• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose comparison

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Comparison of Dose Assessment Programs; DOSE, LIMCAL and PABLM (방사선 피폭선량프로그램 DOS, LIMCAL 및 PABLM의 비교)

  • Park, Hee-Seoung;Cho, Won-Jin;Han, Kyoung-Won;Park, Hun-Hwee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1991
  • A comparison study is performed on dose assessment programs including DOSE, LIMCAL, and PABLM, DOSE is a program developed for preliminary safety assessments of the low- and intermediate- level radioactive waste disposal, and the others are existing programs applicable to similar calculations. The results show acceptable agreement within an order of magnitude(mrem/yr) except for C-14 and Pu-239. PABLM results higher dose for C-14 while lower value for Pu-239 in comparison with those from DOSE or LIMCAL. It is found that the discrepancy in C-14 is due to difference in transport model introduced and that in Pu-239 is from the different value of dose conversion factor to each program.

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Comparative Study of First-in-Human Dose Estimation Approaches using Pharmacometrics (약물계량학을 이용한 초기임상1상 시험 용량 예측 방법에 대한 비교연구)

  • Baek, In-hwan
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.150-162
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    • 2016
  • Objective: First-in-human dose estimation is an essential approach for successful clinical trials for drug development. In this study, we systematically compared first-in-human dose and human pharmacokinetic parameter estimation approaches. Methods: First-in-human dose estimation approaches divided into similar drug comparison approaches, regulatory guidance based approaches, and pharmacokinetic based approaches. Human clearance, volume of distribution and bioavailability were classified for human pharmacokinetic parameter estimation approaches. Results: Similar drug comparison approaches is simple and appropriate me-too drug. Regulatory guidance based approaches is recommended from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) regarding no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) or minimum anticipated biological effect level (MABEL). Pharmacokinetic based approaches are 8 approaches for human clearance estimation, 5 approaches for human volume of distribution, and 4 approaches for human bioavailability. Conclusion: This study introduced and compared all methods for first-in-human dose estimation. It would be useful practically to estimate first-in-human dose for drug development.

Bilateral comparison of the absorbed dose to water in high energy X-ray beams between the KRISS and the NMIJ

  • Kim, In Jung;Kim, Byoung Chul;Yi, Chul-Young;Shimizu, Morihito;Morishita, Yuichiro;Saito, Norio
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.52 no.7
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    • pp.1511-1516
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    • 2020
  • The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) established a new standard of the absorbed dose to water in LINAC X-ray beams. To confirm the equivalence of the new standard with other national metrology institutes (NMIs), a bilateral comparison study of the absorbed dose to water in high energy X-ray beams was performed between the KRISS and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The comparison was made in-directly. Three transfer chambers were calibrated in the high energy X-ray beams by both laboratories and the calibration coefficients were compared. The average ratios of the calibration coefficients of the three transfer chambers obtained by the KRISS to those obtained by the NMIJ were 1.004, 1.006, 1.006, 1.007 for 6, 10, 15 and 18 MV X-ray beams, respectively. The calibration coefficients obtained at the KRISS were higher than those at the NMIJ but they were in good agreement within the expanded uncertainty of 1.0% (k = 2). The results of this study will be used as the evidence for the KRISS standard being comparable with those of other NMIs, temporarily, in the interim period up to finalizing a key comparison study, BIPM.RI(I)-K6 managed by the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation.

BENCHMARK CALCULATION OF CANDU END SHIELDING SYSTEM

  • Gyuhong Roh;Park, Hangbok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.618-623
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    • 1998
  • A shielding analysis was performed for the end shield of CANDU 6 reactor. The one-dimensional discrete ordinate code ANISN with a 38-group neutron-gamma library, extracted from DLC-37D library, was used to estimate the dose rate for the natural uranium CANDU reactor. For comparison MCNP-4B calculation was performed for the same system using continuous, discrete and multi-group libraries. The comparison has shown that the total dose rate of the ANISN calculation agrees well with that of the MCNP calculation. However, the individual dose rate (neutron and gamma) has shown opposite trends between AMISN and MCNP estimates, which may require a consistent library generation for both codes.

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The Effects of the Statistical Uncertainties in Monte Carlo Photon Dose Calculation for the Radiation Therapy (방사선 치료를 위한 몬테칼로 광자선 선량계산 시 통계적 불확실성 영향 평가)

  • Cheong, Kwang-Ho;Suh, Tae-Suk;Cho, Byung-Chul
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2004
  • The Monte Carlo simulation requires very much time to obtain a result of acceptable accuracy. Therefore we should know the optimum number of history not to sacrifice time as well as the accuracy. In this study, we have investigated the effects of statistical uncertainties of the photon dose calculation. BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc systems were used for the Monte Carlo dose calculation and the case of mediastinum was simulated. The several dose calculation result from various number of histories had been obtained and analyzed using the criteria of isodose curve comparison, dose volume histogram comparison(DVH) and root mean-square differences(RMSD). Statistical uncertainties were observed most evidently in isodose curve comparison and RMSD while DVHs were less sensitive. The acceptable uncertainties $(\bar{{\Delta}D})$ of the Monte Carlo photon dose calculation for the radiation therapy were estimated within total 9% error or 1% error for over than $D_{max}/2$ voxels or voxels at maximum dose.

A COMPARISON STUDY OF SPACE RADIATION DOSE ANALYSIS PROGRAMS: SPENVIS SECTORING TOOL AND SIGMA II

  • Chae Jongwon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.347-350
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    • 2004
  • A space radiation analysis has been used to evaluate an ability of electronic equipment boxes or spacecrafts to endure various radiation effects, so it helps design thicknesses of structure and allocate components to meet the radiation requirements. A comparison study of space radiation dose analysis programs SPENVIS Sectoring Tool (SST) and SIGMA II is conducted through some structure cases, simple sphere shell, box and representative satellite configurations. The results and a discussion of comparison will be given. A general comparison will be shown for understanding those programs. The both programs use the same strategy, solid angle sectoring with ray-tracing method to produce an approximate dose at points in representative simple and complex models of spacecraft structures. Also the particle environment data corresponding to mission specification and radiation transport data are used as input data. But there are distinctions between them. The specification of geometry model and its input scheme, the assignment of dose point and the numbers, the prerequisite programs and ways of representing results will be discussed. SST is a web-based interactive program for sectoring analysis of complex geometries. It may be useful for a preliminary dose assessment with user-friendly interfaces and a package approach. SIGMA II is able to obtain from RSICC (Radiation Safety Information Computational Center) as a FOR-TRAN 77 source code. It may be suitable for either parametric preliminary design or detailed final design, e.g. a manned flight or radiation-sensitive component configuration design. It needs some debugs, recompiling and a tedious work to make geometrical quadric surfaces for actual spacecraft configuration, and has poor documentation. It is recommend to vist RSICC homepage and GEANT4/SSAT homepage.

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Comparison of the Equivalent Dose of the Lens Part and the Effective Dose of the Chest in the PET/CT Radiation Workers in the Nuclear Medicine Department (핵의학과 PET/CT실 방사선작업종사자의 수정체 부위의 등가선량과 흉부의 유효선량의 측정 비교)

  • Son, Sang-Joon;Park, Jeong-Kyu;Jung, Dong-Kyung;Park, Myeong-Hwan
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.209-215
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    • 2019
  • Comparison of the effective dose of the chest and the equivalent dose of the lens site in the radiation workers working at four medical institutions with the PET / CT room located in one metropolitan city and province from April 1 to June 30, 2018 Respectively. Radioactive medicine were measured at the time of dispensing and at the time of injection. In this experiment, the average dispensing time per patient was 5.7 minutes and the average injection time was 3.1 minutes. The equivalent dose at the lens site was $0.78{\mu}Sv/h$ for 1 mCi, and the effective dose for chest was $0.18{\mu}Sv/h$ per 1 mCi. The equivalent dose at the lens site during injection was $0.88{\mu}Sv/h$ per mCi and the effective dose of chest was $0.20{\mu}Sv/h$ per mCi. The daily effective dose of the chest was $0.9{\pm}0.6{\mu}Sv$ and the equivalent dose of the lens site was $3.6{\pm}1.4{\mu}Sv$ during daily dosing for 20 days. The effective dose of the chest during the day was $0.6{\pm}0.5{\mu}Sv$ and the equivalent dose of the lens was $2.2{\pm}1.0{\mu}Sv$. At the time of dispensing, the equivalent dose of the lens was $0.187{\pm}0.035mSv$, the effective dose of the chest was $0.137{\pm}0.055mSv$, the equivalent dose of the lens was $0.247{\pm}0.057mSv$, and the effective dose of the monthly chest was $0.187{\pm}0.021mSv$. As a result of the corresponding sample test, the equivalent dose and the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, the effective dose of the chest, The equivalent dose of the lens and the effective dose of the chest were statistically significant (p<0.05) with a significance of 0.000. However, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the equivalent dose and the effective dose of the chest, the equivalent dose of the lens at the time of injection, and the effective dose of the chest at 0.138 and 0.230, respectively.

Comparative Dosimetric Characterization for Different Types of Detectors in High-Energy Electron Beams

  • Lee, Chang Yeol;Kim, Woo Chul;Kim, Hun Jeong;Huh, Hyun Do;Park, Seungwoo;Choi, Sang Hyoun;Kim, Kum Bae;Min, Chul Kee;Kim, Seong Hoon;Shin, Dong Oh
    • Journal of the Korean Physical Society
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    • v.70 no.3
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    • pp.317-324
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to perform a comparison and on analysis of measured dose factor values by using various commercially available high-energy electron beam detectors to measure dose profiles and energy property data. By analyzing the high-energy electron beam data from each detector, we determined the optimal detector for measuring electron beams in clinical applications. The dose linearity, dose-rate dependence, percentage depth dose, and dose profile of each detector were measured to evaluate the dosimetry characteristics of high-energy electron beams. The dose profile and the energy characteristics of high-energy electron beams were found to be different when measured by different detectors. Through comparison with other detectors based on the analyzed data, the microdiamond detector was found to have outstanding dose linearity, a low dose-rate dependency, and a small effective volume. Thus, this detector has outstanding spatial resolution and is the optimal detector for measuring electron beams. Radiation therapy results can be improved and related medical accidents can be prevented by using the procedure developed in this research in clinical practice for all beam detectors when measuring the electron beam dose.

Brachytherapy for Head and Neck Cancer (두경부암의 근접방사선 치료)

  • Yoo Seong-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 1991
  • Brachytherapy is a method of radiotherapy in advantage to achieve better local control with minimum radiation toxicity in comparison with external irradiation because radiation dose is distributed according to the inverse square low of gamma-ray emitted from the implanted sources. The main characteristics of brachytherapy are delivering of higher dose to target volume shortening of total treatment period and sparing of normal tissue. Recent development of iridium ribbons for low dose rate implant provides improvement of technology of brachytherapy in terms of safety and efficiency. High dose rate method. on the other hand, is effective to avoid unnecessary expoure of medical personnel.

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