• Title, Summary, Keyword: dysfunctional pathway

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Endothelium-derived Relaxing Factors of Small Resistance Arteries in Hypertension

  • Kang, Kyu-Tae
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2014
  • Endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), including nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin ($PGI_2$), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF), play pivotal roles in regulating vascular tone. Reduced EDRFs cause impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, or endothelial dysfunction. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh) is consistently observed in conduit vessels in human patients and experimental animal models of hypertension. Because small resistance arteries are known to produce more than one type of EDRF, the mechanism(s) mediating endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries may be different from that observed in conduit vessels under hypertensive conditions, where vasorelaxation is mainly dependent on NO. EDHF has been described as one of the principal mediators of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in small resistance arteries in normotensive animals. Furthermore, EDHF appears to become the predominant endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation pathway when the endothelial NO synthase (NOS3)/NO pathway is absent, as in NOS3-knockout mice, whereas some studies have shown that the EDHF pathway is dysfunctional in experimental models of hypertension. This article reviews our current knowledge regarding EDRFs in small arteries under normotensive and hypertensive conditions.

Autophagy in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Treatment

  • Xu, Dong-Wei;Zhang, Guan-Qing;Wang, Zong-Wei;Xu, Xiao-Yin;Liu, Tong-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2167-2175
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    • 2015
  • Autophagy is a self-digestion process, wrapping cytoplasmic proteins or organelles to form vesicles for degradation in lysosomes. The process plays an important role in the maintenance of intracellular homostasis. Here we overview articles on autophagy and cancer/tumors in Pubmed and found 327 articles. Autophagy exists in many tumors and is involved in cell malignant transformation and tumor cell growth. In early phases of tumorigenesis, autophagy clears the abnormally folded proteins and dysfunctional organelles such as mitochondria. Autophagy can also inhibit cell stress responses and prevent genetic damage. When a tumor develops, autophagy helps tumor cells survive nutritional deficiencies and hypoxic conditions. Studies of autophagy in the occurrence and progression of tumors should provide new therapeutic strategies for tumors.

Identifying Differentially Expressed Genes and Screening Small Molecule Drugs for Lapatinib-resistance of Breast Cancer by a Bioinformatics Strategy

  • Zhuo, Wen-Lei;Zhang, Liang;Xie, Qi-Chao;Zhu, Bo;Chen, Zheng-Tang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10847-10853
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    • 2015
  • Background: Lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor that interrupts the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER2/neu pathways, has been indicated to have significant efficacy in treating HER2-positive breast cancer. However, acquired drug resistance has become a very serious clinical problem that hampers the use of this agent. In this study, we aimed to screen small molecule drugs that might reverse lapatinib-resistance of breast cancer by exploring differentially expressed genes (DEGs) via a bioinformatics method. Materials and Methods: We downloaded the gene expression profile of BT474-J4 (acquired lapatinib-resistant) and BT474 (lapatinib-sensitive) cell lines from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using dChip software. Then, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed with the DAVID database. Finally, a connectivity map was utilized for predicting potential chemicals that reverse lapatinib-resistance. Results: A total of 1, 657 DEGs were obtained. These DEGs were enriched in 10 pathways, including cell cycling, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion associate examples. In addition, several small molecules were screened as the potential therapeutic agents capable of overcoming lapatinib-resistance. Conclusions: The results of our analysis provided a novel strategy for investigating the mechanism of lapatinib-resistance and identifying potential small molecule drugs for breast cancer treatment.

Genenation of structural diversity in polyketides by combinatorial biosynthesis of polyketides: Part I. Generation of multiple bioactive macrolides by hybrid modular polyketide synthases in Streptomyces venezuelae, Part II. Production of novel rifamycins by combinatorial biosynthesis

  • Yoon, Yeo-Joon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Applied Microbiology Conference
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2002
  • The pikromycin biosynthetic system in Streptomyces venezuleae is unique for its ability to produce two groups of antibiotics that include the 12-membered ring macrolides methymycin and neomethymycin, and the 14-membered ring macrolides narbomycin and pikromycin. The metabolic pathway also contains two post polyketide-modification enzymes, a glycosyltransferase and P450 hydroxylase that have unusually broad substrate specificities. In order to explore further the substrate flexibility of these enzymes a series of hybrid polyketide synthases were constructed and their metabolic products characterized. The plasmid-based replacement of the multifunctional protein subunits of the pikromycin PKS in S. venezuelae by the corresponding subunits from heterologous modular PKSs resulted in recombinant strains that produce both 12- and 14-membered ring macrolactones with predicted structural alterations. In all cases, novel macrolactones were produced and further modified by the DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase leading to biologically active macrolide structures. These results demonstrate that hybrid PKSs in S. venezuelae can produce a multiplicity of new macrolactones that are modified further by the highly flexible DesVII glycosyltransferase and PikC hydroxylase tailoring enzymes. This work demonstrates the unique capacity of the S. venezuelae pikromycin pathway to expand the toolbox of combinatorial biosynthesis and to accelerate the creation of novel biologically active natural products. The polyketide backbone of rifamycin B is assembled through successive condensation and ${\beta}$-carbonyl processing of the extender units by the modular rifamycin PKS. The eighth module, in the RifD protein, contains nonfunctional DH domain and functional KR domain, which specify the reduction of the ${\beta}$-carbonyl group resulting in the C-21 bydroxyl of rifamycin B. A four amino acid substitution and one amino acid deletion were introduced in the putative NADPH binding motif in the proposed KR domain encoded by rifD. This strategy of mutation was based on the amino acid sequences of the corresponding motif of the KR domain of module 3 in the RifA protein, which is believed dysfunctional, so as to introduce a minimum alteration and retain the reading frame intact, yet ensure loss of function. The resulting strain produces linear polyketides, from tetraketide to octaketide, which are also produced by a rifD disrupted mutant as a consequence of premature termination of polyketide assembly. Much of the structural diversity within the polyketide superfamily of natural products is due to the ability of PKSs to vary the reduction level of every other alternate carbon atom in the backbone. Thus, the ability to introduce heterologous reductive segments such as ketoreductase (KR), dehydratase (DH), and enoylreductase (ER) into modules that naturally lack these activities would increase the power of the combinatorial biosynthetic toolbox. The dehydratase domain of module 7 of the rifamycin PKS, which is predicted to be nonfunctional in view of the sequence of the apparent active site, was replaced with its functional homolog from module 7 of rapamycin-producing polyketide synthase. The resulting mutant strain behaved like a rifC disrupted mutant, i.e., it accumulated the heptaketide intermediate and its precursors. This result points out a major difficulty we have encountered with all the Amycolatopsis mediterranei strain containing hybrid polyketide synthases: all the engineered strains prepared so far accumulate a plethora of products derived from the polyketide chain assembly intermediates as major products instead of just analogs of rifamycin B or its ansamycin precursors.

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Overexpression of Rcan1-1L Inhibits Hypoxia-Induced Cell Apoptosis through Induction of Mitophagy

  • Sun, Lijun;Hao, Yuewen;An, Rui;Li, Haixun;Xi, Cong;Shen, Guohong
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.37 no.11
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    • pp.785-794
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    • 2014
  • Mitophagy, a cellular process that selectively targets dysfunctional mitochondria for degradation, is currently a hot topic in research into the pathogenesis and treatment of many human diseases. Considering that hypoxia causes mitochondrial dysfunction, which results in cell death, we speculated that selective activation of mitophagy might promote cell survival under hypoxic conditions. In the present study, we introduced the Regulator of calcineurin 1-1L (Rcan1-1L) to initiate the mitophagy pathway and aimed to evaluate the effect of Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy on cell survival under hypoxic conditions. Recombinant adenovirus vectors carrying Rcan1-1L were transfected into human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human adult cardiac myocytes. Using the 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide MTT assay and Trypan blue exclusion assay, Rcan1-1L overexpression was found to markedly reverse cell growth inhibition induced by hypoxia. Additionally, Rcan1-1L overexpression inhibited cell apoptosis under hypoxic conditions, as detected by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis assay. Meanwhile, the mitochondria-mediated cell apoptotic pathway was inhibited by Rcan1-1L. In contrast, knockdown of Rcan1-1L accelerated hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, Rcan1-1L overexpression significantly reduced mitochondrial mass, decreased depolarized mitochondria, and downregulated ATP and reactive oxygen species production. We further delineated that the loss of mitochondrial mass was due to the activation of mitophagy induced by Rcan1-1L. Rcan1-1L overexpression activated autophagy flux and promoted translocation of the specific mitophagy receptor Parkin into mitochondria from the cytosol, whereas inhibition of autophagy flux resulted in the accumulation of Parkin-loaded mitochondria. Finally, we demonstrated that mitochondrial 1permeability transition pore opening was significantly increased by Rcan1-1L overexpression, which suggested that Rcan1-1L might evoke mitophagy through regulating mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Taken together, we provide evidence that Rcan1-1L overexpression induces mitophagy, which in turn contributes to cell survival under hypoxic conditions, revealing for the first time that Rcan1-1L-induced mitophagy may be used for cardioprotection.

The effects of knee joint position sense following local and general load protocols (국소적 부하와 전신적 부하가 슬관절 위치 감각에 미치는 영향)

  • Hwang, Yoon-Tae;Park, Rae-Joon;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.429-440
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of knee joint position sense following local and general load protocols in 25 healthy male subjects. Proprioception of the knee joint was evaluated by measuring absolute angular errors at matching angles before, after and between 2 different types of load protocols. Proprioception tests(on the dominant knee) were performed in which proprioception of the passivepassive reproduced and active-active reproduced knee position was measured. Local load was provided with maximum isokinetic knee extension-flexion on the isokinetic dynamometer(Cybex), and general load was 10 minutes running on a treadmill. Peak torque(knee extension and flexion) and heart rate(beats per minute) was evaluated as an indicator of local and general fatigue during load protocols. The results were as follows: 1. For pasive-pasive reproduced knee position test, significant difference in absolute angular errors after general load protocol was detected compared with that before general load protocol(P<.05), significant difference in absolute angular errors after local load protocol was detected compared with that before local load protocol(P<.05). However, no significant difference in absolute angular errors of general load protocol was detected compared with that of local load protocol (P>.05), no significant difference in absolute angular errors of local load protocol was detected compared with that of general load protocol(P>.05). 2. For active-active reproduced knee position test, significant difference in absolute angular errors after general load protocol was detected compared with that before general load protocol(P<.05), significant difference in absolute angular errors after local load protocol was detected compared with that before local load protocol (P<.05). Also, significant difference in absolute angular errors of general load protocol was detected compared with that of local load protocol(P<.05), significant difference in absolute angular errors of local load protocol was detected compared with that of general load protocol(P<.05). 3. A significant decrease of peak torque of knee extensors and flexors was seen after local load, although heart rate was significantly increased(P<.05). No significant change of peak torque of knee extensors and flexors was seen after general load(P>.05), although heart rate was also significantly increased(P<.05). The previous study revealed that knee proprioception is significantly altered when the muscle mechanoreceptors are dysfunctional due to muscle fatigue, although the joint mechanoreceptors have no significantly effect on knee proprioception when the presence of knee muscle fatigue. However, the results of this study are different from those of the previous study in that muscle weakness of the knee could not be seen after general load. This study shows that general load may diminish motor control by the central nervous system. Proprioceptional decline without muscle weakness of knee after general load suggests a change in the proprioceptional pathway without influence from muscle mechanoreceptors.

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