• Title, Summary, Keyword: drug resistance

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Drug Resistance Patterns of Multidrug- and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Korea: Amplification of Resistance to Oral Second-line Drugs

  • Kim, Chang-Ki;Shin, So Youn;Kim, Hee Jin;Lee, Kyungwon
    • Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.323-326
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    • 2017
  • We aimed to analyze the drug resistance patterns of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the difference of drug resistance among various settings for health care in Korea. The data of drug susceptibility testing in 2009 was analyzed in order to secure sufficient number of patients from various settings in Korea. Patients were categorized by types of institutions into four groups, which comprised new and previously treated patients from public health care centers (PHC), the private sector, and Double-barred Cross clinics (DBC). The resistance rates to first-line drugs were uniformly high in every group. While the resistance rates to second-line drugs were not as high as first-line drugs, there was a pattern that drug resistance rates were lowest for PHC and highest for DBC. The differences of the resistance rates were more prominent for oral second-line drugs. Our findings implied that drug resistance to oral second-line drugs was significantly amplified during multidrug-resistant-TB treatment in Korea. Therefore, an individualized approach is recommended for treating drug-resistant-TB based on susceptibility testing results to prevent acquisition or amplification of drug resistance.

Monitoring on the Bacterial Resistance to Antibiotics

  • Jeong, Hye-Yoon;Jang, Seung-Jae;Lee, Song-Deuk;Min, Chung-Shik;Lee, So-Yeon;Lee, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Jung-Eun;Lee, Min-Seok;Lee, Kyung-Won
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.227.2-227
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    • 2003
  • In the situation of high bacterial resistance to antibiotics in Korea, to assess diffusion of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in community, we monitored antibiotic resistance of S. aureus isolates from healthy volunteers of community. (omitted)

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CDRgator: An Integrative Navigator of Cancer Drug Resistance Gene Signatures

  • Jang, Su-Kyeong;Yoon, Byung-Ha;Kang, Seung Min;Yoon, Yeo-Gha;Kim, Seon-Young;Kim, Wankyu
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.237-244
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    • 2019
  • Understanding the mechanisms of cancer drug resistance is a critical challenge in cancer therapy. For many cancer drugs, various resistance mechanisms have been identified such as target alteration, alternative signaling pathways, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and epigenetic modulation. Resistance may arise via multiple mechanisms even for a single drug, making it necessary to investigate multiple independent models for comprehensive understanding and therapeutic application. In particular, we hypothesize that different resistance processes result in distinct gene expression changes. Here, we present a web-based database, CDRgator (Cancer Drug Resistance navigator) for comparative analysis of gene expression signatures of cancer drug resistance. Resistance signatures were extracted from two different types of datasets. First, resistance signatures were extracted from transcriptomic profiles of cancer cells or patient samples and their resistance-induced counterparts for >30 cancer drugs. Second, drug resistance group signatures were also extracted from two large-scale drug sensitivity datasets representing ~1,000 cancer cell lines. All the datasets are available for download, and are conveniently accessible based on drug class and cancer type, along with analytic features such as clustering analysis, multidimensional scaling, and pathway analysis. CDRgator allows meta-analysis of independent resistance models for more comprehensive understanding of drug-resistance mechanisms that is difficult to accomplish with individual datasets alone (database URL: http://cdrgator.ewha.ac.kr).

The Prevalence of Initial Drug Resistance among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients (초치료 폐결핵 환자들에 있어서 초회 약제내성률)

  • Kong, Jae Hwan;Lee, Sang Seok;Kang, Ha Yan;Park, Jae Seuk
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2008
  • Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in patients who have not received previous TB treatment (initial drug resistance) is a serious problem for the control of TB. However, prevalence of initial drug resistance among pulmonary TB patients has not been well characterized in Korea, especially in the private sector. We assessed the prevalence of initial drug resistance and evaluated the risk factors for drug resistance in pulmonary TB patients, at a regional tertiary hospital in Cheonan. Methods: We performed a drug susceptibility test for both first and second line anti-TB drugs in all culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who had not received a previous TB treatment at Dankook University Hospital from September 2005 to September 2007. In addition, we evaluated the initial drug resistance pattern and clinical characteristics of patients to evaluate the risk factors for initial drug resistance. We also assessed the influence of the drug susceptibility test results on the treatment regimen. Results: Of the total 156 cases where the drug susceptibility test was performed, resistance to at least one anti-TB drug was found in 21 cases (15.6%) and multidrug resistance, where TB was resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, was found in one case (0.6%). Multivariate logistic regression showed no clinical characteristics were independently associated with initial drug resistance. Of the total 156 patients who underwent the drug susceptibility test, the treatment regimen was changed for 15 patients (9.6%) according to the results of the drug susceptibility test. Conclusion: Initial drug resistance is common and the drug susceptibility test is informative for pulmonary TB patients who have not received previous TB treatment.

Role of Integrin-Linked Kinase in Multi-drug Resistance of Human Gastric Carcinoma SGC7901/DDP Cells

  • Song, Wei;Jiang, Rui;Zhao, Chun-Ming
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.11
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    • pp.5619-5625
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    • 2012
  • Gastric carcinoma is a leading cause of cancer death in the world and multi-drug resistance (MDR) is an essential aspect of gastric carcinoma chemotherapy failure. Recent studies have shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is involved in metastasis of human tumors, expression silencing of ILK inhibiting the metastasis of several types of cultured human cancer cells. However, the role and potential mechanism of ILK to reverse the multi-drug resistance in human gastric carcinoma is not fully clear. In this report, we focused on roles of expression silencing of ILK in multi-drug resistance reversal of human gastric carcinoma SGC7901/DDP cells, including increased drug sensitivity to cisplatin, cell apoptosis rates, and intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine-123, and decreased mRNA and protein expression of multi-drug resistance gene (MDR1), multi-drug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), excision repair cross-complementing gene 1 (ERCC1), glutathione S-transferase -${\pi}$ (GST-${\pi}$) and RhoE, and transcriptional activation of AP-1 and NF-${\kappa}B$ in ILK silenced SGC7901/DDP cells. We also found that there was a decreased level of p-Akt and p-ERK. The results indicated that ILK might be used as a potential therapeutic strategy to combat multi-drug resistance through blocking PI3K-Akt and MAPK-ERK pathways in human gastric carcinoma.

Targeting Multidrug Resistance with Small Molecules for Cancer Therapy

  • Xia, Yan;Lee, Kyeong
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.375-385
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    • 2010
  • Conventional cancer chemotherapy is seriously limited by tumor cells exhibiting multidrug resistance (MDR), which is caused by changes in the levels or activity of membrane transporters that mediate energy-dependent drug efflux and of proteins that affect drug metabolism and/or drug action. Cancer scientists and oncologists have worked together for some time to understand anticancer drug resistance and develop pharmacological strategies to overcome such resistance. Much focus has been on the reversal of the MDR phenotype by inhibition of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters. ABC transporters are a family of transporter proteins that mediate drug resistance and low drug bioavailability by pumping various drugs out of cells at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Many inhibitors of MDR transporters have been identified, and though some are currently undergoing clinical trials, none are in clinical use. Herein, we briefly review the status of MDR in human cancer, explore the pathways of MDR in chemotherapy, and outline recent advances in the design and development of MDR modulators.

Long Non-coding RNAs and Drug Resistance

  • Pan, Jing-Jing;Xie, Xiao-Juan;Li, Xu;Chen, Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8067-8073
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    • 2016
  • Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as key players in gene expression that govern cell developmental processes, and thus contributing to diseases, especially cancers. Many studies have suggested that aberrant expression of lncRNAs is responsible for drug resistance, a substantial obstacle for cancer therapy. Drug resistance not only results from individual variations in patients, but also from genetic and epigenetic differences in tumors. It is reported that drug resistance is tightly modulated by lncRNAs which change the stability and translation of mRNAs encoding factors involved in cell survival, proliferation, and drug metabolism. In this review, we summarize recent advances in research on lncRNAs associated with drug resistance and underlying molecular or cellular mechanisms, which may contribute helpful approaches for the development of new therapeutic strategies to overcome treatment failure.

Knockdown of MDR1 Increases the Sensitivity to Adriamycin in Drug Resistant Gastric Cancer Cells

  • Zhu, Chun-Yu;Lv, Yan-Ping;Yan, Deng-Feng;Gao, Fu-Lian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.6757-6760
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    • 2013
  • Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently occurring malignancies in the world. Development of multiple drug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy is known as the major cause of treatment failure for gastric cancer. Multiple drug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/p-gp) contributes to drug resistance via ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps and is overexpressed in many solid tumors including gastric cancer. To investigate the role of MDR1 knockdown on drug resistance reversal, we knocked down MDR1 expression using shRNA in drug resistant gastric cancer cells and examined the consequences with regard to adriamycin (ADR) accumulation and drug-sensitivity. Two shRNAs efficiently inhibited mRNA and protein expression of MDR1 in SGC7901-MDR1 cells. MDR1 knockdown obviously decreased the ADR accumulation in cells and increased the sensitivity to ADR treatment. Together, our results revealed a crucial role of MDR1 in drug resistance and confirmed that MDR1 knockdown could reverse this phenotype in gastric cancer cells.

The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Drug Resistant Pulmonary Tuberculosis Investigated at One University Hospital in Seoul (서울지역 한 대학병원에서 조사된 폐결핵 약제 내성률 및 위험인자)

  • Kim, Do Kyun;Kim, Mi Ok;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Sohn, Jang Won;Yoon, Ho Joo;Shin, Dong Ho;Park, Sung Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.243-247
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    • 2005
  • Background : The prevalence of tuberculosis is slowly decreasing in Korea. However, the drug-resistance of pulmonary tuberculosis is a major risk factor of treatment failure. Moreover, the National Surveillance System has recently been discontinued. Therefore, a continuous survey is necessary for the exact detection of the rate of drug resistance. We studied the recent 4-year drug resistance rate of tuberculosis at a single University hospital in Seoul. Materials and Methods : The study included 239 pulmonary tuberculosis patients performed with a tuberculosis culture and a drug-sensitivity test at Hanyang University Medical Center from March 1999 to March 2003. Results : Of the 239 patients included in the study during the 4-year period, 52 patients showed resistance to one or more anti-tuberculosis drug (21.8%). The rate of multi-drug resistance was 12.6%. The resistance rates to isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, streptomycin and pyrazinamide were 18.4%, 13.8%, 11.7%, 6.7% and 8.4%, respectively. Ninety patients had a history of previous anti-tuberculosis treatment, and the rates of the overall drug resistance and multi-drug resistance of these patients were 36.7% and 25.6%, respectively. The patients with drug-resistance showed a higher rate of a previous tuberculosis treatment history (63.5%) than the drug-sensitive group patients (30.5%). Conclusion : The rate of drug resistant tuberculosis is 21.8%, and multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is 12.6%. The rate of drug resistance is higher in those previously treated for tuberculosis.

Platinum Transporters and Drug Resistance

  • Choi, Min-Koo;Kim, Dae-Duk
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.12
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    • pp.1067-1073
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    • 2006
  • Cisplatin, a platinum coordinated complex, is a widely used antineoplastic agent for the treatment of metastatic tumors of the testis, metastatic ovarian tumors, lung cancer, advanced bladder cancer and many other solid tumors. The cytotoxic action of the drug is often thought to be associated with its ability to bind DNA to form cisplatin-DNA adducts. The development of resistance to cisplatin during treatment is common and constitutes a major obstacle to the cure of sensitive tumors. Although to understand the clinically relevant mechanisms of resistance, many studies have been aimed at clarifying the biochemical/molecular alterations of cisplatin-resistance cells, these studies did not conclusively identify the basis of cellular resistance to cisplatin. In this review, cisplatin resistance was discussed in terms of the relevant transporters, such as copper transporters (CTRs), organic cation transporters (OCTs) and multi-drug resistance related transporters (MDRs). These transporters seem to be contributed to cisplatin resistance through the reduction of drug accumulation in the cell. Better understanding the mechanism of cisplatin resistance associated with transporters will provide the useful informations for overcoming the cisplatin resistance.