• Title, Summary, Keyword: displacement distribution

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Effect of prosthetic designs and alveolar bone conditions on stress distribution in fixed partial dentures with pier abutments (중간 지대치가 존재하는 고정성 국소의치에서 보철물 설계 및 치조골 상태가 응력분포에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Wook;Kim, Chang-Seop;Jeon, Young-Chan;Jeong, Chang-Mo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.328-334
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    • 2009
  • Statement of problem: Pier abutments act as a Class I fulcrum lever system when the teeth are incorporated in a fixed partial denture with rigid connectors. Therefore non-rigid connector incorporated into the fixed partial denture might reduce the stresses created by the leverage. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by means of finite element method, the effects of non-rigid connectors and supporting alveolar bone level on stress distribution for fixed partial dentures with pier abutments. Material and methods: A 2-dimensional finite element model simulating a 5-unit metal ceramic fixed partial denture with a pier abutment with rigid or non-rigid designs, the connector was located at the distal region of the second premolar, was developed. In the model, the lower canine, second premolar, and second molar served as abutments. Four types of alveolar bone condition were employed. One was normal bone condition and others were supporting bone reduced 20% height at one abutment. Two different loading conditions, each 150 N on 1st premolar and 1st molar and 300N on 1st molar, were used. Results: Two types of FPD were displaced apically. The amount of displacement decreased in an almost linear slope away from the loaded point. Non-rigid design tended to cause the higher stresses in supporting bone of premolar and molar abutments and the lower stresses in that of canine than rigid design. Alveolar bone loss increased the stresses in supporting bone of corresponding abutment. Conclusion: Careful evaluation of the retentive capacity of retainers and the periodontal condition of abutments may be required for the prosthetic design of fixed partial denture with a pier abutment.

Vibration and Noise Level on the Training Ship Pusan 403 (실습선 부산 403호의 진동과 소음)

  • 박중희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 1987
  • This paper describes on the distribution of the vibration and the noise produced on a skipjack pole and line training ship M/S Pusan 403 (243GT, 1,000ps) under the cruising or drifting condition. The vibration and the noise level were measured by use of protable vibration analyzer (B and K 3513) and sound level meter (B and K 2205), and so the vibration level was converted into dB unit. The check points were set through every decks and around important places of the ship. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The vibration and the noise level 1) On the main deck, both the vibration and the noise level were highest at the vertically above the main engine, whereas the vibration level was the lowest in the bow store and the noise level beneath the bridge. 2) Under cruising condition, the vibration level around the cylinder head of main engine, port side of the engine room, on the shaft tunnel was 80, 67, 65 dB and the noise level 104, 87, 86 dB, respectively. 3) The vibration level on the vertical line passing through the bridge was the highest at the orlop deck with 60 dB and the lowest on the bridge deck with 55 dB, whereas the noise level the highest at the compass deck with 75 dB and the lowest at the orlop deck with 53 dB. 4) The vibration and the noise level on the open decks were the highest with 65 dB and 84 dB on the boat deck, whereas the vibration level was the lowest at the lecture room with 51 dB and the noise level the lowest at the fore castle deck with 57 dB. 5) On the orlop decks, both the vibration and the noise level were the highest at the engine room with 65 dB and 85 dB, and the lowest at bow store with 54 dB and 52 dB, respectively. Comparing with the vibration level and the noise level, the vibration level was higher than the noise level in the bow part and it was contrary in the stern part of the ship. 2. Vibration analysis 1) The vibration displacement and the vibration velocity were the greatest at the cylinder head of main engine with 100$\mu$m and 11mm/sec, and were the smallest at the compass deck with 3$\mu$m and 0.07mm/sec. They were also attenuated rapidly around the frequency of 100Hz and over. 2) The vibration acceleration was the greatest at the cylinder head with the main frequency of 1KHz and the acceleration of 1.1mm/sec super(2), and the smallest at the compass deck with 30KHz and 0.05mm/sec super(2).

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Coupled Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Fault Reactivation Induced by Water Injection: DECOVALEX-2019 TASK B (Benchmark Model Test) (유체 주입에 의한 단층 재활성 해석기법 개발: 국제공동연구 DECOVALEX-2019 Task B(Benchmark Model Test))

  • Park, Jung-Wook;Kim, Taehyun;Park, Eui-Seob;Lee, Changsoo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.670-691
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    • 2018
  • This study presents the research results of the BMT(Benchmark Model Test) simulations of the DECOVALEX-2019 project Task B. Task B named 'Fault slip modelling' is aiming at developing a numerical method to predict fault reactivation and the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of fault. BMT scenario simulations of Task B were conducted to improve each numerical model of participating group by demonstrating the feasibility of reproducing the fault behavior induced by water injection. The BMT simulations consist of seven different conditions depending on injection pressure, fault properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling relations. TOUGH-FLAC simulator was used to reproduce the coupled hydro-mechanical process of fault slip. A coupling module to update the changes in hydrological properties and geometric features of the numerical mesh in the present study. We made modifications to the numerical model developed in Task B Step 1 to consider the changes in compressibility, Permeability and geometric features with hydraulic aperture of fault due to mechanical deformation. The effects of the storativity and transmissivity of the fault on the hydro-mechanical behavior such as the pressure distribution, injection rate, displacement and stress of the fault were examined, and the results of the previous step 1 simulation were updated using the modified numerical model. The simulation results indicate that the developed model can provide a reasonable prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior related to fault reactivation. The numerical model will be enhanced by continuing interaction and collaboration with other research teams of DECOVALEX-2019 Task B and validated using the field experiment data in a further study.

Hydro-Mechanical Modelling of Fault Slip Induced by Water Injection: DECOVALEX-2019 TASK B (Step 1) (유체 주입에 의한 단층의 수리역학적 거동 해석: 국제공동연구 DECOVALEX-2019 Task B 연구 현황(Step 1))

  • Park, Jung-Wook;Park, Eui-Seob;Kim, Taehyun;Lee, Changsoo;Lee, Jaewon
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.400-425
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    • 2018
  • This study presents the research results and current status of the DECOVALEX-2019 project Task B. Task B named 'Fault slip modelling' is aiming at developing a numerical method to simulate the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of fault, including slip or reactivation, induced by water injection. The first research step of Task B is a benchmark simulation which is designed for the modelling teams to familiarize themselves with the problem and to set up their own codes to reproduce the hydro-mechanical coupling between the fault hydraulic transmissivity and the mechanically-induced displacement. We reproduced the coupled hydro-mechanical process of fault slip using TOUGH-FLAC simulator. The fluid flow along a fault was modelled with solid elements and governed by Darcy's law with the cubic law in TOUGH2, whereas the mechanical behavior of a single fault was represented by creating interface elements between two separating rock blocks in FLAC3D. A methodology to formulate the hydro-mechanical coupling relations of two different hydraulic aperture models and link the solid element of TOUGH2 and the interface element of FLAC3D was suggested. In addition, we developed a coupling module to update the changes in geometric features (mesh) and hydrological properties of fault caused by water injection at every calculation step for TOUGH-FLAC simulator. Then, the transient responses of the fault, including elastic deformation, reactivation, progressive evolutions of pathway, pressure distribution and water injection rate, to stepwise pressurization were examined during the simulations. The results of the simulations suggest that the developed model can provide a reasonable prediction of the hydro-mechanical behavior related to fault reactivation. The numerical model will be enhanced by continuing collaboration and interaction with other research teams of DECOLVAEX-2019 Task B and validated using the field data from fault activation experiments in a further study.

Distribution of Hydrometeors and Surface Emissivity Derived from Microwave Satellite Observations and Model Reanalyses (위성관측(MSU)과 모델 재분석 자료에서 조사된 대기물현상과 표면 방출율의 분포)

  • Kim, Tae-Yean;Yoo, Jung-Moon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.552-564
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    • 2002
  • The data of satellite-observed Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 1 (Ch1) brightness temperature and General Circulation Model (GCM) reanalyses over the globe have been used to investigate low tropospheric hydrometeors and microwave surface emissivity during the period from January 1981 to December 1993. The average of GCM Ch1 temperature has been reconstructed from three kinds of reanalyses, based on the MSU weighting function. Since the GCM temperature mainly corresponds to the thermal state of the lower troposphere without the difference in the emissivity between ocean and land, it is higher in summer than in other seasons over the regions. The MSU temperature over the ocean shows its maximum at the ITCZ and the SPCZ due to hydrometeors. Over high latitude ocean, the temperature is enhanced because of sea ice emissivity, while it is reduced over the land. The seasonal displacement of the ITCZ and the SPCZ systematically appeared in the difference of Ch1 temperature between the GCM and the MSU. The difference values decrease in the regions of the ITCZ, the SPCZ, and the sea ice because of the increase of the MSU temperature. According to the local minima of the values, the ITCZ moves norhward to 9 N in fall, and the SPCZ moves southward to 12 S in boreal fall and winter. The sea ice in the northern hemisphere is extended southward to 53 N in winter, while the ice in the southern hemisphere, northward to 58 S in boreal summer. We also have discussed the separated contribution from hydrometeors and surface emissivity to the MSU Ch1 temperature, utilizing radiative transfer theory. The increase of 4-6K in the temperature over the ITCZ is inferred to result from hydrometeors of 1-1.5mm/day, and furthermore the increase of 10-30K over the high latitude ocean, ice emissivity of 0.6-0.9.

Patient Position Verification and Corrective Evaluation Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Intensity.modulated Radiation Therapy (세기조절방사선치료 시 콘빔CT (CBCT)를 이용한 환자자세 검증 및 보정평가)

  • Do, Gyeong-Min;Jeong, Deok-Yang;Kim, Young-Bum
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using an on board imager (OBI) can check the movement and setup error in patient position and target volume by comparing with the image of computer simulation treatment in real.time during patient treatment. Thus, this study purposed to check the change and movement of patient position and target volume using CBCT in IMRT and calculate difference from the treatment plan, and then to correct the position using an automated match system and to test the accuracy of position correction using an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) and examine the usefulness of CBCT in IMRT and the accuracy of the automatic match system. Materials and Methods: The subjects of this study were 3 head and neck patients and 1 pelvis patient sampled from IMRT patients treated in our hospital. In order to investigate the movement of treatment position and resultant displacement of irradiated volume, we took CBCT using OBI mounted on the linear accelerator. Before each IMRT treatment, we took CBCT and checked difference from the treatment plan by coordinate by comparing it with the image of CT simulation. Then, we made correction through the automatic match system of 3D/3D match to match the treatment plan, and verified and evaluated using electronic portal imaging device. Results: When CBCT was compared with the image of CT simulation before treatment, the average difference by coordinate in the head and neck was 0.99 mm vertically, 1.14 mm longitudinally, 4.91 mm laterally, and 1.07o in the rotational direction, showing somewhat insignificant differences by part. In testing after correction, when the image from the electronic portal imaging device was compared with DRR image, it was found that correction had been made accurately with error less than 0.5 mm. Conclusion: By comparing a CBCT image before treatment with a 3D image reconstructed into a volume instead of a 2D image for the patient's setup error and change in the position of the organs and the target, we could measure and correct the change of position and target volume and treat more accurately, and could calculate and compare the errors. The results of this study show that CBCT was useful to deliver accurate treatment according to the treatment plan and to increase the reproducibility of repeated treatment, and satisfactory results were obtained. Accuracy enhanced through CBCT is highly required in IMRT, in which the shape of the target volume is complex and the change of dose distribution is radical. In addition, further research is required on the criteria for match focus by treatment site and treatment purpose.

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The Pattern of Initial Displacement in Lingual Lever Arm Traction of 6 Maxillary Anterior Teeth According to Different Material Properties: 3-D FEA (유한요소모델에서 레버암을 이용한 상악 6전치 설측 견인 시 초기 이동 양상)

  • Choi, In-Ho;Cha, Kyung-Suk;Chung, Dong-Hwa
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.213-230
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    • 2008
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the initial movement and the stress distribution of each tooth and periodontal ligament during the lingual lever-arm retraction of 6 maxillary incisors using FEA. Two kinds of finite element models were produced: 2-properties model (simple model) and 24-properties model (multi model) according to the material property assignment. The subject was an adult male of 23 years old. The DICOM images through the CT of the patient were converted into the 3D image model of a skull using the Mimics (version 10.11, Materialise's interactive Medical Image Control System, Materialise, Belgium). After series of calculating, remeshing, exporting, importing process and volume mesh process was performed, FEA models were produced. FEA models are consisted of maxilla, maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor, canine, periodontal ligaments and lingual traction arm. The boundary conditions fixed the movements of posterior, sagittal and upper part of the model to the directions of X, Y, Z axis respectively. The model was set to be symmetrical to X axis. Through the center of resistance of maxilla complex, a retraction force of 200g was applied horizontally to the occlusal plane. Under this conditions, the initial movements and stress distributions were evaluated by 3D FEA. In the result, the amount of posterior movement was larger in the multi model than in the simple model as well as the amount of vertically rotation. The pattern of the posterior movement in the central incisors and lateral incisors was controlled tipping movement, and the amount was larger than in the canine. But the amount of root movement of the canine was larger than others. The incisor rotated downwardly and the canines upwardly around contact points of lateral incisor and canine in the both models. The values of stress are similar in the both simple and multi model.

A STUDY ON THE FEATURES OF MESIODENS AND THE RESOLUTION RATE OF COMPLICATIONS AFTER THE EXTRACTION OF MESIODENS (상악 정중부 과잉치의 양상과 발거 후 병발증 치유율에 관한 연구)

  • Jun, Eun-Min;Kim, Tae-Wan;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.268-277
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    • 2008
  • Authors evaluated 1171 patients at the department of Pediatric Dentistry in Kyoungpook National University Hospital through clinical records and radiographs. And the following features were studied ; age, sex distribution, number of mesiodens per patients, cause of discovery of mesiodens, location, status of eruption, shape and orientation of crown, complication, dental age of adjacent upper incisor tooth at the time of surgical extraction of mesiodens and the relationship between the resolution rate of complication after extraction of mesiodens and the dental age of adjacent upper incisor tooth, length of diastema, the eruption status of lateral incisor and the crowding status of premaxilla. The followings are the results : 1. The cause of discovery of mesiodens were as follows ; delayed eruption of the permanent incisors in 13.8%, midline diastema in 11.6%, radiographs taken for other reasons in 23.4% and for caries treatment in 15.1%. 2. Complication due to the presence of mesiodens did not occur in 36.8%, delayed eruption of adjacent teeth was observed in 16.1%, midline diastema in 34.4%, rotation in 8.8%, displacement in 2.4%, and crowding in 1.0% of all evaluated patients. 3. As for the dental age of adjacent upper incisor tooth at the time of surgical extraction of mesiodens, below 1/3 of total root length were observed in 3.5%, $1/3{\sim}1/2$ of total root length in 19.9%, $1/2{\sim}2/3$ of total root length in 54.7% and over 2/3 in 21.9% of all evaluated patients. 4. Resolution rate of delayed eruption after the extraction of mesiodens was significant higher in the group with the root length below 1/2. Resolution rate of midline diastema was significant higher in the group with diastema width below 3mm and with non-crowding of adjacent upper incisor teeth.

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Sensory Information Processing

  • Yoshimoto, Chiyoshi
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 1985
  • The wall shear stress in the vicinity of end-to end anastomoses under steady flow conditions was measured using a flush-mounted hot-film anemometer(FMHFA) probe. The experimental measurements were in good agreement with numerical results except in flow with low Reynolds numbers. The wall shear stress increased proximal to the anastomosis in flow from the Penrose tubing (simulating an artery) to the PTFE: graft. In flow from the PTFE graft to the Penrose tubing, low wall shear stress was observed distal to the anastomosis. Abnormal distributions of wall shear stress in the vicinity of the anastomosis, resulting from the compliance mismatch between the graft and the host artery, might be an important factor of ANFH formation and the graft failure. The present study suggests a correlation between regions of the low wall shear stress and the development of anastomotic neointimal fibrous hyperplasia(ANPH) in end-to-end anastomoses. 30523 T00401030523 ^x Air pressure decay(APD) rate and ultrafiltration rate(UFR) tests were performed on new and saline rinsed dialyzers as well as those roused in patients several times. C-DAK 4000 (Cordis Dow) and CF IS-11 (Baxter Travenol) reused dialyzers obtained from the dialysis clinic were used in the present study. The new dialyzers exhibited a relatively flat APD, whereas saline rinsed and reused dialyzers showed considerable amount of decay. C-DAH dialyzers had a larger APD(11.70$\pm$1.32mmHg/min)compared to CF dialyzers(4.32$\pm$0.55mmHg/min)(p<0.05). However, there was no observable difference in the UFR between the two dialyzers. Neither APD nor UFR showed any significant increase with an increasing number of reuses for up to more than 20reuses. A substantial number of failures observed in APD(larger than 20mmHe/min)on the reused dialyzers(2 out of 40 CP and S out 26 C-DAK) were attributed to the Possible damage on the fibers. The CF 15-11 HFDs which failed APD test did not show changes in the UFR compared to normal dialyzers indicating that APD is a more sensitive test than UFR test to evaluate the integrity of the fibers. 30527 T00401030527 ^x For quantitative measurement of reflected light from a clinical diagnostic strip, a prototype old reflectance photometer was designed. The strip loader and cassette were made to obtain more accurate reflectance parameters. The strip was illuminated at 45˚c through optical fiber and the intensity of reflected light was determined at rectanguLat angle using a photodiode. The kubelka-munk coefficient and reflection optical density were determined ar four different wavelengths(500, 550, 570 and 610nm) for blood glucose strip. For higher concentration than 300mg/41 about glucose, a saturation state of abforbance was observed at 500, 550 and 570nm. The correlation between glucose concentration and parameters was the best at 610nm. 30535 T00401030535 ^x Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors were grown on the flanks of C3H mice. The mice were divided into two groups. One group was injected with Photofrin II, intravenously (2.5mg/kg body weight). The other group received no Photofrin II. Mice from both groups were irradialed for approximately 15 minutes at 100, 300, or 500 mW/cm2 with the argon (488nm/514.5 nm), dye(628nm) and gold vapor (pulsed 628 nm) laser light. A photosensitizer behaved as an added absorber. Under our experimental conditions, the presence of Photolfrin II increased surface temperature by at least 40% and the temperature rise due to 300 mW/cm2 irradiation exceeded values for hyperthermia. Light and temperature distributions with depth were estimated by a computer model. The model demonstrated the influence of wavelength on the thermal process and proved to be a valuable tool to investigate internal temperature rise. 30536 T00401030536 ^x We investigated the structural geometry of thirty-eight Korean femurs. The purpose of this study is to identify major geometrical differences between Korean femurs 3nd others that we believe belong to Caucasians so that we would be able to get insights into the femoral component design that fits Asians including Koreans. We utilized computerized tomography (CT) images of femurs extracted from cadavers. The CT images were transformed into bitmap data by using a film scanner, and then analyzed by using a commercially available software called Image v.1.0 and a Macintosh IIci computer.The resulting data were compared with already published data. The major results show that the geometry of the Korean femurs is significantly different from that of Caucasians: (1) the anteversion angle and the canal flare index are greater by the amount of approximately 8˚ and 0.5, respectively, (2) the shape of the isthmus cross section is more round, and (3) the distance between the teaser trochanter and the proximal border of the isthmus is shelter by about 15 mm. The results suggested that the femoral component suitable for Asians should be different from the currently-used components designed and manufactured mostly by European or American companies. 30537 T00401030537 ^x It is well known that nonlinear propagation characteristics of the wave in the tissue may give very useful information for the medical diagnoisis. In this paper, a new method to detect nonlinear propagation characteristics of the internal vibration in the tissue for the low frequency mechanical vibration by using bispectral analysis is proposed. In the method, low frequency vibration of f0( = 100Hz) is applied on the surface of the object, and the waveform of the internal vibration x (t) is measured from Doppler frequency modulation of silmultaneously transmitted probing ultrasonic waves. Then, the bispectra of the signal x (t) at the frequencies (f0, f0) and (f0, 2f0) are calculated to estimate the nonlinear propagation characteristics as their magnitude ratio, w here since bispectrum is free from the gaussian additive noise we can get the value with high S/N. Basic experimental system is constructed by using 3.0 MHz probing ultrasonic waves and the several experiments are carried out for some phantoms. Results show the superiority of the proposed method to the conventional method using power spectrum and also its usefulness for the tissue characterization. 30541 T00401030541 ^x This paper describes the implementation of a computerized radial pulse diagnosis by aids of a clinical expert. On this base, we composed of the radial pulse diagnosis system in korean traditional medicine. The system composed of a radial pulse wave detection system and a radial pulse diagnosis system. With a detection system, we detected Inyoung and Cheongu radial pulse wave and processed it. Then, we have got the characteristic parameters of radial pulse wave and also quantified that according to the method of Inyoung-Cheongu Comparison Radial Pulse Diagnosis. We defined the jugement standard of radial pulse diagnosis system and then we confirmed the possibility for realization of automatic radial pulse diagnosis in korean traditional medicine. 30545 T00401030545 ^x Microspheres are expected to be applied to biomedical areas such as solid-phase immunoassays, drug delivery systems, immunomagnetic cell separation. To synthesize microspheres for biomedical application, "two stage shot growth method" was developed. The uniformity ratio of synthesized microspheres was always smaller than 1.05. And the surface charge density (or the number of ionizable functional groups) of the microspheres synthesized by "two stage shot growth method" was 6~13 times higher than that of the microspheres synthesized by conventional seeded batch copolymerization. As a previous step for biomedical application, adsorption experiments of bovine albumin on microspheres were carried out under various conditions. The maximum adsorbed amount was obtained in the neighborhood of pH 4.5. Isoelectric point of bovine albumin is pH 5.0, so experimental result shows that it shifted to acid area. The adsorption isotherm was obtained, the plateau region was always reached at 2.Og/L (bulk concentration of bovine albumin).The effect of the kind and the amount of surface functional group was also examined. 30575 T00401030575 ^x A medical image workstation was developed using multimedia technique. The system based on PC-486DX was designed to acquire medical images produced by medical imaging instruments and related audio information, that is, doctors' reporting results. Input information was processed and analyzed, then the results were presented in the form of graph and animation. All the informations of the system were hierarchically related with the image as the apex. Processing and analysis algorithms were implemented so that the diagnostic accuracy could be improved. The diagnosed information can be transferred for patient diagnosis through LAN(local area network). 30592 T00401030592 ^x In the conventional infrared imaging system, complex infrared lens systems are usually used for directing collimated narrow infrared beams into the high speed 2-dimensional optic scanner. In this paper, a simple reflective infrared optic system with a 2-dimensional optic scanner is proposed for the realization of medical infrared thermography system. It has been experimentally proven that the intfrared thermography system composed of the proposed optic system has the temperature resolution of 0.1˚c under the spatial resolution of lmrad, the image matrix size of 256 X 240, and tile imaging time of 4 seconds. 30593 T00401030593 ^x In this paper, MIIS (Medical Image Information System) has been designed and implemented using INGRES RDBMS, which is based on a client/server architecture. The implemented system allows users to register and retrieve patient information, medical images and diagnostic reports. It also provides the function to display these information on workstation windows simultaneously by using the designed menu-driven graphic user interface. The medical image compression/decompression techniques are implemented and integrated into the medical image database system for the efficient data storage and the fast access through the network. 30594 T00401030594 ^x In this paper, computerized BEAM was implemented for the space domain analysis of EEG. Trans-formation from temporal summation to two-dimensional mappings is formed by 4 nearest point inter-polaton method. Methods of representation of BEAM are two. One is dot density method which classify brain electrical potential 9 levels by dot density of gray levels and the other is colour method which classify brain electrical 12 levels by red-green colours. In this BEAM, instantaneous change and average energy distribution over any arbitrary time interval of brain electrical activity could be observed and analyzed easily. In the frequency domain, the distribution of energy spectrum of a special band can easily be distinguished normality and abnormality. 30608 T00401030608 ^x Laboratory information system (LIS) is a key tool to manage laboratory data in clinical pathology. Our department has developed an information system for routine hematology using down-sized computer system. We have used an IBM 486 compatible PC with 16MB main memory, 210 MB hard disk drive, 9 RS-232C port and 24 pin dot printer. The operating system and database management system were SCO UNIX and SCO foxbase, respectively. For program development, we used Xbase language provided by SCO foxbase. The C language was used for interface purpose. To make the system use friendly, pull-down menu was used. The system connected to our hospital information system via application program interface (API), so the information related to patient and request details is automatically transmitted to our computer. Our system interfaced with fwd complete blood count analyzers(Sysmex NE-8000 and Coulter STKS) for unidirectional data tansmission from analyzer to computer. The authors suggests that this system based on down-sized computer could provide a progressive approach to total LIS based on local area network, and the implemented system could serve as a model for other hospital's LIS for routine hematology. 30609 T00401030609 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. To use as the structural matrix of the composite, collagen was purified from human umbilical cord. The obtained collagen was treated by pepsin to remove telopeptides, and finally, the immune-free atelocollagen was produced: The cross linked atelocollagen was highly resistant to the collagenase induced collagenolysis. The cross linked collagen demonstrated an improved tensile strength. 30618 T00401030618 ^x This paper is a study on the design of adptive filter for QRS complex detection. We propose a simple adaptive algorithm to increase capability of noise cancelation in QRS complex detection with two stage adaptive filter. At the first stage, background noise is removed and at the next stage, only spectrum of QRS complex components is passed. Two adaptive filters can afford to keep track of the changes of both noise and QRS complex. Each adaptive filter consists of prediction error filter and FIR filter The impulse response of FIR filter uses coefficients of prediction error filter. The detection rates for 105 and 108 of MIT/BIH data base were 99.3% and 97.4% respectively. 30619 T00401030619 ^x To develop an artificial bone substitute that is gradually degraded and replaced by the regenerated natural bone, the authors designed and produced a composite that is consisted of calcium phosphate and collagen. Human umbilical cord origin pepsin treated type I atelocollagen was used as the structural matrix, by which sintered or non-sintered carbonate apatite was encapsulated to form an inorganic-organic composite. With cross linking atelocollagen by UV ray irradiation, the resistance to both compressive and tensile strength was increased. Collagen degradation by the collagenase induced collagenolysis was also decreased. 30620 T00401030620 ^x We have developed a monoleaflet polymer valve as an inexpensive and viable alternative, especially for short-term use in the ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. The frame and leaflet of the polymer valve were made from polyurethane, To evaluate the hemodynamic performance of the polymer valve a comparative study of flow dynamics past a polymer valve and a St. Jude Medical prosthetic valve under physiological pulsatile flow conditions in vitro was made. Comparisons between the valves were made on the transvalvular pressure drop, regurgitation volume and maximum valve opening area. The polymer valve showed smaller regurgitation volume and transvalvular pressure drop compared to the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. The results showed that the functional characteristics of the polymer valve compared favorably with those of the mechanical valve at higher heart rate. 30621 T00401030621 ^x Explosive evaporative removal process of biological tissue by absorption of a CW laser has been simulated by using gelatin and a multimode Nd:YAG laser. Because the point of maximun temperature of laser-irradiated gelatin exists below the surface due to surface cooling, evaporation at the boiling temperature is made explosively from below the surface. The important parameters of this process are the conduction loss to laser power absorption (defined as the conduction-to-laser power parameter, Nk), the convection heat transfer at the surface to conduction loss (defined as Bi), dimensionless extinction coefficient (defined as Br.), and dimensionless irradiation time (defined as Fo). Dependence of Fo on Nk and Bi has been observed by experiment, and the results have been compared with the numerical results obtained by solving a 2-dimensional conduction equation. Fo and explosion depth (from the surface to the point of maximun temperature) are increased when Nk and Bi are increased.To find out the minimum laser power for explosive evaporative removal process, steady state analysis has been also made. The limit of Nk to induce evaporative removal, which is proportional to the inverse of the laser power, has been obtained. 30622 T00401030622 ^x N1 and N2 gross neural action potentials were measured from the round window of the guinea pig cochlea at the onset of the acoustic stimuli. N1-N2 audiograms were made by means of regulating stimulant intensities in order to produce constant N1-N2 potentials as criteria for different input tone pip frequencies. The lowest threshold was measured with an input tone pip I5 dB SPL in intensity and 12 KHz in frequency when the animal was in normal physiological condition. The procedure of experimental measurements is explained in detail. This experimental approach is very useful for the investigation of the Cochlear function. Both noN1inear and active functions of the Cochlea can be monitored by N1-N2 audiograms. 30623 T00401030623 ^x In electrical impedance tomography(EIT), we use boundary current and voltage measurements toprovide the information about the cross-sectional distribution of electrical impedance or resistivity. One of the major problems in EIT has been the inaccessibility of internal voltage or current data in finding the internal impedance values. We propose a new image reconstruction method using internal current density data measured by NMR. We obtained a two-dimensional current density distribution within a phantom by processing the real and imaginary MR images from a 4.77 NMR machine. We implemented a resistivity mage reconstruction algorithm using the finite element method and sensitivity matrix. We presented computer simulation results of the mage reconstruction algorithm and furture direction of the research. 30624 T00401030624 ^x A new method of digital image analysis technique for discrimination of cancer cell was presented in this paper. The object image was the Thyroid eland cells image that was diagnosed as normal and abnormal (two types of abnormal: follicular neoplastic cell, and papillary neoplastic cell), respectively. By using the proposed region segmentation algorithm, the cells were segmented into nucleus. The 16 feature parameters were used to calculate the features of each nucleus. A9 a consequence of using dominant feature parameters method proposed in this paper, discrimination rate of 91.11% was obtained for Thyroid Gland cells. 30625 T00401030625 ^x An electrical stimulator was designed to induce locomotion for paraplegic patients caused by central nervous system injury. Optimal stimulus parameters, which can minimize muscle fatigue and can achieve effective muscle contraction were determined in slow and fast muscles in Sprague-Dawley rats. Stimulus patterns of our stimulator were designed to simulate electromyographic activity monitored during locomotion of normal subjects. Muscle types of the lower extremity were classified according to their mechanical property of contraction, which are slow muscle (msoleus m.) and fast muscle (medial gastrocneminus m., rectus femoris m., vastus lateralis m.). Optimal parameters of electrical stimulation for slow muscles were 20 Hz, 0.2 ms square pulse. For fast muscle, 40 Hz, 0.3 ms square pulse was optimal to produce repeated contraction. Higher stimulus intensity was required when synergistic muscles were stimulated simultaneously than when they were stimulated individually. Electrical stimulation for each muscle was designed to generate bipedal locomotion, so that individual muscles alternate contraction and relaxation to simulate stance and swing phases. Portable electrical stimulator with 16 channels built in microprocessor was constructed and applied to paraplegic patients due to lumbar cord injury. The electrical stimulator restored partially gait function in paraplegic patients. 30626 T00401030626 ^x Two-Dimensional modelling of the Cochlear biomechanics is presented in this paper. The Laplace partial differential equation which represents the fluid mechanics of the Cochlea has been transformed into two-dimensional electrical transmission line. The procedure of this transformation is explained in detail. The comparison between one and two dimensional models is also presented. This electrical modelling of the basilar membrane (BM) is clearly useful for the next approach to the further. Development of active elements which are essential in the producing of the sharp tuning of the BM. This paper shows that two-dimension model is qualitatively better than one-dimensional model both in amplitude and phase responses of the BM displacement. The present model is only for frequency response. However because the model is electrical, the two-dimensional transmission line model can be extended to time response without any difficult. 30627 T00401030627 ^x A method has been proposed for the fully automatic detection of left ventricular endocardial boundary in 2D short axis echocardiogram using geometric model. The procedure has the following three distinct stages. First, the initial center is estimated by the initial center estimation algorithm which is applied to decimated image. Second, the center estimation algorithm is applied to original image and then best-fit elliptic model estimation is processed. Third, best-fit boundary is detected by the cost function which is based on the best-fit elliptic model. The proposed method shows effective result without manual intervention by a human operator. 30628 T00401030628 ^x The intelligent trajectory control method that controls moving direction and average velocity for a prosthetic arm is proposed by pattern recognition and force estimations using EMG signals. Also, we propose the real time trajectory planning method which generates continuous accelleration paths using 3 stage linear filters to minimize the impact to human body induced by arm motions and to reduce the muscle fatigue. We use combination of MLP and fuzzy filter for pattern recognition to estimate the direction of a muscle and Hogan's method for the force estimation. EMG signals are acquired by using a amputation simulator and 2 dimensional joystick motion. The simulation results of proposed prosthetic arm control system using the EMf signals show that the arm is effectively followed the desired trajectory depended on estimated force and direction of muscle movements. 30638 T00401030638 ^x A new neural network architecture for the recognition of patterns from images is proposed, which is partially based on the results of physiological studies. The proposed network is composed of multi-layers and the nerve cells in each layer are connected by spatial filters which approximate receptive fields in optic nerve fields. In the proposed method, patterns recognition for complicated images is carried out using global features as well as local features such as lines and end-points. A new generating method of matched filers representing global features is proposed in this network. 30659 T00401030659 ^x An implementation scheme of the magnetic nerve stimulator using a switching mode power supply is proposed. By using a switching mode power supply rather than a conventional linear power supply for charging high voltage capacitors, the weight and size of the magnetic nerve stimulator can be considerably reduced. Maximum output voltage of the developed magnetic nerve stimulator using the switching mode power supply is 3, 000 volts and switching time is about 100 msec. Experimental results or human nerve stimulations using the developed stimulator are presented. 30768 T00401030768 ^x In this paper, we describe the design methodology and specifications of the developed module-based bedside monitors for patient monitoring. The bedside monitor consists of a main unit and module cases with various parameter modules. The main unit includes a 12.1" TFT color LCD, a main CPU board, and peripherals such as a module controller, Ethernet LAN card, video card, rotate/push button controller, etc. The main unit can connect at maximum three module cases each of which can accommodate up to 7 parameter modules. They include the modules for electrocardiograph, respiration, invasive blood pressure, noninvasive blood pressure, temperature, and SpO2 with Plethysmograph.SpO2 with Plethysmograph.

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