• Title, Summary, Keyword: dose calculation

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Evaluation of Dose Volume and Radiobiological Indices by the Dose Calculation Grid Size in Nasopharyngeal Cancer VMAT (비 인두암 체적 조절 호형 방사선 치료의 선량 계산 격자 크기에 따른 선량 체적 지수와 방사선 생물학적 지수의 평가)

  • Kang, Dong-Jin;Jung, Jae-Yong;Shin, Young-Joo;Min, Jung-Whan;Shim, Jae-Goo;Park, So-Hyun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.265-272
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the dose-volume indices and radiobiological indices according to the change in dose calculation grid size during the planning of nasopharyngeal cancer VMAT treatment. After performing the VMAT treatment plan using the 3.0 mm dose calculation grid size, dose calculation from 1.0 mm to 5.0 mm was performed repeatedly to obtain a dose volume histogram. The dose volume index and radiobiological index were evaluated using the obtained dose volume histogram. The smaller the dose calculation grid size, the smaller the mean dose for CTV and the larger the mean dose for PTV. For OAR of spinal cord, brain stem, lens and parotid gland, the mean dose did not show a significant difference according to the change in dose calculation grid size. The smaller the grid size, the higher the conformity of the dose distribution as the CI of the PTV increases. The CI and HI showed the best results at 3.0 mm. The smaller the dose calculation grid size, the higher the TCP of the PTV. The smaller the dose calculation grid size, the lower the NTCP of lens and parotid. As a result, when performing the nasopharynx cancer VMAT plan, it was found that the dose calculation grid size should be determined in consideration of dose volume index, radiobiological index, and dose calculation time. According to the results of various experiments, it was determined that it is desirable to apply a grid size of 2.0 - 3.0 mm.

Calculation of Dobe Distributions in Brachytherapy by Personal Microcomputer (Microcomputer를 이용한 근접조사 장치의 선량분포 계산)

  • Chu S. S.;Park C. Y.
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.129-137
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    • 1984
  • In brachytherapy, it is important to determine the positions of the radiation sources which are inserted into a patient and to estimate the dose resulting from the treatment. Calculation of the dose distribution throughout an implant is so laborious that it is rarely done by manual methods except for model cases. It is possible to calculate isodose distributions and tumor doses for individual patients by the use of a microcomputer. In this program, the dose rate and dose distributions are calculated by numerical integration of point source and the localization of radiation sources are obtained from two radiographs at right angles taken by a simulator developed for the treatment planning. By using microcomputer for brachytherapy, we obtained the result as following 1. Dose calculation and irradiation time for tumor could be calculated under one or five seconds after input data. 2. It was same value under$\pm2\%$ error between dose calculation by computer program and measurement dose. 3. It took about five minutes to reconstruct completely dose distribution for intracavitary irradiation. 4. Calculating by computer made remarkly reduction of dose errors compared with Quimby's calculation in interstitial radiation implantation. 5. It could calculate the biological isoffect dose for high and low dose rate activities.

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Target dose study of effects of changes in the AAA Calculation resolution on Lung SABR plan (Lung SABR plan시 AAA의 Calculation resolution 변화에 의한 Target dose 영향 연구)

  • Kim, Dae Il;Son, Sang Jun;Ahn, Bum Seok;Jung, Chi Hoon;Yoo, Suk Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2014
  • Purpose : Changing the calculation grid of AAA in Lung SABR plan and to analyze the changes in target dose, and investigated the effects associated with it, and considered a suitable method of application. Materials and Methods : 4D CT image that was used to plan all been taken with Brilliance Big Bore CT (Philips, Netherlands) and in Lung SABR plan($Eclipse^{TM}$ ver10.0.42, Varian, the USA), use anisotropic analytic algorithm(AAA, ver.10, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) and, was calculated by the calculation grid 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mm in each Lung SABR plan. Results : Lung SABR plan of 10 cases are using each of 1.0 mm, 3.0 mm, 5.0 mm calculation grid, and in case of use a 1.0 mm calculation grid $V_{98}$. of the prescribed dose is about $99.5%{\pm}1.5%$, $D_{min}$ of the prescribed dose is about $92.5{\pm}1.5%$ and Homogeneity Index(HI) is $1.0489{\pm}0.0025$. In the case of use a 3.0 mm calculation grid $V_{98}$ dose of the prescribed dose is about $90{\pm}4.5%$, $D_{min}$ of the prescribed dose is about $87.5{\pm}3%$ and HI is about $1.07{\pm}1$. In the case of use a 5.0 mm calculation grid $V_{98}$ dose of the prescribed dose is about $63{\pm}15%$, $D_{min}$ of the prescribed dose is about $83{\pm}4%$ and HI is about $1.13{\pm}0.2$, respectively. Conclusion : The calculation grid of 1.0 mm is better improves the accuracy of dose calculation than using 3.0 mm and 5.0 mm, although calculation times increase in the case of smaller PTV relatively. As lung, spread relatively large and low density and small PTV, it is considered and good to use a calculation grid of 1.0 mm.

Entrance Surface Dose according to Dose Calculation : Head and Wrist (피폭선량 산출을 통한 피부입사선량 계산: 머리 및 손목을 중심으로)

  • Sung, Ho-Jin;Han, Jae-Bok;Song, Jong-Nam;Choi, Nam-Gil
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2016
  • This study were compared with the direct measurement and indirect dose methods through various dose calculation in head and wrist. And, the modified equation was proposed considering equipment type, setting conditions, tube voltage, inherent filter, added filter and its accompanied back scatter factor. As a result, it decreased the error of the direct measurement than the existing dose calculation. Accordingly, diagnostic radiography patient dose comparison would become easier and radiogrphic exposure control and evaluation will become more efficient. The study findings are expected to be useful in patients' effective dose rate evaluation and dose reduction.

Space Radiation Shielding Calculation by Approximate Model for LEO Satellites

  • Shin Myung-Won;Kim Myung-Hyun
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2004
  • Two approximate methods for a cosmic radiation shielding calculation in low earth orbits were developed and assessed. Those are a sectoring method and a chord-length distribution method. In order to simulate a change in cosmic radiation environments along the satellite mission trajectory, IGRF model and AP(E)-8 model were used. When the approximate methods were applied, the geometrical model of satellite structure was approximated as one-dimensional slabs, and a pre-calculated dose-depth conversion function was introduced to simplify the dose calculation process. Verification was performed with mission data of KITSAT-1 and the calculated results were also compared with detailed 3-dimensional calculation results using Monte Carlo calculation. Dose results from the approximate methods were conservatively higher than Monte Carlo results, but were lower than experimental data in total dose rate. Differences between calculation and experimental data seem to come from the AP-8 model, for which it is reported that fluxes of proton are underestimated. We confirmed that the developed approximate method can be applied to commercial satellite shielding calculations. It is also found that commercial products of semi-conductors can be damaged due to total ionizing dose under LEO radiation environment. An intensive shielding analysis should be taken into account when commercial devices are used.

BENCHMARK CALCULATION OF CANDU END SHIELDING SYSTEM

  • Gyuhong Roh;Park, Hangbok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.618-623
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    • 1998
  • A shielding analysis was performed for the end shield of CANDU 6 reactor. The one-dimensional discrete ordinate code ANISN with a 38-group neutron-gamma library, extracted from DLC-37D library, was used to estimate the dose rate for the natural uranium CANDU reactor. For comparison MCNP-4B calculation was performed for the same system using continuous, discrete and multi-group libraries. The comparison has shown that the total dose rate of the ANISN calculation agrees well with that of the MCNP calculation. However, the individual dose rate (neutron and gamma) has shown opposite trends between AMISN and MCNP estimates, which may require a consistent library generation for both codes.

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Construction of voxel head phantom and application to BNCT dose calculation (Voxel 머리팬텀 제작 및 붕소중성자포획요법 선량계산에의 응용)

  • Lee, Choon-Sik;Lee, Choon-Ik;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2001
  • Voxel head phantom for overcoming the limitation of mathematical phantom in depleting anatomical details was constructed and example dose calculation for BNCT was performed. The repeated structure algorithm of the general purpose Monte Carlo code, MCNP4B was applied for yokel Monte Carlo calculation. Simple binary yokel phantom and combinatorial geometry phantom composed of two materials were constructed for validating the voxel Monte Carlo calculation system. The tomographic images of VHP man provided by NLM(National Library of Medicine) were segmented and indexed to construct yokel head phantom. Comparison of doses for broad parallel gamma and neutron beams in AP and PA directions showed decrease of brain dose due to the attenuation of neutron in eye balls in case of yokel head phantom. The spherical tumor volume with diameter, 5cm was defined in the center of brain for BNCT dose calculation in which accurate 3 dimensional dose calculation is essential. As a result of BNCT dose calculation for downward neutron beam of 10keV and 40keV, the tumor dose is about doubled when boron concentration ratio between the tumor to the normal tissue is $30{\mu}g/g$ to $3{\mu}g/g$. This study established the voxel Monte Carlo calculation system and suggested the feasibility of precise dose calculation in therapeutic radiology.

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Dose Calculation of Photon Beam with Wedge Filter for Radiation Therapy Planning System

  • Cheong, Kwang-Ho;Suh, Tae-Suk;Lee, Hyoung-Koo;Choe, Bo-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Medical Physics Conference
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    • pp.41-41
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: Even if the wedge filter is widely used for the radiation therapy to modify the photon beam intensity, the wedged photon beam dose calculation is not so easy. Radiation therapy planning systems (RTPS) have been used the empirical or semi-analytical methods such as attenuation method using wedge filter parameters or wedge filter factor obtained from measurement. However, these methods can cause serious error in penumbra region as well as in edge region. In this study, we propose the dose calculation algorithm for wedged field to minimize the error especially in the outer beam region. Materials and Method: Modified intensity by wedge filter was calculated using tissue-maximum ratio (TMR) and scatter-maximum ratio (SMR) of wedged field. Profiles of wedged and non-wedged direction was also used. The result of new dose calculation was compared with measurement and the result from attenuation method. Results: Proposed algorithm showed the good agreement with measurement in the high dose-gradient region as well as in the inner beam region. The error was decreased comparing to attenuation method. Conclusion: Although necessary beam data for the RTPS commissioning was increased, new algorithm would guarantee the improved dose calculation accuracy for wedged field. In future, this algorithm could be adopted in RTPS.

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Development of 2.5D Photon Dose Calculation Algorithm (2.5D 광자선 선량계산 알고리즘 개발)

  • 조병철;오도훈;배훈식
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 1999
  • In this study, as a preliminary study for developing a full 3D photon dose calculation algorithm, We developed 2.5D photon dose calculation algorithm by extending 2D calculation algorithm to allow non-coplanar configurations of photon beams. For this purpose, we defined the 3d patient coordinate system and the 3d beam coordinate system, which are appropriate to 3d treatment planning and dose calculation. and then, calculate a transformation matrix between them. For dose calculation, we extended 2d "Clarkson-Cunningham" model to 3d one, which can calculate wedge fields as well as regular and irregular fields on arbitrary plane. The simple Batho's power-law method was implemented as an inhomogeneity correction. We evaluated the accuracy of our dose model following procedures of AAPM TG#23; radiation treatment planning dosimetry verifications for 4MV of Varian Clinac-4. As results, PDDs (percent depth dose) of cubic fields, the accuracy of calculation are within 1% except buildup region, and $\pm$3% for irregular fields and wedge fields. And for 45$^{\circ}$ oblique incident beam, the deviations between measurements and calculations are within $\pm$4%. In the case of inhomogeneity correction, the calculation underestimate 7% at the lung/water boundary and overestimate 3% at the bone/water boundary. At the conclusions, we found out our model can predict dose with 5% accuracy at the general condition. we expect our model can be used as a tool for educational and research purpose.. purpose..

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Study on Development of Patient Effective Dose Calculation Program of Nuclear Medicine Examination (핵의학검사의 환자 유효선량 계산 프로그램 제작에 관한 연구)

  • Seon, Jong-Ryul;Gil, Jong-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.657-665
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    • 2017
  • The aim of this study was to develop and distribute a dedicated program that can easily calculate the effective dose of a patient undergoing nuclear medicine examinations, and assist in the study of dose of nuclear medicine examinations and information disclosure. The program produced a database of the effective dose per unit activity administered (mSv/MBq) of the radiopharmaceuticals listed in ICRP 80, 106 Report and the fourth addendum, was designed through Microsoft Visual Basic (In Excel) to take the effect of 5 different (Area, Clark, Solomon(=Fried), Webster, Young) of pediatric dose calculation methods and 7 different body surface area calculation methods. The program calculates the effective dose (mSv) when the age, radionuclide, substance, and amount injected in the human body is inputted. In pediatric cases, when the age is entered, the pediatric method is activated and the pediatric method to be applied can be selected. When the BSA (Body Surface Area) formula is selected in the pediatric calculation method, a selection window for selecting the body surface area calculation method is activated. When the adult dose is input, the infant dose and the effective dose (mSv) are calculated automatically. The patient effective dose calculation program of the nuclear medicine examinations produced in this study is meaningful as a tool for calculating the internal exposure dose of the human body that is most likely to be obtained in nuclear medicine examinations, even though it is not the actual measurement dose. In the future, to increase the utilization of the program, it will be produced as an application that can be used in mobile devices, so that the public can access it easily.