• Title, Summary, Keyword: distributions with points support

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On the Support Region of a Minimum Mean-Square Error Scalar Quantizer for a Weibull Source (Weibull 신호원에 최적인 양자기의 지지역에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Sil-Kyu;Na, Sang-Sin
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.29 no.1C
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2004
  • This paper studies the support region of an optimum (minimum mean-squre error) fixed-rate scalar quantizer for a Weibull source. The support region is defined to be the interval determined by the outermost thresholds of a quantizer and plays an important role in its performance, and hence it motivates this study. The paper reports the following specific results. First, approximation formulas are derived for the outermost thresholds of optimum scalar quantizers for a Weibull distributions. Second, in the case of Rayleigh and exponential distributions the derived approximation formulas are compared for the evaluation of their accuracy with the true values of optimum quantizers. Numerical results show that the formula for the leftmost threshold stays within 1% of the true value for 128 and 256 quantization points or more, for Rayleigh and exponential distribution, respectively, while that for the rightmost threshold does so for 512 and 32 quantization points or more. These formulas exhibit increased accuracy with the number of quantization points. In conclusion, the formulas have high accuracy. The contribution of the paper consists in the derivation of closed accurate formulas for the support of optimum.

Bandwidth Limitations of the TEM Cell due to Higher Order Modes (고차 모드로 인한 TEM Cell의 대역 제한)

  • 이애경;이상회;김정기
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.28A no.11
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    • pp.866-873
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    • 1991
  • In this paper the electric and magnetic field distributions in a TEM cell used for EMC testing are analyzed numerically. The fields are distorted with the increase of frequency. These distortions are due to higher order modes and resonances and cause the bandwidthe limitations in the uae of TEM cels. The upper frequency is lower modes however, are reflected at some points through the tapered ends of the cell. Higher order modes however, are reflected at some points within the tapered region where it becomes too small to support the modes, The first two TE mode(TE$_{01}$ and TE$_{10}$) cutoff frequencies and the first six TE$_mnp$ resonant ferquencies are identified in a TEM cell (1x0 6x2m,w=0.72m) from field patterns and the results are consistent with others' data. The circumferential wall currents to support resonances are shown. For the large cell it is desired to extend the usable frequency range above the cutoff frequency of the first higher order mode. This study proposes an attempt to expand the frequency bandwidth by a resonance suppression.

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HIGHER JET EVALUATION TRANSVERSALITY OF J-HOLOMORPHIC CURVES

  • Oh, Yong-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.341-365
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we establish general stratawise higher jet evaluation transversality of J-holomorphic curves for a generic choice of almost complex structures J (tame to a given symplectic manifold (M, $\omega$)). Using this transversality result, we prove that there exists a subset $\cal{J}^{ram}_{\omega}\;{\subset}\;\cal{J}_{\omega}$ of second category such that for every $J\;{\in}\;\cal{J}^{ram}_{\omega}$, the dimension of the moduli space of (somewhere injective) J-holomorphic curves with a given ramication prole goes down by 2n or 2(n - 1) depending on whether the ramication degree goes up by one or a new ramication point is created. We also derive that for each $J\;{\in}\;\cal{J}^{ram}_{\omega}$ there are only a finite number of ramication profiles of J-holomorphic curves in a given homology class $\beta\;{\in}\;H_2$(M; $\mathbb{Z}$) and provide an explicit upper bound on the number of ramication proles in terms of $c_1(\beta)$ and the genus g of the domain surface.

Prediction of the Fractures at Inexcavation Spaces Based on the Existing Data (터널의 굴착면 전반부에 분포하는 절리의 예측)

  • Hwang, Sang-Gi
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.643-648
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    • 2014
  • Understanding of fracture networks and rock mass properties during tunnel construction is extremely important for the prediction of dangers during excavation, and for deciding on appropriate excavation techniques and support. However, rapid construction process do not allow sufficient time for surveys and interpretations for spatial distributions of fractures and rock mass properties. This study introduces a new statistical approach for predicting joint distributions at foreside of current excavation face during the excavation process. The proposed methodology is based on a cumulative space diagram for joint sets. The diagram displays the cumulative spacing between adjacent joints on the vertical axis and the sequential position of each joint plotted at equally spaced intervals on the horizontal axis. According to the diagram, the degree of linearity of points representing the regularity of joint spacing; a linear trend of the points indicates that the joints are evenly spaced, with the slope of the line being directly related to the spacing. The linear points which are stepped indicates that the fracture set show clustered distribution. A clustered pattern within the linear group of points indicates a clustered joint distribution. Fractures surveyed from an excavated space can be plotted on this diagram, and the diagram can then be extended further according to the plotted diagram pattern. The extension of the diagram allows predictions about joint spacing in areas that have not yet been excavated. To test the model, we collected and analyzed data during excavation of a 10-m-long tunnel. Fractures in a 3-m zone behind the excavation face were predicted during the excavation, and the predictions were compared with observations. The methodology yielded reasonably good predictions of joint locations.

Distributed Key Management Using Regression Model for Hierarchical Mobile Sensor Networks (계층적인 이동 센서 네트워크에서 회귀모델을 이용한 분산 키 관리)

  • Kim Mi-Hui;Chae Ki-Joon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea TC
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2006
  • In this paper, we introduce a novel key management scheme that is based on the key pre-distribution but provides the key re-distribution method, in order to manage keys for message encryption and authentication of lower-layer sensor nodes on hierarchical mobile sensor networks. The characteristics of our key management are as follows: First, the role of key management is distributed to aggregator nodes as well as a sink node, to overcome the weakness of centralized management. Second, a sink node generates keys using regression model, thus it stores only the information for calculating the keys using the key information received from nodes, but does not store the relationship between a node and a key, and the keys themselves. As the disadvantage of existing key pre-distributions, they do not support the key re-distribution after the deployment of nodes, and it is hard to extend the key information in the case that sensor nodes in the network enlarge. Thirdly, our mechanism provides the resilience to node capture(${\lambda}$-security), also provided by the existing key pre-distributions, and fourth offers the key freshness through key re-distribution, key distribution to mobile nodes, and scalability to make up for the weak points in the existing key pre-distributions. Fifth, our mechanism does not fix the relationship between a node and a key, thus supports the anonymity and untraceability of mobile nodes. Lastly, we compare ours with existing mechanisms, and verify our performance through the overhead analysis of communication, computation, and memory.

Geographic Distribution of Periphyton Diatom Species: A Case Study of Achnanthes convergens in Nakdong River Basin (낙동강 수계 청수성 부착조류의 공간분포 특성에 관한 연구: Achnanthes convergens 를 사례로)

  • Jo, Myung-Hee;Byun, Myeung-Sub;Sim, Jun-Seok;Jang, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.175-194
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    • 2014
  • This study attempts to identify the spatial distributions of Achnanthes convergens, and elucidate the environmental factors that affect the Periphyton diatom habitat. Data in 250 points of Nakdong river basin are collected between April(primary) and September(secondary) 2012, with the National Institute of Environmental Research's support. We define "clean area" over 10% of Achnanthes convergens appearance, and the others as "non-clean areas". Spatial statistics of Kriging, Hotspot, LISA are used in this study. Results show that 1) 56 points are identified as clean areas in the primary survey, while 41 points are discovered in the following survey; 2) using water quality variables, density of turbidity(clean $101.83{\mu}s/cm$; non-clean $598.48{\mu}s/cm$) and conductivity(clean 1.95 NTU; nonclear 5.58 NTU) are five-fold lower in clean-areas; 3) Habitat and Riparian Factors in Nakdong basin illustrate that natural sand bar, diversity of velocity, sediment condition, levee material, riverside land affect Achnanthes convergens; 4) Hotspots of Achnanthes convergens are located in watersheds, including upper Andong Dam, upper Imha dam, Wi-cheon, Miryang river, Nam river and Hwang river whereas mainstream/downstream of Nakdong river and Keumho river watershed are shown as coldspots.