• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose calculation

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IMPROVEMENT OF DOSE CALCULATION ACCURACY ON kV CBCT IMAGES WITH CORRECTED ELECTRON DENSITY TO CT NUMBER CURVE

  • Ahn, Beom Seok;Wu, Hong-Gyun;Yoo, Sook Hyun;Park, Jong Min
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.17-24
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    • 2015
  • To improve accuracy of dose calculation on kilovoltage cone beam computed tomography (kV CBCT) images, a custom-made phantom was fabricated to acquire an accurate CT number to electron density curve by full scatter of cone beam x-ray. To evaluate the dosimetric accuracy, 9 volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans for head and neck (HN) cancer and 9 VMAT plans for lung cancer were generated with an anthropomorphic phantom. Both CT and CBCT images of the anthropomorphic phantom were acquired and dose-volumetric parameters on the CT images with CT density curve (CTCT), CBCT images with CT density curve ($CBCT_{CT}$) and CBCT images with CBCT density curve ($CBCT_{CBCT}$) were calculated for each VMAT plan. The differences between $CT_{CT}$ vs. $CBCT_{CT}$ were similar to those between $CT_{CT}$ vs. $CBCT_{CBCT}$ for HN VMAT plans. However, the differences between $CT_{CT}$ vs. $CBCT_{CT}$ were larger than those between $CT_{CT}$ vs. $CBCT_{CBCT}$ for lung VMAT plans. Especially, the differences in $D_{98%}$ and $D_{95%}$ of lung target volume were statistically significant (4.7% vs. 0.8% with p = 0.033 for $D_{98%}$ and 4.8% vs. 0.5% with p = 0.030 for $D_{95%}$). In order to calculate dose distributions accurately on the CBCT images, CBCT density curve generated with full scatter condition should be used especially for dose calculations in the region of large inhomogeneity.

Evaluation of Skin Dose of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients (유방암환자의 세기조절방사선치료에서 피부선량 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Myung-Se;Yun, Sang-Mo
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.167-171
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    • 2007
  • In the case of radiotherapy following breast conservation therapy for breast cancer patients, the characteristic of skin dose was investigated in the treatment of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for breast cancer patients by comparing and analysing entrance skin dose irradiated during radiotherapy using tangential technique radiotherpy, and IMRT. The calculation dose irradiated to breast skin was compared with TLD measurement dose in treatment planning by performing the two methods of radiotherapy using tangential technique, and IMRT in treatment planning equipment. The skin absorbed dose was measured to pass a nipple by spacing of 1 cm distance from center to edge of body. In the radiotherapy of tangential technique, for the irradiation of 180 cGy to PTV, the calculation dose was ranged from 103.5 cGy to 155.2 cGy, measurement dose was ranged from 107.5 cGy to 156.2 cGy, and skin dose in the center was maximum 1.45 times more irradiated than that in the edge. In the IMRT, for the irradiation of 180 cGy to PTV, the calculation dose was ranged 9.8 cGy at 80.2 cGy, measurement dose was ranged 8.9 cGy at 77.2 cGy, and skin dose in the center was maximum 0.23 times less irradiated than that in the edge. IMRT was more effective for skin radiation risks because radiation dose irradiated to skin in IMRT was much less than that in radiotherapy of tangential field technique.

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Dose Verification of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy with Beam Intensity Scanner System

  • Vahc, Young-Woo;Park, Kwangyl;Ohyun Kwon;Park, Kyung-Ran;Lee, Yong-Ha;Yi, Byung-Yong;Kim, Sookil
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.248-251
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    • 2002
  • The intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with a multileaf collimator (MLC) requires the conversion of a radiation fluence map into a leaf sequence file that controls the movement of the MLC during radiation treatment of patients. Patient dose verification is clinically one of the most important parts in the treatment delivery of the radiation therapy. The three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of dose distribution delivered to the target helps to verify patient dose and to determine the physical characteristics of beams used in IMRT. A new method is presented for the pretreatment dosimetric verification of two dimensional distributions of photon intensity by means of Beam Intensity Scanner System (BISS) as a radiation detector with a custom-made software for dose calculation of fluorescence signals from scintillator. The scintillator is used to produce fluorescence from the irradiation of 6MV photons on a Varian Clinac 21EX. The BISS reproduces 3D- relative dose distribution from the digitized fluoroscopic signals obtained by digital video camera-based scintillator(DVCS) device in the IMRT. For the intensity modulated beams (IMBs), the calculations of absorbed dose are performed in absolute beam fluence profiles which are used for calculation of the patient dose distribution. The 3D-dose profiles of the IMBs with the BISS were demonstrated by relative measurements of photon beams and shown good agreement with radiographic film. The mechanical and dosimetric properties of the collimating of dynamic and/or step MLC system alter the generated intensity. This is mostly due to leaf transmission, leaf penumbra and geometry of leaves. The variations of output according to the multileaf opening during the irradiation need to be accounted for as well. These phenomena result in a fluence distribution that can be substantially different from the initial and calculative intensity modulation and therefore, should be taken into account by the treatment planning for accurate dose calculations delivered to the target volume in IMRT.

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A Cosideration on Physical Aspects in Teleradiotherapy Chart QA (원격방사선치료 기록부의 QA 에서 물리적 측면의 고찰)

  • 강위생;허순녕
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 1999
  • The aims of this report are to classify the incorrect data of patients and the errors of dose and dose distribution observed in QA activities on teleradiotherapy chart, and to analyze their frequency. In our department, radiation physicists check several sheets of patient chart to reduce numeric errors before starting radiation therapy and at least once a week, which include history, port diagram, MU calculation or treatment planning summary and daily treatment sheet. The observed errors are classified as followings. 1) Identity of patient, 2) Omitted or unrecorded history sheet even though not including the item related to dose, 3) Omission of port diagram, or omitted or erroneous data, 4) Erroneous calculation of MU and point dose, and important causes, 5) Loss of summary sheet of treatment planning, and erroneous data of patient in the sheet, 6) Erroneous record of radiation therapy, and errors of daily dose, port setup, MU and accumulated dose in the daily treatment sheet, 7) Errors leading inexact dose or dose distribution, errors not administerd even though its possibility, and simply recorded errors, 8) Omission of sign. Number of errors was counted rather than the number of patients. In radiotherapy chart QA from Jun 17, 1996 to Jul 31, 1999, no error of patient identity had been observed. 431 Errors in 399 patient charts had been observed and there were 405 physical errors, 9 cases of omitted or unrecorded history sheet, and 17 unsigned. There were 23 cases (5.7%) of omitted port diagram, 21 cases (5.2%) of omitted data and 73 cases (18.0 %) of erroneous data in port diagram, 13 cases (3.2 %) treated without MU calculation, 68 cases (16.3 %) of erroneous MU, 8 cases (2.0%) of erroneous point dose, 1 case (0.2 %) of omitted treatment planning summary, 11 cases (2.7%) of erroneous input of patient data, 13 cases (3.2%) of uncorrected record of treatment, 20 cases (4.9%) of discordant daily doses in MU calculation sheet and daily treatment sheet, 33 cases (8.1%) of erroneous setup, 52 cases (12.8%) of MU setting error, 61 cases (15.1%) of erroneous accumulated dose. Cases of error leading inexact dose or dose distribution were 239 (59.0 %), cases of error not administered even though its possibility were 142 (35.1 %), and cases of simply recorded error were 24 (5.9 %). The numeric errors observed in radiotherapy chart ranged over various items. Because errors observed can actually contribute to erroneous dose or dose distribution, or have the possibility to lead such errors, thorough QA activity in physical aspects of radiotherapy charts is required.

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Study on the Dose Calculation for Iridium and Cessium Sources (이리듐과 세슘의 혼합선원을 이용한 강내치료의 선량계획에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Jeong-Ku;Kim, Soo-Kon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.42-46
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    • 2005
  • The Dose calculation program for the Buchler remote after-loading system was developed. We use iridium source for the tandem and cessium for the ovoids. We determined the source length and distributions by dividing the program disk to 72 points. The dose rate for the each program disk were calculated and stored to the tables for the xy coordinates. The dose rate for the interesting points for the patients were calculated by using these tables. We also made isodose curve from the calculations. By using the program, we could calculate the dose rate for the various points of the patient quickly and accurately.

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The Effect of the CT Number for Each CT on Dose Calculation (CT 기종에 따른 CT 수의 변화가 선량계산에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho Kwang Hwan;Lee Suk;Cho Sam Ju;Lim Sangwook;Huh Hyun Do;Min Chul Kee;Cho Byung-Chul;Kim Yong Ho;Choi Doo Ho;Kim Eun Seog;Kwon Soo Il
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.161-165
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    • 2005
  • The CT number corresponds to electron density and its influence on dose calculation was studied. Five kinds of CT scanners were used to obtain Images of electron density calibration phantom (Gammex RMI 467), Then the differences between CT numbers for each scanners were ${\pm}2\%$ In homogeneous medium and $9.5\%$ in high density medium. In order to Investigate the influence of CT number to dose calculation, patients' thoracic CT images were analyzed. The maximum dose difference was $0.48\%$ for each organ. It acquired the phantom Images inserted high density material in the water phantom. Comparing the doses calculated with CT Images from each CT scanner, the maximum dose difference was $2.1\%$ in 20 cm in depth. The exact density to CT number conversion according to CT scanner is required to minimize the uncertainty of dose depends on CT number Especially the each hospital with various CT scanners has to discriminate CT numbers for each CT scanner. Moreover a periodic quality assurance is required for reproducibility of CT number.

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Numerical Calculation of the Deflected Path of Electrons through Water under External Magnetic Fields

  • Jeong, Dong-Hyeok;Kim, Jhin-Kee;Shin, Kyo-Chul;Kim, Ki-Hwan;Kim, Jeung-Kee;Oh, Young-Kee;Ji, Young-Hoo;Lee, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Seung-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.71-71
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    • 2003
  • The study on magnetic field combined radiation therapy, as a new technique to modify the dose distributions using external magnetic field, has been investigated. The goal of the study is to develop the techniques for dose localization, as a particle beam, from the strong magnetic fields. In this study, in order to study the principle of dose deposition in external fields, as a basic approach, we have calculated approximately the paths of traveling electrons in water under external magnetic fields with numerical methods. The calculations are performed for a primary particle by cumulating the steps which are defined as small path lengths which energy loss can be ignored. In this calculation, the energy loss and direction change for a step was calculated by using total stopping power and Lorentz force equation respectively. We have examined the deflected paths of the electron through water as a function of external magnetic field and incident electron s energy. Since we did not take account of the multiple scattering effects for electrons through water, there are errors in this calculation. However, from the results we can explain the principle of dose variation and dose focusing for electron beams under strong magnetic fields in water.

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Preliminary Results on Food Consumpt ion Rates for Off-site Dose Calculation of Nuclear Power Plants (원전 주변 주민의 방사선량 평가를 위한 음식물 섭취량 조사 예비결과)

  • Lee Gab-Bock;Chung Yang-Geun;Bang Sun-Young;Kang Duk-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Radioactive Waste Society Conference
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 2005
  • The Internal dose by food consumption mostly account for radiological dose of public around nuclear poller plants(NPP). But, food consumption rate applied to off-site dose calculation in Korea which is the result of field investigation around Kori NPP by the KAERI in 1988, is not reflected of the latest dietary characteristics. The Ministry of Health and Welfare Affairs has investigated the food and nutrition of nations every 3 years based on the Law of National Health Improvement. To update the food consumption rates of the maximum individual the analysis of the national food investigation results and field surveys around nuclear power plant sites have been carried out.

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THE IMPORTANCE OF PATIENT-SPECIFIC DOSE CALCULATIONS IN NUCLEAR MEDICINE

  • Stabin, Michael G.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.527-532
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    • 2008
  • As therapeutic uses of radionuclides in nuclear medicine increases, the use of patient-specific methods for calculation of radiation dose becomes more important. In this manuscript basic methods and resources for internal dose calculations are outlined, with a focus on how current changes and advances are making more accurate and detailed, patient-individualized dose calculations possible. Most current resources make use of standardized models of the human body representing median individuals, but the use of image-based and more realistic models will soon take their place, and will permit adjustments to represent individual patients and tailor therapy planning uniquely for each subject.