• Title, Summary, Keyword: drying condition

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Study on Press-drying and Air-drying of Italian Poplar Rotary Veneer (이태리포플러 로타리 단판(單板)의 열판건조(熱板乾燥)와 천연건조(天然乾燥)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Jung, Hee-Suk;Shim, Chong-Supp
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.167-167
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    • 1982
  • Italian poplar (Populus euramericana) rotary veneers were press-dried and air-dried to study drying curves, thickness shrinkage and width shrinkage of them under several drying conditions such as drying temperatures and veneer thicknesses. The results of the study are summarized as follows; 1. In press-drying, drying times from green condition to about final moisture content of 10 percent with veneer thickness of 0.6mm by platen temperatures required about 10 minutes at platen temperature of $100^{\circ}C$, 3 minutes at $110^{\circ}C$, 1 minute at $120^{\circ}C$ and $130^{\circ}C$, respectively. 2. In press, drying, drying times from green condition to about final moisture content of 10 percent by veneer thicknesses required 2 minutes at veneer thickness of 0.6mm, 4 minutes at 1.2mm,6 minutes at 1.8mm and 9 minutes at 3.6mm, respectively. 3. In air-drying, drying times from green condition to air-dried moisture content by veneer thicknesses required 15 hours at veneer thickness of 0.6mm, 18 hours at 1.2mm and 23 hours at 2.4mm, respectively. 4. Thickness shrinkage of press-drying was remarkably greater than that of air-drying, but width shrinkage of press-drying was rather smaller. 5. Difference of thickness shrinkage among platen temperatures was insignificant, and width shrinkage at platen temperature of $130^{\circ}C$ was the least.

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Drying Characteristics of Sea Tangle Using Combination of Microwave and Far-Infrared Dryer

  • Han, Chung-Su;Kang, Tae-Hwan;Lee, Jeong-Hyeon;Won, Jin-Ho;Cho, Byeong-Hyo;Cho, Sung-Chan
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The present study is aimed at examining the drying characteristics of sea tangle through a combination of microwave and far-infrared drying experiment and finding the optimal drying conditions. Methods: Sea tangle was cleaned and cut into fine pieces (5mm) before they were subjected to combinational drying by microwave and far-infrared ray. The amount of specimen per drying is 2 kg. The finely cut pieces of sea tangle were preheated in a microwave dryer for three different lengths of time (10, 15, and 20 min). Subsequently, they were dried using a far-infrared dryer at tow temperatures ($90^{\circ}C$ and $100^{\circ}C$) at an air velocity of 0.8 m/s until the final moisture content reduced to 10%. Results: Sea tangle dried under the condition of 20 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. Of the drying models verified in this study, the logarithmic model showed high accuracy with the coefficient of determination $R^2>0.7825$ and RMSE<0.1095. The rehydration ratio of sea tangle was the highest (12.87 g water/g dry matter) under the condition of 15 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. The energy consumption for the combination of microwave and far-infrared drying was the lowest (4.78 kJ/kg water) under the condition of 20 min of preheating in the microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by the far-infrared dryer. Conclusions: Considering the drying time, discoloration during drying, rehydration ratio, and energy consumption for the drying of sea tangle, the optimal drying conditions for high-quality sea tangle are 15 min of preheating in a microwave dryer and drying at $100^{\circ}C$ by a far-infrared dryer.

A Study on Modelling for Prediction of Concrete Drying Shrinkage according to Aggregate Ratio of Concrete (잔골재율 변화에 따른 콘크리트 건조수축 모델링에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Do-kyong;Yoon, Yer-Wan;Kim, Kwang-Seo
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 2004
  • Drying Shrinkage has much complexity as it has relations with both internal elements of concrete and external factors. Therefore, experiments on Concrete Drying Shrinkage are carried out in this study under simplified circumstances applying temperature & Humidity test chamber which enables constant temperature and humidity. Comparative analyses have been made respectively according to the consequences aiming at modelling for prediction of Concrete Drying Shrinkage and making out measures to reduce it. Strain Rate of Drying Shrinkage of concrete under the condition of dry air appears to rise by about 20%-30% in proportion as the temperature rises $5^{\circ}C$ when the humidity was held below 10% compared under the condition of dry temperature & Humidity test chamber. Strain Rate of Drying Shrinkage in pit sand concrete increased 20% higher than measured when in river sand under the condition of 90-day material age. A general formula with two variables is derived as follow ${\varepsilon}={\alpha}_1+{\beta}_1x_1+{\beta}_2x_2+{\beta}_3x_1^2+{\beta}_5x_2^2$. and also graphed in 3 dimensions, enabling to apply to actual design and predict Strain Rate of Drying Shrinkage in concrete. The results of prediction of Rate of Drying Shrinkage by Response Surface Analysis are as follows. The coefficient of correlation of Drying Shrinkage in Concrete was over 90%.

Influence of Curing Condition on Drying Shrinkage of Concrete (초기 양생조건에 따른 콘크리트의 건조수축 특성)

  • 하재담;김태홍;유재상;이종열;배수호;권영호
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.277-280
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    • 2003
  • Material, mix proportion, curing condition, temperature, humidity and wind velocity have an influence on drying shrinkage of concrete. In this paper, to evaluate the effect of curing condition at early age on the drying shrinkage of concrete was investigated varying curing age for different binder. The principal conclusions from this research were as follows: 1) In case of 14 days of water curing, the drying shrinkage of concrete is smaller than 7 days of water curing, independence of type of binder. 2) In case of 4 days of water curing, the ratio of increase of drying shrinkage of concrete using fly-ash and slag powder is more remarkable than using portland cement alone, comparing the drying shrinkage of 7 days of water curing.

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Changes in Quality of Soybean Curd Residue as Affected by Different Drying Methods (건조방법에 따른 비지의 품질변화)

  • 김동수;설명훈;김현대
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 1996
  • This study was carried out to determine the changes in quality during the drying process and the optimum drying condition for utilizing soybean curd residue. The quality criteria for soybean curd residue were acid value, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and microbial concentration. The acid values of soybean curd residue were 7.5, 4.5 and 5.9 KOH mg/g upon 12 hour drying with open-air sun, ambient-air blast and warm-air blast, respectively. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria and molds increased remarkably during drying with open-air sunlight, ambient-air blast and warm-air blast except for hot air blast. Among different drying methods, the hot air blast drying(1kg of sample) was the most effective methods, which completed in three hours. Also, the drying method demonstrated a typical drying curve ; settling down, constant rate drying and falling rate drying period were shown within one hour, from one and three hours and after three hours, respectively. Moreover, there was significant variation in the constant drying period for the quality of soybean curd residue.

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Studies on drying rate, stress and defect with board thicknesses and drying schedules of Quercus grosseserrata B1. (물참나무 판재(板材)두께와 건조(乾燥)스케쥴별 건조(乾燥) 속도(速度), 응력과(應力)과 결함(缺陷)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Sang-Jung;Jung, Hee-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.39-51
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    • 1990
  • This research was carried out to offer the basis data for development of optimum drying schedule for a domestic oak species (Quercus grosseserrata B1.) by investigating drying rate. stress, defect, and moisuture gradient with board thicknesses and drying schedules (code number T4-C2 and T3-B1). The results were obtained as follows: 1. Average drying rate and total drying time from 52.2% to 5.8% were 0.105%/hr and 486 hours for drying schedule T4-C2 and those from 62.1% to 8.3% were 0.070%/hr. and 811 hours for drying schedule T3-B1. 2. Drying rates for 28mm- and 31mm-thick boards showed similar tendency, but were significantly different from 25mm- thick board in drying schedule T4-C2 and those for 22mm-, 25mm- 28mm- and 31mm-thick boards showed similar tendency but were significantly different from 19mm- thick boards in drying schedule T3-B1. 3. The moisture gradients for drying schedule T4-C2 were steeper than those for drying schedule T3-B1 during drying period. and especially in early drying stage slow slope of moisture gradients of drying schedule T3-B1 was effective in preventing serious problem of surface checks. 4. Drying stresses were lower in drying schedule T3-B1 than in drying schedule T4-C2 during drying period. 5. Drying schedule T4-C2 was appropriate for 25mm-thick board but not for 28mm- and 31mm-thick board because of strong drying condition. Drying schedule T3-B1 was appropriate for 28mm- and 31 mm-thick board but not for 19mm-, 22mm-, and 25mm-thick board because of weak drying condition.

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A Fixed Grid Finite Volume Analysis of Multi-Dimensional Freeze Drying Process under Vacuum Condition (고정격자계에서 유한체적법을 이용한 진공동결건조 과정의 열 및 물질전달에 대한 연구)

  • Chi-Sung, Song
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.981-992
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    • 2004
  • Freeze drying under vacuum condition is a complex process that involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, sublimation of ice, and motion of sublimation front. Proper treatment of the motion of sublimation interface is crucial for an accurate prediction of the freeze drying process. Based on the enthalpy formulation that has been successfully used in liquid/solid phase change problems. a fixed grid method. streamlined for the freeze drying analysis. was developed in this study. The accuracy of the fixed grid method was checked by solving a one-dimensional tray freeze drying and a two-dimensional vial freeze drying problem and then comparing the results with those by the moving grid method. Finally. the freeze drying characteristics of two-dimensional slab and axis-symmetric cylinder was investigated using the fixed grid method.

Influence of PVP Content and Drying Condition on Microstructure of SrZrO3 Thin Films (SrZrO3 박막 미세조직에 미치는 PVP 결합제 첨가량 및 건조조건 영향)

  • 이세종;이득용;예경환;송요승
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.501-505
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    • 2003
  • SrZrO$_3$ resistive oxides on Ag tapes were prepared by the sol-gel and dip coating method to investigate the effect of PVP content and drying condition on microstructure of the films. Although the film thickness increased with the addition of PVP, the amount of PVP and heat treatment were not effective to reduction of formation of microcracks at the films. However, lower drying temperature and longer drying time were beneficial to control the microcracks of the SrZrO$_3$ films, indicating that the microcracking of the films was governed primarily by the drying condition.

Development of a General Drying Model of Red Pepper (고추의 범용(汎用) 건조모형(乾燥模型) 개발(開發)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Y.J.;Koh, H.K.;Park, J.B.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.60-82
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    • 1991
  • Drying process of red pepper is very important in terms of drying cost and quality of the end product. Recently, many studies on red pepper drying have been performed. Nevertheless, an optimum drying condition is not established yet. Drying characteristics of red pepper is much affected by drying factors such as variety and initial state of red pepper as well as by environmental drying factors such as temperature and relative humidity of drying air. Various varieties of red pepper are being cultivated and the initial state of red pepper at harvest is very ambiguous. For this reason, it is very costly and time-consuming to establish an optimum drying condition of red pepper by experiment. A general drying model to descirbe a drying process has not been developed due to diversity of drying characteristics of red pepper. This study was, therefore, performed to develop a general drying model describing a drying process of red pepper. The results from this study are summarized as follows. 1. A basic model was established to develop an appropriate mositure content model and temperature model describing a drying process of red pepper, and the basic model was validated with experimental data. 2. The bone dry weight of fruit and mositure content were accepted satisfactorily as parameter to define the arbitrary red pepper. 3. The equilibrium moisture content of red pepper was found out to be different according to the variety of red pepper, air temperature and relative humidity. Also, the EMC model was developed using the parameters of air temperature, relative humidity and bone dry weight of fruit. 4. A general drying model for red pepper was developed, parameters of which were expressed as the function of drying factors related with drying phenomena. The developed drying model was found out to describe well the drying process of red pepper.

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Heat Treatment and Drying Methods of Small-Notched Bamboo for Vertical Flute (단소용 대나무재의 열처리 및 건조)

  • 변희섭;오승원;공태석;김종만
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.10-17
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to investigate a heat treatment condition and suitable drying schedule of bamboo material(Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis) for a vertical flute with small-notched bamboo. It is very important to prevent drying defects during its drying process. We investigated the effort of heat treatment the most suitable drying schedule for small-notched bamboo vertical flute without drying defects in this research. A direct heat treatment method and drying conditions of 3($20^{\circ}C$ 65%, $40^{\circ}C$ 40%, and dry at air condition) were applied to the Bamboo specimen that felled in several areas for a month. The result suggested that the most suitable drying schedule with the less split and the shortest time was to dry at $40^{\circ}C$, 40% condition and it was useful to direct heat-treatment because of reducing the number and size of split during drying bamboo.

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