• Title, Summary, Keyword: diurnal variation

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Characteristics of Diurnal Variation of Wind over the South Korean (우리 나라의 바람 일변동 특성)

  • 송봉근;김영섭;이동인;한영호
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.475-482
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the temporal and spatial characteristics of the diurnal wind variation between coastal and inland areas using the hourly wind data of 58 AWS-stations in the South Korea which are collected during the 10 years from 1980. Diurnal variation is investigated by using the Fast Fourier Transform(FFT), and the wind direction in investigated by comparing C(sub)r with C(sub)v represented the constancy of wind. For the scalar wind speed, the maximum wind speed occurs in the daytime 14h to 16h. The maximum diurnal amplitude at coastal areas occurs from 12h to 16h, and is about 2 hours faster than that at inland areas. Vector mean wind speed is strong at coastal areas and Chupungnyong, Kumi, Taegu of inland areas. The diurnal variation ellipses make a right angle with coastline show that the land and sea breezes are prevailing. The constancy of wind is strong at all observations in January. In the relationship between $C_r and C_v, C_v is higher than C_r$.

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Diurnal Variation and Sleep Pattern in Depressive Patients (우울증 환자의 주간기분변동과 수면 양상)

  • Park, Young-Min;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon;Joe, Sook-Haeng;Kang, Seung-Gul;Yoon, Ho-Kyung
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2001
  • Object: Diurnal variation is included in the diagnostic criteria of the major depressive disorder, melancholic specifier. But there has been controversy over whether diurnal variation is an unique depressive symptoms or a symptom related to a change of sleep patterns, or that of another mechanism, when the previous studies are reviewed. We investigated the existence of diurnal variation according to the subtype of depression and whether diurnal variation is charateristic of melancholic depression or not. We also compared sleep variables according to the existence of diurnal variation. Method: We examined diurnal variation, sleep patterns, severity of depression using the Visual Analogue Mood Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Patients recorded their mood state on the Visual Analogue Mood Scale twice a day, morning and evening, for diurnal variation. We divided depressive patients into two groups,-diurnal variation group and nondiurnal variation group,-and compared the mood and sleep variables using SPSS. Results: The frequency of diurnal variation is not significantly different among the subtypes of depression. Significant differences between the diurnal variation group and the nondiurnal variation group existed in middle insomnia and sleep time (p<0.05). In melancholic type, al significant difference between the diurnal variation group and the nondiurnal variation group was noticed in PSQI total, sleep latency, sleep disturbances, daytime dysfunction as well as middle insomnia and sleep time (p<0.05). Conclusions: Diurnal variation existed in other types of depression as well as melancholic type. The results showed that diurnal variation was not a specific symptom of melancholic type, and existence of diurnal variation might be related to sleep patterns.

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Solar Cyclic Modulation of Diurnal Variation in Cosmic Ray Intensity

  • Park, Eun Ho;Jung, Jongil;Oh, Suyeon;Evenson, Paul
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2018
  • Cosmic rays are ions that move at relativistic speeds. They generate secondary cosmic rays by successive collisions with atmospheric particles, and then, the secondary particles reach the ground. The secondary particles are mainly neutrons and muons, and the neutrons are observed by the ground neutron monitor. This study compared the diurnal variation in cosmic ray intensity obtained via harmonic analysis and that obtained through the pile-up method, which was examined in a previous study. In addition, we analyzed the maximum phase of the diurnal variation using four neutron monitors with a cutoff rigidity below approximately 6 GV, located at similar longitudes to the Oulu and Rome neutron monitors. Expanding the data of solar cycles 20-24, we examined the time of the maximum cosmic ray intensity, that is, the maximum phase regarding the solar cyclic modulation. During solar cycles 20-24, the maximum phase derived by harmonic analysis showed no significant difference with that derived by the pile-up method. Thus, the pile-up method, a relatively straightforward process to analyze diurnal variation, could replace the complex harmonic analysis. In addition, the maximum phase at six neutron monitors shows the 22-year cyclic variation very clearly. The maximum phase tends to appear earlier and increase the width of the variation in solar cycles as the cutoff rigidity increases.

On the Diurnal, Annual, and Solar Cycle Variations of Slant Total Electron Content in the Korean Peninsula

  • Yoon, Woong-Jun;Park, Kwan-Dong
    • Journal of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 2016
  • The ionospheric error, which is one of many error elements considered during the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) positioning, is hard to be predicted due to the influence of geomagnetic activity and irregular solar activities. Thus, the present study analyzed a change pattern in the ionosphere through Global Ionosphere Map (GIM) data for 12 years from 2003 to 2014 and a variation in the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) between Sinuiju and Busan which was the longest range in the southeastern direction of the Korean Peninsula. The variation in the STEC verified the diurnal, annual, and solar cycle variations due to the influence of solar activity. The diurnal variation was characterized that the variation in the STEC started to increase from 6-7 am and reached the maximum at 13-14 pm followed by being decreased. The seasonal variation was characterized that the variation in the STEC was high in spring and autumn whereas it was low in summer and winter. The solar cycle variation revealed that the variation in the STEC increased during solar maximum and decreased during solar minimum. The variation in the STEC was up to 20 Total Electron Content Unit (TECU) during the solar minimum and up to 60 TECU during solar maximum.

Observation of Periodic and Transient Cosmic Ray Flux Variations by the Daejeon Neutron Monitor and the Seoul muon Detector

  • Oh, Suyeon;Kang, Jeongsoo
    • Journal of Astronomy and Space Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.175-178
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    • 2013
  • Recently, two instruments of cosmic ray are operating in South Korea. One is Seoul muon detector after October 1999 and the other is Daejeon neutron monitor (Kang et al. 2012) after October 2011. The former consists of four small plastic scintillators and the latter is the standard 18 NM 64 type. In this report, we introduce the characteristics of both instruments. We also analyze the flux variations of cosmic ray such as diurnal variation and Forbush decrease. As the result, the muon flux shows the typical seasonal and diurnal variations. The neutron flux also shows the diurnal variation. The phase which shows the maximum flux in the diurnal variation is around 13-14 local time. We found a Forbush decrease on 7 March 2012 by both instruments. It is also identified by Nagoya multi-direction muon telescope and Oulu neutron monitor. The observation of cosmic ray at Jangbogo station as well as in Korean peninsula can support the important information on space weather in local area. It can also enhance the status of Korea in the international community of cosmic ray experiments.

Comparative Study of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in the Yochon Industrial Estate during Spring and Fall (여천 공업단지 봄, 가을 대기 중 휘발성 유기화합물 농도 비교 연구)

  • 김영성;송철한
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 1998
  • The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere were measured from the Yochon Industrial Estate and compared with those from Tongkwangyang and Seoul. The first important phenomenon observed in the air of Yochon was high concentrations of alkenes and in particular, ethylene and propene. For most dominant species, their means and standard deviations were high simultaneously. Concentrations of several major aliphatic species exhibited a similar pattern of diurnal variation, however, with different species combination on each day. Concentrations of several hazardous aromatic species also exhibited a similar pattern of diurnal variation on the same day, which was different from that observed in the diurnal variation of major aliphatic species. It was interpreted that some species were intermittently released from relevant processes. It was also understood that high concentrations and variations of VOC species in Yochon were localized and not related to high average concentrations of ozone in Yochon and Tongkwangyang areas.

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Characteristics of Air Pollution at Kimhae (김해지방의 대기오염 특성)

  • 박종길;김종필;김지형
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 1999
  • This paper aims to describe the characteristics of air pollution using air pollutants concentration and meteorological data observed at Kimhae from December 1996 to November, 1997. The results are as follows : The concentration distribution of sulfur dioxide($SO_2$), carbon monoxide(CO), particulate matter(PM-10), and nitrogen dioxide($NO_2$) is high during the late fall and winter and low during the summer, but ozone concentration is low during the winter season and high during summer season except Jangma period and these distributions appear to be closely connected with insolation and the number of clear day. Diurnal variation of concentrations for sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and carbon monoxide are high during the rush hours and nighttime and low during the daytime and these variations are distinct toward the winter season. And diurnal variation of nitrogen dioxide concentration has also same pattern and these patterns are closely related to the increasing traffic volume at rush hours. Diurnal variation of ozone concentration is generally increase for daytime and decrease for the late afternoon and are closely related to the insolation and photochemical reaction. The 24 hour average concentrations of air pollutant observed at Kimhae represented a positive correlation and a negative correlation for $O_3$ and also a negative correlation for the meteorological elements such as wind speed and cloud cover.

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Exploring Subjective Stress, Sleep and Diurnal Variation of Salivary Cortisol in Korean Female Adults (여대생의 스트레스, 수면, 타액 코티솔 일중변동 연구)

  • Lee, Sunock;Suh, Minhee
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The purpose of this exploratory study was to find a specific time of day with a stable cortisol level and to investigate the relationship between salivary cortisol and sleep. Methods: A total of 36 Korean female college students participated in the study. Salivary specimens were collected 6 times a day for 2 days in different stressful situations. Sleep characteristics were measured using an actigraph while salivary specimens were collected. Perceived stress was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Recent Stress. Results: Depending on whether there were morning peak and/or afternoon elevations in the cortisol levels, the type of diurnal cortisol pattern was classified into 4 types. None of the cortisol levels in different times of the day showed significant relationships to perceived stress levels. Cortisol levels in the morning, levels of peak cortisol and diurnal differences of cortisol were significantly correlated with sleep duration. The time with most stable cortisol level was 9-10 pm. Conclusion: It is recommended that measurements of salivary cortisol are taken from 9-10 pm since it showed a stable value regardless of diurnal cortisol rhythm and sleep. Sleep duration should be considered as an important confounding factor in measuring cortisol levels in the morning and the diurnal differences of cortisol.

Derivation of Relation between Variation of Gradients of Antenna Tower of GNSS Permanent Observatories Depending on Diurnal Variation of External Air Temperature and Movement of Phase Center of Antenna (바깥 공기 온도의 일변화에 의한 GNSS 상시관측소 안테나탑 기울기 변화와 안테나 위상중심 위치의 운동 사이의 관계 추출)

  • Lim, Mu-Taek;Kwak, Byung-Wook;Park, Yeong-Sue;Rim, Hyoung-Rae
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.208-214
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    • 2009
  • Using the GNSS data and tilt-meter data of Boeun (BOEN) and Goesan (GSAN) GNSS stations, we have calculated the differential distance vector variation with the calculation time span set to 1 hour and 3 hour and differential tilt vector variation along time and derived an indicator of similarity between the two variations along time. The similarity such calculated is rather lower than high. But as the existence of a circular type movement of the antenna's phase center's location due to the tilt's variation of the antenna tower because of the sunlight's diurnal change is certain, we recommend to take such diurnal variation of antenna's location into consideration when the correction error in DGNSS or the measured data at reference stations in VRS (Virtual Reference System) is broadcast.