• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose volume parameters

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Evaluation of the Radiation Pneumonia Development Risk in Lung Cancer Cases

  • Yilmaz, Sercan;Adas, Yasemin Guzle;Hicsonmez, Ayse;Andrieu, Meltem Nalca;Akyurek, Serap;Gokce, Saban Cakir
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7371-7375
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    • 2014
  • Background: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy is the recommended standard treatment modality for patients with locally advanced lung cancer. The purpose of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) is to minimize normal tissue damage while a high dose can be delivered to the tumor. The most common dose limiting side effect of thoracic RT is radiation pneumonia (RP). In this study we evaluated the relationship between dose-volume histogram parameters and radiation pneumonitis. This study targeted prediction of the possible development of RP and evaluation of the relationship between dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters and RP in patients undergoing 3DCRT. Materials and Methods: DVHs of 41 lung cancer patients treated with 3DCRT were evaluated with respect to the development of grade ${\geq}2$ RP by excluding gross tumor volume (GTV) and planned target volume (PTV) from total (TL) and ipsilateral (IPSI) lung volume. Results: Were admitted statistically significant for p<0.05. Conclusions: The cut-off values for V5, V13, V20, V30, V45 and the mean dose of TL-GTV; and V13, V20,V30 and the mean dose of TL-PTV were statistically significant for the development of Grade ${\geq}2$ RP. No statistically significant results related to the development of Grade ${\geq}2$ RP were observed for the ipsilateral lung and the evaluation of PTV volume. A controlled and careful evaluation of the dose-volume histograms is important to assess Grade ${\geq}2$ RP development of the lung cancer patients treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. In the light of the obtained data it can be said that RP development may be avoided by the proper analysis of the dose volume histograms and the application of optimal treatment plans.

Vaginal Dose, Toxicity and Sexual Outcomes in Patients of Cervical Cancer Undergoing Image Based Brachytherapy

  • Rai, Bhavana;Dhanireddy, Bhaswanth;Patel, Firuza Darius;Kumari, Reena;Oinam, Arun Singh;Simha, Vijai;Sharma, Suresh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3619-3623
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the vaginal dose and toxicity in patients of cervical cancer treated with image guided brachytherapy at our institute. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients treated with image based brachytherapy for cervical cancer were included. Vaginal contouring was done on MRI at brachytherapy and with CT scans of subsequent brachytherapy fractions. Dose volume parameters (DVH) were reported in accordance with the GEC-ESTRO guidelines. These were correlated with vaginal toxicity (assessed by CTCAE version 3) and quality of sexual life assessed at one year of completion of treatment. Results: Vaginal shortness was observed in 22 out of 30 (62.8%) patients, Nine (25.7%) had vaginal dryness and in 10 (28.5%) patients, there was contact bleeding. No association could be demonstrated between the dose volume parameters and vaginal toxicity in the present study. Conclusions: The lack of association between dose volume parameters of vagina with vaginal morbidity may be due to uncertainties involved in the delineation of vaginal wall and dosimetry. Future research is required to accurately define vaginal dose distribution to study its correlation with vaginal morbidity. Vaginal morbidity needs to be documented in order to improve the sexual outcome in these patients.

Dosimetric Evaluation of 3-D Conformal and Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer after Conservative Surgery

  • Mansouri, Safae;Naim, Asmaa;Glaria, Luis;Marsiglia, Hugo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4727-4732
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancers are becoming more frequently diagnosed at early stages with improved long term outcomes. Late normal tissue complications induced by radiotherapy must be avoided with new breast radiotherapy techniques being developed. The aim of the study was to compare dosimetric parameters of planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk between conformal (CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) after breast-conserving surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 patients with early stage left breast cancer received adjuvant radiotherapy after conservative surgery, 10 by 3D-CRT and 10 by IMRT, with a dose of 50 Gy in 25 sessions. Plans were compared according to dose-volume histogram analyses in terms of PTV homogeneity and conformity indices as well as organs at risk dose and volume parameters. Results: The HI and CI of PTV showed no difference between 3D-CRT and IMRT, V95 gave 9.8% coverage for 3D-CRT versus 99% for IMRT, V107 volumes were recorded 11% and 1.3%, respectively. Tangential beam IMRT increased volume of ipsilateral lung V5 average of 90%, ipsilateral V20 lung volume was 13%, 19% with IMRT and 3D-CRT respectively. Patients treated with IMRT, heart volume encompassed by 60% isodose (30 Gy) reduced by average 42% (4% versus 7% with 3D-CRT), mean heart dose by average 35% (495cGy versus 1400 cGy with 3D-CRT). In IMRT minimal heart dose average is 356 cGy versus 90cGy in 3D-CRT. Conclusions: IMRT reduces irradiated volumes of heart and ipsilateral lung in high-dose areas but increases irradiated volumes in low-dose areas in breast cancer patients treated on the left side.

Esophageal tolerance to high-dose stereotactic radiosurgery

  • Lee, Bo Mi;Chang, Sei Kyung;Ko, Seung Young;Yoo, Seung Hoon;Shin, Hyun Soo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.234-238
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Esophageal tolerance is needed to guide the safe administration of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We evaluated comprehensive dose-volume parameters of acute esophageal toxicity in patients with spinal metastasis treated with SRS. Materials and Methods: From May 2008 to May 2011, 30 cases in 27 patients with spinal metastasis received single fraction SRS to targets neighboring esophagus. Endpoints evaluated include length (mm), volume (mL), maximal dose (Gy), and series of dose-volume thresholds from the dose-volume histogram (volume of the organ treated beyond a threshold dose). Results: The median time from the start of irradiation to development of esophageal toxicity was 2 weeks (range, 1 to 12 weeks). Six events of grade 1 esophageal toxicity occurred. No grade 2 or higher events were observed. $V_{15}$ of external surface of esophagus was found to predict acute esophageal toxicity revealed by multivariate analysis (odds radio = 1.272, p = 0.047). Conclusion: In patients with spinal metastasis who received SRS for palliation of symptoms, the threshold dose-volume parameter associated with acute esophageal toxicity was found to be $V_{15}$ of external surface of esophagus. Restrict $V_{15}$ to external surface of esophagus as low as possible might be safe and feasible in radiosurgery.

The Variable Ellipsoid Modeling Technique as a Verification Method for the Treatment Planning System of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

  • Hur, Beong-Ik;Choi, Byung-Kwan;Sung, Soon-Ki;Cho, Won-Ho;Cha, Seung-Heon;Choi, Chang-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.128-133
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    • 2010
  • Objective : The secondary verification of Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system (LGP) (which is the primary verification system) is extremely important in order to minimize the risk of treatment errors. Although prior methods have been developed to verify maximum dose and treatment time, none have studied maximum dose coordinates and treatment volume. Methods : We simulated the skull shape as an ellipsoid with its center at the junction between the mammillary bodies and the brain stem. The radiation depths of the beamlets emitted from 201 collimators were calculated based on the relationship between this ellipsoid and a single beamlet expressed as a straight line. A computer program was coded to execute the algorithm. A database system was adopted to log the doses for $31{\times}31{\times}31$ or 29,791 matrix points allowing for future queries to be made of the matrix of interest. Results : When we compared the parameters in seven patients, all parameters showed good correlation. The number of matrix points with a dose higher than 30% of the maximal dose was within ${\pm}\;2%$ of LGP. The 50% dose volume, which is generally the target volume, differs maximally by 4.2%. The difference of the maximal dose ranges from 0.7% to 7%. Conclusion : Based on the results, the variable ellipsoid modeling technique or variable ellipsoid modeling technique (VEMT) can be a useful and independent tool to verify the important parameters of LGP and make up for LGP.

Comparison of Dosimetric and Radiobiological Parameters on Plans for Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy Using an Endorectal Balloon for Different Dose-Calculation Algorithms and Delivery-Beam Modes

  • Kang, Sang-Won;Suh, Tae-Suk;Chung, Jin-Beom;Eom, Keun-Yong;Song, Changhoon;Kim, In-Ah;Kim, Jae-Sung;Lee, Jeong-Woo;Cho, Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.70 no.4
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    • pp.424-430
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dosimetric and radiobiological parameters on treatment plans by using different dose-calculation algorithms and delivery-beam modes for prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy using an endorectal balloon. For 20 patients with prostate cancer, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plans were generated by using a 10-MV photon beam with flattening filter (FF) and flattening-filter-free (FFF) modes. The total treatment dose prescribed was 42.7 Gy in 7 fractions to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) with 95% of the prescribed dose. The dose computation was initially performed using an anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in the Eclipse treatment planning system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) and was then re-calculated using Acuros XB (AXB V. 11.0.34) with the same monitor units and multileaf collimator files. The dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters for the PTV and organs at risk (OARs) were analyzed from the dose-volume histogram. An obvious difference in dosimetric parameters between the AAA and the AXB plans was observed in the PTV and rectum. Doses to the PTV, excluding the maximum dose, were always higher in the AAA plans than in the AXB plans. However, doses to the other OARs were similar in both algorithm plans. In addition, no difference was observed in the dosimetric parameters for different delivery-beam modes when using the same algorithm to generate plans. As a result of the dosimetric parameters, the radiobiological parameters for the two algorithm plans presented an apparent difference in the PTV and the rectum. The average tumor control probability of the AAA plans was higher than that of the AXB plans. The average normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) to rectum was lower in the AXB plans than in the AAA plans. The AAA and the AXB plans yielded very similar NTCPs for the other OARs. In plans using the same algorithms, the NTCPs for delivery-beam modes showed no differences. This study demonstrated that the dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters for the PTV and the rectum affected the dose-calculation algorithms for prostate SBRT using an endorectal balloon. However, the dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters in the AAA and the AXB plans for other OARs were similar. Furthermore, difference between the dosimetric and the radiobiological parameters for different delivery-beam modes were not found when the same algorithm was used to generate the treatment plan.

The effect of Corni Fructus on renal function

  • Jeong, Myung-Kum;Yang, Ki-Sook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.385.2-385
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    • 2002
  • Cornus officinalis has been used as protective drug for liver and kidney function. In order to evaluate the effect on renal function of Corni Fructus. We measured urine volume, chemical parameters(urea nitrogen. creatinine, uric acid). electrolytes($Na^{+}$, $K^{+}$, $Cl^{-}$) in serum and urine. Furosemide showed significant urine volume. serum and urine parameters, but Corni Fructus showed normal level parameters by dose increasing in rats.

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A Dose Volume Histogram Analyzer Program for External Beam Radiotherapy (방사선치료 관련 연구를 위한 선량 체적 히스토그램 분석 프로그램 개발)

  • Kim, Jin-Sung;Yoon, Myong-Geun;Park, Sung-Yong;Shin, Jung-Suk;Shin, Eun-Hyuk;Ju, Sang-Gyu;Han, Young-Yih;Ahn, Yong-Chan
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.240-248
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To provide a simple research tool that may be used to analyze a dose volume histogram from different radiation therapy planning systems for NTCP (Normal Tissue Complication Probability), OED (Organ Equivalent Dose) and so on. Materials and Metohds: A high-level computing language was chosen to implement Niemierko's EUD, Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model's NTCP, and OED. The requirements for treatment planning analysis were defined and the procedure, using a developed GUI based program, was described with figures. The calculated data, including volume at a dose, dose at a volume, EUD, and NTCP were evaluated by a commercial radiation therapy planning system, Pinnacle (Philips, Madison, WI, USA) for comparison. Results: The volume at a special dose and a dose absorbed in a volume on a dose volume histogram were successfully extracted using DVH data of several radiation planning systems. EUD, NTCP and OED were successfully calculated using DVH data and some required parameters in the literature. Conclusion: A simple DVH analyzer program was developed and has proven to be a useful research tool for radiation therapy.

Dose comparison between prescription methods according to anatomical variations in intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer

  • Choi, Euncheol;Kim, Jae Ho;Kim, Ok Bae;Byun, Sang Jun;Kim, Jin Hee;Oh, Young Kee
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We compared how doses delivered via two-dimensional (2D) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) and three-dimensional (3D) ICBT varied anatomically. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients who received 30 Gy of 3D ICBT after external radiotherapy (RT) were enrolled. We compared the doses of the actual 3D and 2D ICBT plans among patients grouped according to six anatomical variations: differences in a small-bowel V2Gy, small bowel circumference, the direction of bladder distension, bladder volume, sigmoid V3.5Gy, and sigmoid circumference. Seven dose parameters were measured in line with the EMBRACE recommendations. Results: In terms of bladder volume, the bladder and small-bowel D2cc values were lower in the 150-250 mL bladder volume subgroup; and the rectum, sigmoid, and bladder D2mL values were all lower in the >250 mL subgroup, for 3D vs. 2D ICBT. In the sigmoid V3.5Gy >2 mL subgroup, the sigmoid and bladder D2mL values were significantly lower for 3D than 2D ICBT. The bladder D2mL value was also significantly lower for 3D ICBT, as reflected by the sigmoid circumference. In patients with a small bowel V2.0Gy >10 mL or small bowel circumference >15%, most dose parameters were significantly lower for 3D than 2D ICBT. The bladder distension direction did not significantly affect the doses. Conclusion: Compared to 2D ICBT, a greater bladder volume can reduce the internal 3D ICBT organ dose without affecting the target dose.

Three-dimensional dose reconstruction-based pretreatment dosimetric verification in volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer

  • Jeong, Yuri;Oh, Jeong Geun;Kang, Jeong Ku;Moon, Sun Rock;Lee, Kang Kyoo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.60-67
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: We performed three-dimensional (3D) dose reconstruction-based pretreatment verification to evaluate gamma analysis acceptance criteria in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Pretreatment verification for 28 VMAT plans for prostate cancer was performed using the COMPASS system with a dolphin detector. The 3D reconstructed dose distribution of the treatment planning system calculation (TC) was compared with that of COMPASS independent calculation (CC) and COMPASS reconstruction from the dolphin detector measurement (CR). Gamma results (gamma failure rate and average gamma value [GFR and γAvg]) and dose-volume histogram (DVH) deviations, 98%, 2% and mean dose-volume difference (DD98%, DD2% and DDmean), were evaluated. Gamma analyses were performed with two acceptance criteria, 2%/2 mm and 3%/3 mm. Results: The GFR in 2%/2 mm criteria were less than 8%, and those in 3%/3 mm criteria were less than 1% for all structures in comparisons between TC, CC, and CR. In the comparison between TC and CR, GFR and γAvg in 2%/2 mm criteria were significantly higher than those in 3%/3 mm criteria. The DVH deviations were within 2%, except for DDmean (%) for rectum and bladder. Conclusions: The 3%/3 mm criteria were not strict enough to identify any discrepancies between planned and measured doses, and DVH deviations were less than 2% in most parameters. Therefore, gamma criteria of 2%/2 mm and DVH related parameters could be a useful tool for pretreatment verification for VMAT in prostate cancer.