• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose conversion factor

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Interpretation of Animal Dose and Human Equivalent Dose for Drug Development

  • Shin, Jang-Woo;Seol, In-Chan;Son, Chang-Gue
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2010
  • Objectives: To introduce to TKM scientific dose conversion methods of human to animal or animal to human for new drug investigations. Methods: We searched guidelines of the FDA and KFDA, and compared them with references for drug-dose conversion from various databases such as PubMed and Google. Then, we analyzed the potential issues and problems related to dose conversion in safety documentation of new herbal drugs based on our experiences during Investigational New Drug (IND) applications of TKM. Results: Dose conversion from human to animal or animal to human must be appropriately translated during new drug development. From time to time, investigators have some difficulty in determining the appropriate dose, because of misunderstandings of dose conversion, especially when they estimate starting dose in clinical or animal studies to investigate efficacy, toxicology and mechanisms. Therefore, education of appropriate dose calculation is crucial for investigators. The animal dose should not be extrapolated to humans by a simple conversion method based only on body weight, because many studies suggest the normalization method is based mainly on body surface area (BSA). In general, the body surface area seems to have good correlation among species with several parameters including oxygen utilization, caloric expenditure, basal metabolism, blood volume and circulating plasma protein. Likewise, a safety factor should be taken into consideration when deciding high dose in animal toxicology study. Conclusion: Herein, we explain the significance of dose conversion based on body surface area and starting dose estimation for clinical trials with safety factor.

ABSORBED INTERNAL DOSE CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS FOR DOMESTIC REFERENCE ANIMALS AND PLANT

  • Keum, Dong-Kwon;Jun, In;Lim, Kwang-Muk;Choi, Yong-Ho
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2010
  • This paper describes the methodology of calculating the internal dose conversion coefficient in order to assess the radiological impact on non-human species. This paper also presents the internal dose conversion coefficients of 25 radionuclides ($^3H,\;^7Be,\;^{14}C,\;^{40}K,\;^{51}Cr,\;^{54}Mn,\;^{59}Fe,\;^{58}Co,\;^{60}Co,\;^{65}Zn,\;^{90}Sr,\;^{95}Nb,\;^{99}Tc,\;^{106}Ru,\;^{129}I,\;^{131}I,\;^{136}Cs,\;^{137}Cs,\;^{140}Ba,\;^{140}La,\;^{144}Ce,\;^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu,\;^{240}Pu$) for domestic seven reference animals (roe deer, rat, frog, snake, Chinese minnow, bee, and earthworm) and one reference plant (pine tree). The uniform isotropic model was applied in order to calculate the internal dose conversion coefficients. The calculated internal dose conversion coefficient (${\mu}Gyd^{-1}$ per $Bqkg^{-1}$) ranged from $10^{-6}$ to $10^{-2}$ according to the type of radionuclides and organisms studied. It turns out that the internal does conversion coefficient was higher for alpha radionuclides, such as $^{238}U,\;^{239}Pu$, and $^{240}Pu$, and for large organisms, such as roe deer and pine tree. The internal dose conversion coefficients of $^{239}U,\;^{240}Pu,\;^{238}U,\;^{14}C,\;^3H$, and $^{99}Tc$ were independent of the organism.

Characteristics of Internal and External Exposure of Radon and Thoron in Process Handling Monazite (모나자이트 취급공정에서의 라돈 및 토론 노출 특성)

  • Chung, Eun Kyo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.167-175
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate airborne radon and thoron levels and estimate the effective doses of workers who made household goods and mattresses using monazite. Methods: Airborne radon and thoron concentrations were measured using continuous monitors (Rad7, Durridge Company Inc., USA). Radon and thoron concentrations in the air were converted to radon doses using the dose conversion factor recommended by the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission in Korea. External exposure to gamma rays was measured at the chest height of a worker from the source using real-time radiation instruments, a survey meter (RadiagemTM 2000, Canberra Industries, Inc., USA), and an ion chamber (OD-01 Hx, STEP Co., Germany). Results: When using monazite, the average concentration range of radon was $13.1-97.8Bq/m^3$ and thoron was $210.1-841.4Bq/m^3$. When monazite was not used, the average concentration range of radon was $2.6-10.8Bq/m^3$ and the maximum was $1.7-66.2Bq/m^3$. Since monazite has a higher content of thorium than uranium, the effects of thoron should be considered. The effective doses of radon and thoron as calculated by the dose conversion factor based on ICRP 115 were 0.26 mSv/yr and 0.76 mSv/yr, respectively, at their maximum values. The external radiation dose rate was $6.7{\mu}Sv/hr$ at chest height and the effective dose was 4.3 mSv/yr at the maximum. Conclusions: Regardless of the use of monazite, the total annual effective doses due to internal and external exposure were 0.03-4.42 mSv/yr. Exposures to levels higher than this value are indicated if dose conversion factors based on the recently published ICRP 137 are applied.

A New Approach for the Calculation of Neutron Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients for PMMA Slab Phantom (PMMA 평판형 팬텀에서의 중성자 선량당량 환산계수의 새로운 계산법)

  • Kim, Jong-Kyung;Kim, Jong-Oh
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-311
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    • 1996
  • ANSI decided PMMA slab phantom as a calibration phantom and introduced a conversion coefficient calculation method for it. For photon, the conversion coefficient can be obtained by using backscatter factor and conversion coefficient of the ICRU tissue cube and backscatter factor of the PMMA slab. For neutron, however, the ANSI has not introduced any conversion coefficient calculation method for the PMMA slab. In this work, the ANSI method for the photon conversion coefficient calculation was applied to the neutron conversion coefficient calculation of the PMMA slab. Quality weighted tissue kerma of neutron was applied to calculate the backscatter factors on the ICRU cube and the PMMA slab. The dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube was also calculated by using MCNP code. Then, the dose conversion coefficient of the PMMA slab was calculated from two backscatter factors and the dose conversion coefficient of the ICRU cube. The discrepancies of the dose conversion coefficients of the PMMA slab and the ICRU cube were less than 10% except 1eV(20%), 1keV(17%), and 4 MeV(16%).

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Prediction for the Lifetime Effective Dose and Radon Exposure Risk by using Dose Conversion Convention: Base on the Indoor Radon Concentration of Lecture Room in a University (선량 환산 관례를 이용한 생애유효선량 및 라돈피폭 위험도 예측: 대학 강의실 라돈농도 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jae-Seung;Kweon, Dae Cheol
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2018
  • The indoor radon concentration was measured in the lecture room of the university and the radon concentration was converted to the amount related to the radon exposure using the dose conversion convention and compared with the reference levels for the radon concentration control. The effect of indoor radon inhalation was evaluated by estimating the life effective dose and the risk of exposure. To measure the radon concentration, measurements were made with a radon meter and a dedicated analysis Capture Ver. 5.5 program in a university lecture room from January to February 2018. The radon concentration measurement was carried out for 5 consecutive hours for 24 hours after keeping the airtight condition for 12 hours before the measurement. Radon exposure risk was calculated using the radon dose and dose conversion factor. Indoor radon concentration, radon exposure risk, and annual effective dose were found within the 95% confidence interval as the minimum and maximum boundary ranges. The radon concentration in the lecture room was $43.1-79.1Bq/m^3$, and the maximum boundary range within the 95% confidence interval was $77.7Bq/m^3$. The annual effective dose was estimated to be 0.20-0.36 mSv/y (mean 0.28 mSv/y). The life-time effective dose was estimated to be 0.66-1.18 mSv (mean $0.93{\pm}0.08mSv$). Life effective doses were estimated to be 0.88-0.99 mSv and radon exposure risk was estimated to be 12.4 out of 10.9 per 100,000. Radon concentration was measured, dose effective dose was evaluated using dose conversion convention, and degree of health hazard by indoor radon exposure was evaluated by predicting radon exposure risk using nominal hazard coefficient. It was concluded that indoor living environment could be applied to other specific exposure situations.

Dose rate conversion factor for soil by the beta-rays and gamma-rays from 238,235U, 232Th and 40K (238,235U, 232Th과 40K의 베타선 및 감마선에 의한 토양의 흡수선량 환산 인자)

  • Kim, Gi-Dong;Eum, Chul-Hun;Bang, Jun-Hwan
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2007
  • Dose rate conversion factor was calculated to estimate the absorbed effective annual doses for soils for the beta-rays and gamma-rays, which were emitted from $^{238,235}U$, $^{232}Th$, and $^{40}K$ isotopes. The most recent data of the emitted energies per decay, half-lifes, and branching ratios, which were obtained from National Nuclear Data Center, were used. When this factor and the effective annual doses for the beta-rays and the gamma-rays of natural radioisotopes were compared with those of Aitken, these of $^{238}U$, $^{232}Th$ and $^{40}K$ are estimated to have good agreements but a large difference is shown in this for $^{235}U$. Through the calculations of effective annual doses by using these factor and the measurements of gamma-ray spectra for soils, which were extracted from prehistoric remains (Mansuri) on Osong, Chungchengbuk-do, The annual effective doses were obtained to be 3.8~5.9 mGy/yr. Also, when these doses including decay elements upper Rn were compared with those on all isotopes, the differences within 9~30 % were obtained. The analysis method of the annual effective doses for the beta-rays and the gamma-rays of the natural isotopes of soils was established by this dose rate conversion factor.

Conversion Factors for Calibration of Personnel Dosimeters (개인선량계 교정을 위한 환산인자 계산)

  • Lee, Won-Koo;Lee, Tae-Young;Ha, Chung-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 1991
  • MCNP code was used to calculate conversion factor H(d)ma at the depths of 0.07 and 10mm within a water phantom recommended by IAEA and within a PMMA phantom required by the US dosimeter proficiency testing programmes. The calculations were performed for an expanded parrallel beam of monoenergetic photons of perpendicular incidence on one faces of the phantom. The results can be used as conversion factor in calibrating individual dosemeters in terms of the dose equivalent quantities defined directly in the phantom.

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Evaluation of Effective Dose and Exposure Level of Radon in Process Handling NORM (인산석고 취급공정에서의 라돈농도 및 유효선량 수준 평가)

  • Chung, Eun Kyo;Jang, Jae Kil;Kim, Jong Kyu;Kim, Joon Beom;Kwon, Jiwoon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.283-291
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: To monitor the radon concentration level in plants that handle phosphorus rock and produce gypsum board and cement, and evaluate the effective dose considering the effect of radon exposure on the human body. Methods: Airborne radon concentrations were measured using alpha-track radon detectors (${\alpha}$-track, Rn-tech Co., Korea) and continuous monitors (Radon Sentinel 1030, Sun Nuclear Co., USA). Radon concentrations in the air were converted to radon doses using the following equation to evaluate the human effects due to radon. H (mSv/yr) = Radon gas concentration x Equilibrium factor x Occupancy factor x Dose conversion factor. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) used $8nSv/(Bq{\cdot}hr/m^3)$ as the dose conversion factor in 2010, but raised it by a factor of four to $33nSv/(Bq{\cdot}hr/m^3)$ in 2017. Results: Radon concentrations and effective doses in fertilizer manufacturing process averaged $14.3(2.7)Bq/m^3$ ($2.0-551.3Bq/m^3$), 0.11-0.54 m㏜/yr depending on the advisory authority and recommendation year, respectively. Radon concentrations in the gypsum-board manufacturing process averaged $14.9Bq/m^3$ at material storage, $11.4Bq/m^3$ at burnability, $8.1Bq/m^3$ at mixing, $10.0Bq/m^3$ at forming, $8.9Bq/m^3$ at drying, $14.7Bq/m^3$ at cutting, and $10.5Bq/m^3$ at shipment. It was low because it did not use phosphate gypsum. Radon concentrations and effective doses in the cement manufacturing process were $23.2Bq/m^3$ in the stowage area, $20.2Bq/m^3$ in the hopper, $16.8Bq/m^3$ in the feeder and $11.9Bq/m^3$ in the cement mill, marking 0.12-0.63 m㏜/yr, respectively. Conclusions: Workers handling phosphorous gypsum directly or indirectly can be assessed as exposed to an annual average radon dose of 0.16 to 2.04 mSv or 0.010 to 0.102 WLM (Working Level Month).

Properties of Water Substitute Solid Phantoms for Electron Dosimetry

  • Saitoh, Hidetoshi;Tomaru, Teizo;Fujisaki, Tatsuya;Abe, Shinji;Myojoyama, Atsushi;Fukuda, Kenichi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.255-259
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    • 2002
  • To reduce the uncertainty in the calibration of radiation beams, absorbed dose to water for high energy electrons is recommended as the standards and reference absorbed dose by AAPM Report no.51 and IAEA Technical Reports no.398. In these recommendations, water is, defined as the reference medium, however, the water substitute solid phantoms are discouraged. Nevertheless, when accurate chamber positioning in water is not possible, or when no waterproof chamber is available, their use is permitted at beam qualities R$\_$50/ < 4 g/cm$^2$ (E$\_$0/ < 10 MeV). For the electron dosimetry using solid phantom, a depth-scaling factor is used for the conversion of depth in solid phantoms to depth in water, and a fluence-scaling factor is used for the conversion of ionization chamber reading in plastic phantom to reading in water. In this work, the properties, especially depth-scaling factors c$\_$p1/ and fluence-scaling factors h$\_$pl/ of several commercially available water substitute solid phantoms were determined, and the electron dosimetry using these scaling method was evaluated. As a result, it is obviously that dose-distribution in solid phantom can be converted to appropriate dose-distribution in water by means of IAEA depth-scaling.

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