of ELBW infants who were admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during two distinct eras : November 1994-December 1999 (Period 1 : n=100) and January 2000-April 2004 (Period 2 : n=166) were retrospectively reviewed. Results : Despite the younger gestational age and smaller birth weight of the ELBW infants in period 2, not only did their survival rate increased to 75 percent from 60 percent in period 1, but their incidence of morbidities such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, confimed sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage (${\geq}$Grade III) also declined. Factors significantly associated with improved survival included the use of antenatal steroids, a longer duration of nasal continuous positive airway pressure and the absence of intraventricular hemorrhage (${\geq}$Grade III). Conclusion : We believe that optimized clinical practice, that emphasized less invasive care, contributed to the recent improvements in the survival rate of ELBW infants.

Outcomes and Management of Fetal Infants with Birth Weight Below 500 g at a Tertiary Center (출생체중 500 g 미만의 태아영아 치료성적 및 치료의 실제)

  • Chang, Yun Sil;Kim, Yu Jin;Koo, Soo Hyun;Lee, Jang Hoon;Hwang, Jong Hee;Choi, Chang Won;Shim, Jae Won;Kim, Sung Shin;Ko, Sun Young;Lee, Eun Kyung;Park, Won Soon
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.9
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    • pp.939-945
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to report outcome of fetal infants with birth weight below 500 g known as lower limit of viability and to evaluate treatment characteristics and short-term morbidity of their survivors. Methods : We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all fetal infants with birth weight below 500 g who were delivered at Samsung Medical Center(SMC), or transferred to neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) of SMC within 24 hrs after birth between 1994 and 2004. Data for all interventions and morbidity outcome were analyzed for infants who were admitted to the NICU and were compared between NICU survivors and deaths. Results : Among 53 infants with birth weights of 400 to 499 g who were born in SMC during the study period, 8(15.1%) infants were admitted to the NICU and one was transferred to NICU from other hospital. Overall, 4(44%) of 9 survived and were discharged from the NICU. The smallest infant who survived weighed 439 grams. The least gestational age was $23^{+3}$ among the survivors. Compared with NICU deaths, NICU survivors had larger gestational age($24^{+2}{\pm}1^{+3}$ vs. $25^{+4}{\pm}2^{+3}$) and birth weight($424{\pm}17$ vs. $453{\pm}19$)(P<0.05). Median survival duration of NICU deaths was 15 days. None of NICU survivors had severe IVH, but 3(75%) had laser therapy for retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia, respectively. Conclusion : Fetal infants with birth weight below 500 g known as lower limit of viability survived successfully. Study for their long-term follow-up will be needed to define our limit of viability and indication for their active resuscitation.

Serum Albumin Concentrations and Clinical Disorders by Gestational Ages in Preterm Babies (미숙아에서 재태 연령에 따른 혈청 알부민치와 임상증상과의 관계)

  • Lee, Mia;Yun, Soo;Lim, Baek Keun;Kim, Jong Soo
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.148-153
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    • 2005
  • Purpose : The aim of this study was to determine the reference ranges of serum albumin levels depending on the gestational ages of preterm infants. We also intended to compare the mean serum albumin levels between groups of preterm infants that did not develop clinical disorders later, and groups that did develop clinical disorders such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity, apnea and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We also examined the significance of serum albumin as a predictor for the development of clinical disorders. Methods : The records of 208 neonates with gestational ages from 23 weeks to 41 weeks were reviewed retrospectively. The mean albumin concentrations with reference ranges by gestational ages were determined. Statistics for each two of group were compared. Logistic regression analysis was used to model odd ratio, and 95 percent confidence interval as a mean of the association between predictors and outcome. Results : Serum albumin levels were at 23-24 weeks gestation was 2.36 g/dL, rising to 3.43 g/dL in full term babies. There were significant mean differences between the clinical groups and control groups for each clinical disorder such as respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and apnea in premature babies of 30-36 weeks of gestation. Low serum albumin appeared to be associated with increased risks of clinical disorders. Conclusion : The normal serum albumin levels in preterm infants should be defined according to the gestational ages. Lower albumin levels increase the risks of the later development of clinical disorders, which are common in premature infants.

Current Status of Children on Peritoneal Dialysis in Korea : A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Study (소아복막투석의 현황: 다기관 공동연구 결과보고)

  • Youn, Ji-Seok;Lee, Joo-Hoon;Park, Young-Seo;Yim, Hyung-Eun;Paik, Kyung-Hoon;Yoo, Kee-Hwan;Ha, Il-Soo;Cheong, Hae-Il;Choi, Yong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.176-188
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the major form of dialysis in use for infants and children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this study was to gain insight into the current status of children on PD in Korea. Methods : In May 2008, questionnaires were sent to the pediatric nephrologists via e-mail. Four centers replied and those data were reviewed. Results : A total of 103 patients were included in this study. Male to female ratio was 1.6:1. Mean age was $11.5{\pm}4.9$ years (0-19 years). Primary renal diseases diagnosed were as follows: primary glomerular disease (34%), chronic pyelonephritis-reflux nephropathy (14.6%), systemic disease (9.7%), renal hypoplasia/dysplasia (8.7%), heredofamilial disease (6.8%), vascular disease (3.9%), drug-induced nephropathy (1.0%), and unknown (12.6%). PD modalities were as follows: CAPD (42.7%), CCPD (27.2%), NIPD (11.7%), and Hybrid (18.4%). Weekly total Kt/V was $2.1{\pm}0.7$ (0.3-4.1). Results of peritoneal equilibrium test were as follows: low 36.8%, low average 31.6%, high average 19.7%, and high 11.8%. Z-score for weight was $-1.00{\pm}1.20$ (-4.54~+2.50). Z-score for height was $-1.55{\pm}1.65$ (-9.42~+1.87). Growth hormone was administered in 24.3% of patients. Anti-hypertensive drugs were administered in 64.0% of patients. Laboratory findings were as follows: hemoglobin $10.5{\pm}1.4$ g/dL, calcium $9.7{\pm}0.7$ mg/dL, phosphorus $5.4{\pm}1.4$ mg/dL, and parathyroid hormone $324.2{\pm}342.8$ pg/mL. Conclusion : Primary glomerular disease was the most common cause of ESRD. CAPD was the most prevalent PD modality. Low and low average peritoneal transport type were common. Growth disturbance were noted in many patients. Some patients had hypertension even with anti- hypertensive drugs. Calcium-phosphorus levels were maintained adequately, but many patients had secondary hyperparathyroidism.