• Title, Summary, Keyword: divergence time

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Robust Non-negative Matrix Factorization with β-Divergence for Speech Separation

  • Li, Yinan;Zhang, Xiongwei;Sun, Meng
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.21-29
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    • 2017
  • This paper addresses the problem of unsupervised speech separation based on robust non-negative matrix factorization (RNMF) with ${\beta}$-divergence, when neither speech nor noise training data is available beforehand. We propose a robust version of non-negative matrix factorization, inspired by the recently developed sparse and low-rank decomposition, in which the data matrix is decomposed into the sum of a low-rank matrix and a sparse matrix. Efficient multiplicative update rules to minimize the ${\beta}$-divergence-based cost function are derived. A convolutional extension of the proposed algorithm is also proposed, which considers the time dependency of the non-negative noise bases. Experimental speech separation results show that the proposed convolutional RNMF successfully separates the repeating time-varying spectral structures from the magnitude spectrum of the mixture, and does so without any prior training.

An Optical Flow Based Time-to-Collision Predictor

  • Yamaguchi, T.;Kashiwagi, H.;Harada, H.
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.232-237
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    • 1998
  • This paper describes a new method for estimating time-to-collision which exhibits high tolerance to noise contained in camera images. Time to collision (TTC) is one of the most important parameters available from a camera attached to a mobile machine. TTC indirectly stands far the translation speed of the camera and is usually calculated either from successive images or optical flow by using intimate relationship between TTC and flow divergence. In most cases, however, it is not easy to get accurate optical flow, which makes it difficult to calculate TTC. In this study it is proved that if the target has a smooth surface, the average of divergence over any point-symmetric region on the image is equal to the divergence of the center of the region. It means that required divergence can be calculated by integrating optical flow vectors over a symmetric region. It is expected that in the process of the integration, accidental noise is canceled if they are independent of optical flow and the motion of the camera. Experimental results show that TTC can be estimated regardless of the surface condition. It is also shown that influence of noise is eliminated as the area of integration increases.

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Genetic Divergence and Speciation of Eurasian and American Yellow Perch Based on the Nucleotide Sequence of Cytochrome b Gene

  • SONG Choon Bok
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.699-707
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    • 1995
  • Eurasian yellow perch (Perca fluviatilis) and American yellow perch (Perca flavescens) are known to be endemic species in Eurasia and North America, respectively. The presence of endemic species on each continent suggests their independent evolutionary history. However, because of the morphological similarity, distribution pattern, and only recent fossil record, their divergence time and speciation of the two Perca species has long been controversial. Here, from the comparison of the entire nucleotide sequences of cytochrome b gene, large genetic divergence between the two Perca species is observed although they are morphologically similar each other. Among 1,140 base pairs, interspecific nucleotide differences are found at 130 sites $(11.4\%)$. The differences varies with codon position, showing 22 sites in the first, 5 sites in the second, and 103 sites in the third codon position. Considering the types of nucleotide changes, transitional differences are much more than transversional differences and its ratio turned out to be 5.19. The estimated divergence time of the two Perca species indicates that they were separated each other approximately in the late Miocene period, which implies the long history of speciation. With comparison of the inferred amino acid sequences, strong structural and functional constraints which seem to be maintained by the highly conservative amino acid residues or protein regions, as found in other taxonomic groups of organisms, are also recognized in the cytochrome b of the fishes examined.

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Improving the Performance of Document Clustering with Distributional Similarities (분포유사도를 이용한 문헌클러스터링의 성능향상에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for information Management
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.267-283
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    • 2007
  • In this study, measures of distributional similarity such as KL-divergence are applied to cluster documents instead of traditional cosine measure, which is the most prevalent vector similarity measure for document clustering. Three variations of KL-divergence are investigated; Jansen-Shannon divergence, symmetric skew divergence, and minimum skew divergence. In order to verify the contribution of distributional similarities to document clustering, two experiments are designed and carried out on three test collections. In the first experiment the clustering performances of the three divergence measures are compared to that of cosine measure. The result showed that minimum skew divergence outperformed the other divergence measures as well as cosine measure. In the second experiment second-order distributional similarities are calculated with Pearson correlation coefficient from the first-order similarity matrixes. From the result of the second experiment, secondorder distributional similarities were found to improve the overall performance of document clustering. These results suggest that minimum skew divergence must be selected as document vector similarity measure when considering both time and accuracy, and second-order similarity is a good choice for considering clustering accuracy only.

Bayesian Model Selection in the Unbalanced Random Effect Model

  • Kim, Dal-Ho;Kang, Sang-Gil;Lee, Woo-Dong
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.743-752
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we develop the Bayesian model selection procedure using the reference prior for comparing two nested model such as the independent and intraclass models using the distance or divergence between the two as the basis of comparison. A suitable criterion for this is the power divergence measure as introduced by Cressie and Read(1984). Such a measure includes the Kullback -Liebler divergence measures and the Hellinger divergence measure as special cases. For this problem, the power divergence measure turns out to be a function solely of $\rho$, the intraclass correlation coefficient. Also, this function is convex, and the minimum is attained at $\rho=0$. We use reference prior for $\rho$. Due to the duality between hypothesis tests and set estimation, the hypothesis testing problem can also be solved by solving a corresponding set estimation problem. The present paper develops Bayesian method based on the Kullback-Liebler and Hellinger divergence measures, rejecting $H_0:\rho=0$ when the specified divergence measure exceeds some number d. This number d is so chosen that the resulting credible interval for the divergence measure has specified coverage probability $1-{\alpha}$. The length of such an interval is compared with the equal two-tailed credible interval and the HPD credible interval for $\rho$ with the same coverage probability which can also be inverted into acceptance regions of $H_0:\rho=0$. Example is considered where the HPD interval based on the one-at- a-time reference prior turns out to be the shortest credible interval having the same coverage probability.

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Modeling and Classification of MPEG VBR Video Data using Gradient-based Fuzzy c_means with Divergence Measure (분산 기반의 Gradient Based Fuzzy c-means 에 의한 MPEG VBR 비디오 데이터의 모델링과 분류)

  • 박동철;김봉주
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.7C
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    • pp.931-936
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    • 2004
  • GBFCM(DM), Gradient-based Fuzzy c-means with Divergence Measure, for efficient clustering of GPDF(Gaussian Probability Density Function) in MPEG VBR video data modeling is proposed in this paper. The proposed GBFCM(DM) is based on GBFCM( Gradient-based Fuzzy c-means) with the Divergence for its distance measure. In this paper, sets of real-time MPEG VBR Video traffic data are considered. Each of 12 frames MPEG VBR Video data are first transformed to 12-dimensional data for modeling and the transformed 12-dimensional data are Pass through the proposed GBFCM(DM) for classification. The GBFCM(DM) is compared with conventional FCM and GBFCM algorithms. The results show that the GBFCM(DM) gives 5∼15% improvement in False Alarm Rate over conventional algorithms such as FCM and GBFCM.

Divergence time estimation of an ancient relict genus Mankyua (Ophioglossaceae) on the young volcanic Jejudo Island in Korea

  • GIL, Hee-Young;KIM, Seung-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Mankyua chejuense is the only member of the monotypic genus Mankyua (Ophioglossaceae) and is endemic to Jejudo Island, Korea. To determine the precise phylogenetic position of M. chejuense, two cpDNA regions of 42 accessions representing major members of lycophytes are obtained from GenBank and analyzed using three phylogenetic analyses (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference). In addition, the divergence time is estimated based on a relaxed molecular clock using four fossil calibration points. The phylogenetic position of Mankyua still appears to be uncertain, representing either the earliest diverged lineage within Ophioglossaceae or a sister to the clade containing Ophioglossum and Helminthostachys. The most recent common ancestor of Ophioglossaceae and its sister lineage, Psilotum, was estimated to be 256 Ma, while the earliest divergence of Mankyua was estimated to be 195 Ma in the early Jurassic.

Genetic Studies on Korean Anurans: Length and Restriction Site Variation in the Mitochondrial DNA of Tree Frogs, Hyla japonica and H. suweonensis (한국산 무미류에 대한 유전학적 연구 : 청개구리속 2종(Hyla japonira, H. suweonensis)에 대한 mtDNA의 크기 및 제한효소 인식위치의 변이)

  • 이혜영;박창신
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 1992
  • The genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analysed within and between two species of tree frogs. Hyla japonica and H. suweonensis from South Korea. Purified mtDNAs were digested with each of 11 restriction enLvmes which cleave at six base recognition sequences. The genome size of H. iaponica revealed ho types (20.0 $\pm$ 0.3 and 19.6 $\pm$ 0.3 kb) and this difference is explained by either addition or deletion of about 0.4 kb fragment. On the other hand, the genome sire of H. suueonensis was about 19.0 $\pm$ 0.4 kb only. For the analysis, level of fragment homology (F) and nucleotide sequence divergence (p) were estimated from comparisons of digestion profiles. Among four populations of H. iaponica, substantial mean sequence divergence was 0.017 (range 0.001-0.026); between identical types, 0.001 IslilaRl type) and 0.004 (Large type) respectively; between different ones, 0.024 (range 0.023-0.026). The level of sequence divergence between he species was 0.142 (range 0.131-0.146). This result suggested that he species ㅂwere distinctly differentiated species. The divergence time between ko species was estimated 7.1 million years.

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Genetic Variation and Divergence among Swamp Buffalo, River Buffalo and Cattle: A Microsatellite Survey on Five Populations in China

  • Zhang, Yi;Sun, Dongxiao;Yu, Ying;Zhang, Yuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.9
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    • pp.1238-1243
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    • 2008
  • Domestic buffalo and cattle are two extremely important livestock species in worldwide agricultural production. In this paper, to investigate genetic diversity and divergence among swamp buffalo, river buffalo and cattle, 30 microsatellite markers were screened on 168 individuals sampled from five populations. Substantial differences were observed among the three groups of animals with respect to allele frequency distribution, allele size and polymorphism. The cattle sample (Mongolian) showed significantly higher genetic variability (0.674 of gene diversity, p<0.01), and the swamp and river buffalo samples displayed similar degree of genetic variation (0.536 in swamp and 0.546 in river, p = 0.92). Results of both phylogenetic tree and multivariate analysis could distinguish three groups of animals, suggesting their deep evolutionary divergence. Additionally, using $({\delta}{\mu})^2$ genetic distance, we estimated a divergence time of 1.7 million years between swamp and river buffalo that strongly supported distinct genetic origins for the two buffalo types.

Molecular Phylogeny and Divergence Time Estimation of the Soft Coral Dendronephthya gigantea (Alcyonacea: Nephtheidae)

  • Kim, Boa;Kong, So-Ra;Song, Jun-Im;Won, Yong-Jin
    • Animal Systematics, Evolution and Diversity
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 2008
  • Soft coral Dendronephthya gigantea (Verrill, 1864) is a conspicuous species dominating shallow sea waters of Jejudo Island, Korea. Recently its whole mitochondrial genome sequencing was completed by us and the sequence information provided an opportunity to test the age of Octocorallia and time of evolutionary separation between some representative orders of the subclass Octocorallia. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 13 mitochondrial protein encoding genes revealed a polyphyletic relationship among octocorallians representing two orders (Alcyonacea and Gorgonacea) and four families (Alcyoniidae, Nephtheidae, Briareidae, and Gorgoniidae). Estimates of divergence times among octocorallians indicate that the first splitting might occur around end of or after Cretaceous period (50-79 million years ago (Ma)). The age is relatively young compared to the long history of stony sea corals (>240 Ma). Taken together our result suggests a possible relatively recent radiating evolution at least in the order Alcyonacea and Gorgonacea. Molecular dating and phylogenetic analysis based on much broader taxon sampling and many genes might give an insight into this interesting hypothesis.