• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose calculation

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Evaluation of the Usefulness of MapPHAN for the Verification of Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Planning (용적세기조절회전치료 치료계획 확인에 사용되는 MapPHAN의 유용성 평가)

  • Woo, Heon;Park, Jang Pil;Min, Jae Soon;Lee, Jae Hee;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Latest linear accelerator and the introduction of new measurement equipment to the agency that the introduction of this equipment in the future, by analyzing the process of confirming the usefulness of the preparation process for applying it in the clinical causes some problems, should be helpful. Materials and Methods: All measurements TrueBEAM STX (Varian, USA) was used, and a file specific to each energy, irradiation conditions, the dose distribution was calculated using a computerized treatment planning equipment (Eclipse ver 10.0.39, Varian, USA). Measuring performance and cause errors in MapCHECK 2 were analyzed and measured against. In order to verify the performance of the MapCHECK 2, 6X, 6X-FFF, 10X, 10X-FFF, 15X field size $10{\times}10$ cm, gantry $0^{\circ}$, $180^{\circ}$ direction was measured by the energy. IGRT couch of the CT values affect the measurements in order to confirm, CT number values : -800 (Carbon) & -950 (COUCH in the air), -100 & 6X-950 in the state for FFF, 15X of the energy field sizes $10{\times}10$, gantry $180^{\circ}$, $135^{\circ}$, $275^{\circ}$ directionwas measured at, MapPHAN allocated to confirm the value of HU were compared, using the treatment planning computer for, Measurement error problem by the sharp edges MapPHAN Learn gantry direction MapPHAN of dependence was measured in three ways. GANTRY $90^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ in the direction of the vertically erected settings 6X-FFF, 15X respectively, and Setting the state established as a horizontal field sizes $10{\times}10$, $90^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, $315^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ of in the direction of the energy-6X-FFF, 15X, respectively, were measured. Without intensity modulated beam of the third open arc were investigated. Results: Of basic performance MapCHECK confirm the attenuation measured by Couch, measured from the measured HU values that are assigned to the MAP-PHAN, check for calculation accuracy for the angled edge of the MapPHAN all come in a range of valid measurement errors do not affect the could see. three ways for the Gantry direction dependence, the first of the meter built into the value of the Gantry $270^{\circ}$ (relative $0^{\circ}$), $90^{\circ}$ (relative $180^{\circ}$), 6X-FFF, 15X from each -1.51, 0.83% and -0.63, -0.22% was not affected by the AP/PA direction represented. Setting the meter horizontally Gantry $90^{\circ}$, $270^{\circ}$ from the couch, Energy 6X-FFF 4.37, 2.84%, 15X, -9.63, -13.32% the difference. By-side direction measurements MapPHAN in value is not within the valid range can not, because that could be confirmed as gamma pass rate 3% of the value is greater than the value shown. You can check the Open Arc 6X-FFF, 15X energy, field size $10{\times}10$ cm $360^{\circ}$ rotation of the dose distribution in the state to look at nearly 90% pass rate to emerge. Conclusion: Based on the above results, the MapPHAN gantry direction dependence by side in the direction of the beam relative dose distribution suitable for measuring the gamma value, but accurate measurement of the absolute dose can not be considered is. this paper, a more accurate treatment plan in order to confirm, Reduce the tolerance for VMAT, such as lateral rotation investigation in order to measure accurate absolute isodose using a combination of IMF (Isocentric Mounting Fixture) MapCHEK 2, will be able to minimize the impact due to the angular dependence.

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Evaluating efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan for spine SBRT (Spine SBRT 치료시 Coaxial MLC VMAT plan의 유용성 평가)

  • Son, Sang Jun;Mun, Jun Ki;Kim, Dae Ho;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficiency of Coaxial MLC VMAT plan (Using $273^{\circ}$ and $350^{\circ}$ collimator angle) That the leaf motion direction aligned with axis of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.) compare to Universal MLC VMAT plan (using $30^{\circ}$ and $330^{\circ}$ collimator angle) for spine SBRT. Materials and Methods : The 10 cases of spine SBRT that treated with VMAT planned by Coaxial MLC and Varian TBX were enrolled. Those cases were planned by Eclipse (Ver. 10.0.42, Varian, USA), PRO3 (Progressive Resolution Optimizer 10.0.28) and AAA (Anisotropic Analytic Algorithm Ver. 10.0.28) with coplanar $360^{\circ}$ arcs and 10MV FFF (Flattening filter free). Each arc has $273^{\circ}$ and $350^{\circ}$ collimator angle, respectively. The Universal MLC VMAT plans are based on existing treatment plans. Those plans have the same parameters of existing treatment plans but collimator angle. To minimize the dose difference that shows up randomly on optimizing, all plans were optimized and calculated twice respectively. The calculation grid is 0.2 cm and all plans were normalized to the target V100%=90%. The indexes of evaluation are V10Gy, D0.03cc, Dmean of OAR (Organ at risk, It means spinal cord or cauda equine in this study.), H.I (Homogeneity index) of the target and total MU. All Coaxial VMAT plans were verified by gamma test with Mapcheck2 (Sun Nuclear Co., USA), Mapphan (Sun Nuclear Co., USA) and SNC patient (Sun Nuclear Co., USA Ver 6.1.2.18513). Results : The difference between the coaxial and the universal VMAT plans are follow. The coaxial VMAT plan is better in the V10Gy of OAR, Up to 4.1%, at least 0.4%, the average difference was 1.9% and In the D0.03cc of OAR, Up to 83.6 cGy, at least 2.2 cGy, the average difference was 33.3 cGy. In Dmean, Up to 34.8 cGy, at least -13.0 cGy, the average difference was 9.6 cGy that say the coaxial VMAT plans are better except few cases. H.I difference Up to 0.04, at least 0.01, the average difference was 0.02 and the difference of average total MU is 74.1 MU. The coaxial MLC VMAT plan is average 74.1 MU lesser then another. All IMRT verification gamma test results for the coaxial MLC VMAT plan passed over 90.0% at 1mm / 2%. Conclusion : Coaxial MLC VMAT treatment plan appeared to be favorable in most cases than the Universal MLC VMAT treatment planning. It is efficient in lowering the dose of the OAR V10Gy especially. As a result, the Coaxial MLC VMAT plan could be better than the Universal MLC VMAT plan in same MU.

A Study of Content Analysis on ICU(Intensive Care Unit) Nurses' Knowledge of Basic Nursing Sciences (중환자실 간호사의 기초간호과학 지식의 필요성 분석)

  • Byeon, Young-Soon;Choe, Myoung-Ae;Kim, Hee-Seung;Park, Mi-Jung;Seo, Wha-Sook;Lee, Kyung-Sook;Choi, S-Mi;Hong, Hae-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge contents of basic nursing sciences needed by nurses in the practices of the intensive care unit(ICU). To attain the goal of this study, the nurses working at 10 hospitals in the areas of Seoul and Kangwon Province were randomly selected. They were primarily interviewed, and the open question was secondarily put to them through the questionnaire. In the process of the 1st interview, the interviewees were asked of the question, "What is the knowledge of basic sciences such as anatomy, pathology, physiology. microbiology, pharmacology and the like thought to be lacking when you communicate with doctors in the ICU and when you carry out your nursing practices in it?" The contents of the interview were tape-recorded. The period of data collection ranged from May 1, 2001 to Sept 30. The interviews were conducted with total of 20 nurses. The open-end questionnaire was secondarily mailed to nurses. 113 questionnaires were returned. 100 questionnaires except 13 ones thought to be poorly completed in content were used for data analysis. Three coders classified data obtained from the interview and the questionnaire research into 5 detailed items relating to such as anatomical physiology, pathology, pharmacology. microbiology and basics of nursing. The three coders had experiences in nursing education of 18 years, 8 years and 6 years, respectively, and of them one coder was professor in basic nursing sciences. Data were statistically treated using frequency analysis and percentage by the SAS program. As a result, the following findings were obtained : It was found that the contents that ICU nurses responded were most needed in the field of Human structure and function were water and electrolytic balance(38%), blood and circulatory system(20%), changer in the patient's skin(12%), the arrangement of the human body(10%) and the endocrine system(10%), nervous system(6%), and assessment of the state of the patient's consciousness(4%). It was found that the contents that ICU nurses responded were most needed in the field of pathology were found to be the process of the progress of the disease(32%), symptoms of the disease(27%), prognosis of the disease(22%), followed by the injury-healing process, clinical pathological examination, and examination by radiation. It was found that the contents that nurses responded were most needed in the field of pharmacology were the effect of drug(25%), the side effect of drug(22%), the relationship between diseases and drug(20%), the relationship between disease-causing bacteria and drug(20%) and chemotherapy(2%). It was found that the contents that ICU nurses responded were most needed in the field of microbiology were the relationship between diseases and disease-causing bacteria(45%), Kinds and characteristics of disease-causing bacteria(18%), infection control(16%), application of the aseptic technique(12%), isolation(9%) and the like. It was found that the basic knowledge that ICU nurses responded were needed were the identification of the patient's current state(36%), understanding of the therapeutic process(22%), the operating principle of medical equipment and instrument(20%), medical terminology(9%), equipment and instrument management(7%), calculation of the dose of injection(2%) and the like.

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Studies on the Epidemiological Change of Clonorchiasis After Mass Chemotherapy in Highly endemic Areas (집단치료사업에 따른 간흡충증의 역학적 변동에 관한 조사)

  • Joo, Kyoung-Hwan;Chu, Paul B.;Rim, Han-Jong;Lee, Joon-Sang
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.80-93
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    • 1987
  • Mass chemotherapy of Clonorchis sinensis infection in Korea was started in 1982 with 40mg/kg body weight single dose administration scheme of praziquantel. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of current mass chemotherapy project and compare the epidemiological changes in endemic area of Ckmorchis sinensis. This study was performed at Kimhae-city and Samrangjin-eup of Miryang-gun, Kyongnam province, highly endemic area of C. sinensis located southeastern part of Korea from July to October of 1986. The therapy project of Kimhae area was performed in 1984, whereas that of Samrangjin was done in 1985 by stool examination of the Korea Association for Parasite Eradication(KAPE) and drug administration of local health centre. The results obtained were as follows; 1) As a results of stool examination from 234 specimens obtained in Kimhae area, the infection rate has decreased to 34.2%from 45.6p in 1983, but the infection rate of C. sinensis from 341 specimens obtained in Samrangjin area did not decrease (58.1%in 1986 490%in 1983). 2) The study in Kimhae area showed that the average EPG decreased remarkably from 4,858 to 1,340 and those classified above the category of heavy infection decreased also from 14.0pp to 1.7%. The study in Samrangjin area showed that the average EPG did decrease drastically from 9,597 to 6,498 and those classified above the category of heavy infection did not go down drastically from 25.2% to 14.2%. 3) The study in Kimhae area showed decrease of Cs.$D._{50}$ in comparison to that in 1983, wheareas Cs.$D._{50}$ in Samrangjin area showed no much difference compared to that in 1983. The intensities of endemicity were represented with the regression equation calculated with the cumulative percentages of EPG count. Regression equation was Y=4.49+1.19 log x in Kimhae area and Y=3.66+127 log x in Samrangjin area. 4) The two stage catalytic model was applied and the calculation lead to the equation $Y=5.33(e^{-0.018t}-e^{-0.016t})$ in Kimhae area and $Y=1.25(e^{-0.010t}-e^{-0.018t})$ in Kimhae area and $Y=125(e^{-0.010t}-e^{-0.050t})$ in Samrangjin area 5) The infection rate of cercaria in P.manchouric-us studied in Kimhae area showed 1.25% which is not much different from that in previous years, wheareas the infection rate of metacercaria in P. parva studied in the same area this year showed 2.5-20.2/gm of flesh in comparison to 64/gm of flesh in 1983. 6) Data of C. sinensis infection on the reservoir host in Kimhae area showed 4 out of 18 dogs, 1 out of 18 rats and that in Samrangjin area showed 2 out of 18 dogs respectively. 7) Among the inhabitants who were under mass chemotherapy in Kimhae area, 71out of them, upon stool examination, showed infection rate of 66.2% and those classified above the category of heavy infection, 2.4%. In comparison to infection rate of 33.7% and those classified above the category of heavy infection, which is 1.0%, obtained from those not under mass chemotherapy showed higher infection rate and somewhat equal distribution of intensity of infection. The above statements reflect the fact that individual therapy besides mass chemotherapy was prevalent in that area. 8) On the other side, the studies in Samrangjin area showed infection rate of 68.7% and those above the category of heavy infection, which is 6.1%, in comparison to infection rate of 58.3% and those above the category of heavy infection, which is 16.5%, in those not under mass chemotherapy. the above reflects that although a good deal of inhabit-ants were classified under light or moderate infection category, those above the category of heavy infection, yet, numbered a lot, and individual chemotherapy has not been going on. In conclusion, it was suggested that the number of reinfected inhabitants among those under mass chemotherapy were numerous. Accordingly, the reinforcement of health education should be followed with mass chemotherapy. The facts of high infection rate exemplified by 65% and high number of those above the category of heavy infection in Samrangjin area say that reevaluation of dosage, number of medication and intervals should be necessarily made.

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Comparison of Enalapril Maleate Tablets on Bioavailability and the Time Course of Inhibition of Plasma Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (Enalapril Maleate 정제의 동등성에 관한 연구 ; 약동학적 성상 및 혈장 ACE 활성도 억제 효과)

  • Jang, In-Jin;Jang, Byung-Soo;Shin, Sang-Goo;Shin, Jae-Gook;Rho, Il-Kun;Lee, Kyeong-Hun;Park, Chan-Woong
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 1990
  • Enalapril maleate tablets of two different producers were tested for bioequivalence. Enalapril is rapidly metabolized to an active metabolite, enalaprilat which inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The pharmacokinetics of enalapril maleate and the time course of inhibition of plasma ACE activity after administration of the drugs were studied. Two single doses of 10mg each of enalapril maleate were administered orally to twelve male volunteers in a balanced, randomized, two-way crossover investigation. Plasma enalaprilat concentrations were determined over a 23-hour after the dose by enzyme inhibition assay and enalapril by the same method following in vitro hydrolysis. Urinary recoveries of enalapril and enalaprilat were determined for the calculation of renal clearance. Plasma ACE activity was determined by an enzyme assay. Peak plasma levels of enalapril were observed about 1 hour after the doses, and practically all enalapril had disappeared from plasma within 6 hour. Peak enalapril concentrations of both formulations were almost identical ($Vasotec^{\circledR}$, 61.38 ng/ml; $Beartec^{\circledR}$, 64.27 ng/ml). The values of the pharmacokinetic parameters of enalaprilat computed for $Vasotec^{\circledR}$ and $Beartec^{\circledR}$ tablets are presented in that order; area under the curve=330.63:320.96 $ng{\cdot}hr/ml$; peak concentration=38.63:39.43 ng/ml; time to peak=3.83:4.08 hour; elimination half-life=3.95:3.92 hours. No statistically significant difference was detected when area under the curve and all other parameters were compared. Using criteria of 95% confidence interval for the comparison of these parameters, only the upper limits of area under the curve and time to peak of enalapril were over 120%. All the parameters of enalaprilat were acceptable. Percent inhibition of plasma ACE to plasma enalaprilat concentration showed the sigmoid concentration-inhibition relationship. Time courses of plasma ACE inhibition after the administration of both formulations were quite similar. The formulations were found to be equivalent when compared on the premise that no significant difference was detected when pharmacokientic parameters and inhibition of ACE activity were compared, based on the confidence limits analysis.

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Calculation of Derived Investigation Levels for Uranium Intake (우라늄 섭취의 유도조사준위 산출)

  • Lee, Na-Rae;Han, Seung-Jae;Cho, Kun-Woo;Jeong, Kyu-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.68-77
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    • 2013
  • Derived Investigation levels(DILs) were calculated to protect the workers from the effects of both radiological hazard and chemical toxicity by uranium intake. Investigation Levels(ILs) of committed effective dose of 2 mSv $y^{-1}-6$ mSv $y^{-1}$ and uranium concentration of 0.3 ${\mu}g$ $g^{-1}$ in kidney, based on Korean Nuclaer Safety Act, Korean Occupational Safety and Health Act and current scientific studies of uranium intake were assumed. DILs of radiological hazard and chemical toxicity were then calculated based on the concentration of uranium in air of workplace, the lung monitoring and urine analysis, respectively. As a result, in case of the nuclear fuel fabrication plant where 3.5% enriched uranium is handled, derived investigation level(DIL) for the control of the concentration of uranium in the air of workplace assumed with 15-min acute inhalation was 0.6 mg $m^{-3}$ for all types of uranium. DILs for the control of the average concentration of uranium in air of workplace, assuming an 8-hour workday, were 15.21 ${\mu}g$ $m^{-3}$ of Type F uranium, 0.41-1.23 Bq $m^{-3}$ and 0.13-0.39 Bq $m^{-3}$ for Type M and Type S uranium, respectively. DILs for the lung monitoring assumed with a period of 6-month interval were 0.37-1.11 Bq and 0.39-1.17 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type M, respectively and 0.30- 0.91 Bq and 0.19-0.57 Bq in acute and chronic inhalation for Type S, respectively. Since a detection limit of typical germanium detector for the measurement of 235U activity is 4 Bq, DILs calculated for the lung monitoring were not appropriate. DILs for urine analysis, for which an interval was assumed to be 1 month, were 14.57 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on chemical toxicity after acute inhalation. In addition, acute and chronic inhalation of Type M were calculated 2.85-8.58 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ and 1.09-3.27 ${\mu}g$ $L^{-1}$ based on the radiological hazard, respectively.

Commissioning Experience of Tri-Cobalt-60 MRI-guided Radiation Therapy System (자기공명영상유도 Co-60 기반 방사선치료기기의 커미셔닝 경험)

  • Park, Jong Min;Park, So-Yeon;Wu, Hong-Gyun;Kim, Jung-in
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study is to present commissioning results of the ViewRay system. We verified safety functions of the ViewRay system. For imaging system, we acquired signal to noise ratio (SNR) and image uniformity. In addition, we checked spatial integrity of the image. Couch movement accuracy and coincidence of isocenters (radiation therapy system, imaging system and virtual isocneter) was verified. Accuracy of MLC positioing was checked. We performed reference dosimetry according to American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 51 (TG-51) in water phantom for head 1 and 3. The deviations between measurements and calculation of percent depth dose (PDD) and output factor were evaluated. Finally, we performed gamma evaluations with a total of 8 IMRT plans as an end-to-end (E2E) test of the system. Every safety system of ViewRay operated properly. The values of SNR and Uniformity met the tolerance level. Every point within 10 cm and 17.5 cm radii about the isocenter showed deviations less than 1 mm and 2 mm, respectively. The average couch movement errors in transverse (x), longitudinal (y) and vertical (z) directions were 0.2 mm, 0.1 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively. The deviations between radiation isocenter and virtual isocenter in x, y and z directions were 0 mm, 0 mm and 0.3 mm, respectively. Those between virtual isocenter and imaging isocenter were 0.6 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.2 mm, respectively. The average MLC positioning errors were less than 0.6 mm. The deviations of output, PDDs between mesured vs. BJR supplement 25, PDDs between measured and calculated and output factors of each head were less than 0.5%, 1%, 1% and 2%, respectively. For E2E test, average gamma passing rate with 3%/3 mm criterion was $99.9%{\pm}0.1%$.

Study on Glomerular Filtration Rate comparison according to renal depth measurement of kidney donors (신 공여자에서 신장 깊이 측정에 따른 사구체여과율의 비교에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Han Wool;Park, Min Soo;Kang, Chun Goo;Cho, Seok Won;Kim, Joo Yeon;Kwon, O Jun;Lim, Han Sang;Kim, Jae Sam;Park, Hoon-Hee
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.48-56
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    • 2014
  • Purpose $^{99m}Tc$-DTPA renal scintigraphy serves as a key indicator to measure a kidney donor's Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) and determine the possibility of kidney transplant. The Gates method utilized to measure GFR considers 3 variables of renal depth, injection dose, and net kidney counts. In this research, we seek to compare changes in kidney donors' GFR according to renal depth measurement methods of the 3 variables. Materials and Methods We investigated 32 kidney donors who had visited the hospital from October, 2013 to March, 2014 and received abdominal CT and $^{99m}Tc$-DTPA GFR examination. With the cross-section image of the CT and the lateral image from a gamma camera, we measured the renal depth and compared with renal depth calculation equations-Tonnesen, Taylor, and Itoh methods. Renal depth-specific GFR was calculated by using Xeleris Ver. 2.1220 of GE. Then the results were compared with MDRD (Modification of Diet Renal Disease) GFRs based on serum creatinine level. Results The renal depths measured based on the CT and gamma camera images showed high correlation. Tonessen equation gave the lowest GFR value while the value calculated by using the renal depth of CT image was the highest with a 16.62% gap. MDRD GFR showed no statistically significant difference among values calculated through Taylor, Itoh, CT and gamma camera renal depth application (P>0.05), but exhibited a statistically significant change in the value based on Tonnesen equation (P<0.05). Conclusion This research has found that, in GFR evaluation in kidney donors by utilizing $^{99m}Tc$-DTPA, Tonnesen equation-based Gates method underestimated the value than the MDRD GFR. Therefore, if a MDRD GFR value shows a huge difference from the actual examination value, using an image-based renal depth measurement, instead of Tonnesen equation applied to Gates method, is expected to give an accurate GFR value to kidney donors.

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The Evaluation on Reuse Period of Patient's Clothes and Sheet After Radioiodine Therapy (방사성 요오드 치료환자의 환의 및 시트에 대한 재사용주기 평가)

  • Kim, Yeong Seon;Seo, Myung Deok;Lee, Wan Kyu;Kim, Ki Joon;Song, Jae Beom
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.12-17
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : The patient's clothes and sheet after radioiodine therapy must be disposed of by related regulation. That must be disposed of as radioactive wastes, but that is reusing after radioactivity decay by keeping for the certain period of time. In general, The minimum storage period calculate by standard of take radioactive substance out of radiation controlled area based on measured surface contamination level. But the measurements of surface contamination level are able to differ by measurement method. In this paper, I wish to calculate the minimum storage period of patient's clothes and sheet after radioiodine therapy by measure nuclide concentration offered by the regulation on self-disposal of radioactive wastes. Materials and Methods : The whole area of patient's clothes and sheet measured 31 patients(male:9 patients, female:22 patients), who had radioiodine therapy(3.7 GBq:13 patients, 5.55 GBq:16 patients, 7.4 GBq:2 patients) from july 2011 to march 2012. The minimum storage period is calculated by the regulation on self-disposal of radioactive waste(100 Bq/g) and standard of take radioactive substance out of radiation controlled area(4 kBq/m2) Results : The minimum storage period of pillow sheet, upper uniform, lower uniform by standard of take radioactive substance out of radiation controlled area were each 4.6 days, 63days, 78 days. The minimum storage period of pillow sheet, upper uniform, lower uniform by the regulation on self-disposal of radioactive waste were each 18.1 days, 43 days, 62 days. Conclusion : We can verify that patient's clothes and sheet after radioiodine therapy exists a great deal of radioactive contamination. The minimum storage period calculation of patient's clothes and sheet is better suited to applying nuclide concentration offered by the regulation on self-disposal of radioactive waste. I recommend, To keep for at least 2 months of the patient's clothes and sheet contaminated radioactivity, for prevent contamination and unnecessary radiation exposure.

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