• Title, Summary, Keyword: discrete optimization

Search Result 455, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Complexity Estimation Based Work Load Balancing for a Parallel Lidar Waveform Decomposition Algorithm

  • Jung, Jin-Ha;Crawford, Melba M.;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
    • /
    • v.25 no.6
    • /
    • pp.547-557
    • /
    • 2009
  • LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) is an active remote sensing technology which provides 3D coordinates of the Earth's surface by performing range measurements from the sensor. Early small footprint LIDAR systems recorded multiple discrete returns from the back-scattered energy. Recent advances in LIDAR hardware now make it possible to record full digital waveforms of the returned energy. LIDAR waveform decomposition involves separating the return waveform into a mixture of components which are then used to characterize the original data. The most common statistical mixture model used for this process is the Gaussian mixture. Waveform decomposition plays an important role in LIDAR waveform processing, since the resulting components are expected to represent reflection surfaces within waveform footprints. Hence the decomposition results ultimately affect the interpretation of LIDAR waveform data. Computational requirements in the waveform decomposition process result from two factors; (1) estimation of the number of components in a mixture and the resulting parameter estimates, which are inter-related and cannot be solved separately, and (2) parameter optimization does not have a closed form solution, and thus needs to be solved iteratively. The current state-of-the-art airborne LIDAR system acquires more than 50,000 waveforms per second, so decomposing the enormous number of waveforms is challenging using traditional single processor architecture. To tackle this issue, four parallel LIDAR waveform decomposition algorithms with different work load balancing schemes - (1) no weighting, (2) a decomposition results-based linear weighting, (3) a decomposition results-based squared weighting, and (4) a decomposition time-based linear weighting - were developed and tested with varying number of processors (8-256). The results were compared in terms of efficiency. Overall, the decomposition time-based linear weighting work load balancing approach yielded the best performance among four approaches.

Design of a line balancing algorithm for the PCB assembly line including multiple surface mounters (다수 표면실장기계를 포함하는 PCB 조립라인의 라인균형화 알고리즘 설계)

  • Kim, Jin-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Han;Kim, Dae-Won;Lee, Bum-Hee
    • Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems
    • /
    • v.3 no.4
    • /
    • pp.381-388
    • /
    • 1997
  • This paper proposes a heuristic algorithm to efficiently perform line balancing in the PCB assembly line including multiple surface mounters efficiently. Generally, the problems in line balancing are classified into two kinds. Firstly, is the determining of the minimum number of machines required for achieving the desired production rate. Secondly, is the assign of jobs to multiple machines in order to minimize the cycle time which is defined as a maximum among the working times of machines when the number of machines is fixed. In this paper, we deal with the latter. We consider a PCB assembly line, including the multiple surface mounters arranged serially as a target system. Also, the conveyor is assumed to move at a constant speed and have no buffer. Considering that the minimum number of machines required for the desired production rate is a discrete nonincreasing function which is inversely proportional to the cycle time, we propose an optimization algorithm for line balancing by using the binary search method. The algorithm is validated through computer simulation, the results of which show that their shapes coincide nearly with those of optimal line balancing efficiency graphs regardless of the number of components, the performance of surface mounters, and the structure of assembly line.

  • PDF

Window Approach for Cosine-Modulated Filter Bank Design for Multitone Data Communication (윈도우를 이용한 멀티톤 데이터 통신용 코사인 변조 필터뱅크 디자인)

  • 김정학;신승철;정진균;송상섭
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.8B
    • /
    • pp.1586-1592
    • /
    • 1999
  • In DWMT, CMFB is employed in the synthesis/analysis part. The CMFB uses filters of greater length than the DFT, resulting in reduced interference between the carriers. In addition, the CMFB system is computationally efficient and fast algorithms are available for their implementation. Traditional designs for the prototype filters of CMFB usually involve nonlinear optimizations. Thus the required design time is considerably large even for small filter orders. In this paper, a prototype filter design method for CMFB is presented using optimal window method. The design process is reduced to the optimization of a single parameter and consequently the required design time is much less than those of the existing methods. It is shown that the stopband performance of the proposed method is better than that of the Kaiser window method.

  • PDF

Optimal Capacitor Placement and Operation for Loss Minimzation and Improvement of Voltage Profile in Distribution System (배전계통의 손실감소 및 전압 보상을 위한 커패시터 최적 배치 및 운용)

  • 송현선
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
    • /
    • v.13 no.3
    • /
    • pp.48-55
    • /
    • 1999
  • Ths paper presents an optimization method which determines locations and size of capacitors simultaneously while minimizing power losses and improving voltage profile in radial distribution systems. Especially, the cost function associated with capacitor pla.cerrent is considered as step function due to banks of standard discrete capacities. Genetic algorithms(GA) are used to obtain efficiently the solution of the cost function associated with capacitors which is non-continuous and non-differentiable function. The strings in GA consist of the node nwnber index and size of capacitors to be installed. The length mutation operator, which is able to change the length of strings in each generation, is used. The proposed Jrethod which determines locations and size of capacitors simultaneously can reduce power losses and improve voltage proftle with capacitors of minimum size. Its efficiency is proved through the arolication in radial distribution systems.ystems.

  • PDF

Fabrication of Master for a Spiral Pattern in the Order of 50nm (50nm급 불연속 나선형 패턴의 마스터 제작)

  • Oh, Seung-Hun;Choi, Doo-Sun;Je, Tae-Jin;Jeong, Myung-Yung;Yoo, Yeong-Eun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
    • /
    • v.25 no.4
    • /
    • pp.134-139
    • /
    • 2008
  • A spirally arrayed nano-pattern is designed as a model pattern for the next generation optical storage media. The pattern consists off types of embossed rectangular dot, which are 50nm, 100nm, 150nm and 200nm in length and 50nm in width. The height of the dot is designed to be 50nm. The pitch of the spiral track of the pattern is 100nm. A ER(Electron resist) master for this pattern is fabricated by e-beam lithography process. The ER is first spin-coated to be 50nm thick on a Si wafer and then the model pattern is written on the coated ER layer by e-beam. After developing this pattern written wafer in the solution, a ER pattern master is fabricated. The most conventional e-beam machine can write patterns in orthogonal way, so we made our own pattern generator which can write the pattern in circular or spiral way. This program generates the patterns to be compatible with the e-beam machine from Raith(Raith 150). To fabricate 50nm pattern master precisely, a series of experiments were done including the design compensation for the pattern size, optimization of the dose, acceleration voltage, aperture size and developing. Through these experiments, we conclude that the higher accelerating voltages and smaller aperture size are better for mastering the nano pattern which is in order of 50nm. With the optimized e-beam lithography process, a spiral arrayed 50nm pattern master adopting PMMA resist was fabricated to have dimensional accuracy over 95% compared to the designed. Using this pattern master, a metal pattern stamp will be fabricated by Ni electro plating for injection molding of the patterned plastic substrate.

Parallel Genetic Algorithm-Tabu Search Using PC Cluster System for Optimal Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems (배전계통 최적 재구성 문제에 PC 클러스터 시스템을 이용한 병렬 유전 알고리즘-타부 탐색법 구현)

  • Mun Kyeong-Jun;Song Myoung-Kee;Kim Hyung-Su;Kim Chul-Hong;Park June Ho;Lee Hwa-Seok
    • The Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers A
    • /
    • v.53 no.10
    • /
    • pp.556-564
    • /
    • 2004
  • This paper presents an application of parallel Genetic Algorithm-Tabu Search(GA-TS) algorithm to search an optimal solution of a reconfiguration in distribution system. The aim of the reconfiguration of distribution systems is to determine switch position to be opened for loss minimization in the radial distribution systems, which is a discrete optimization problem. This problem has many constraints and very difficult to solve the optimal switch position because it has many local minima. This paper develops parallel GA-TS algorithm for reconfiguration of distribution systems. In parallel GA-TS, GA operators are executed for each processor. To prevent solution of low fitness from appearing in the next generation, strings below the average fitness are saved in the tabu list. If best fitness of the GA is not changed for several generations, TS operators are executed for the upper 10% of the population to enhance the local searching capabilities. With migration operation, best string of each node is transferred to the neighboring node aster predetermined iterations are executed. For parallel computing, we developed a PC-cluster system consisting of 8 PCs. Each PC employs the 2 GHz Pentium Ⅳ CPU and is connected with others through ethernet switch based fast ethernet. To show the usefulness of the proposed method, developed algorithm has been tested and compared on a distribution systems in the reference paper. From the simulation results, we can find that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust for the reconfiguration of distribution system in terms of the solution qualify. speedup. efficiency and computation time.

Robust Digital Redesign for Observer-based System (관측기 기반 시스템에 대한 강인 디지털 재설계)

  • Sung, Hwa-Chang;Joo, Young-Hoon;Park, Jin-Bae
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.285-290
    • /
    • 2007
  • In this paper, we presents robust digital redesign (DR) method for observer-based linear time-invariant (LTI) system. The term of DR involves converting an analog controller into an equivalent digital one by considering two condition: state-matching and stability. The design problems viewed as a convex optimization problem that we minimize the error of the norm bounds between interpolated linear operators to be matched. Also, by using the bilinear and inverse bilinear approximation method, we analyzed the uncertain parts of given observer-based system more precisely, When a sampling period is sufficiently small, the conversion of a analog structured uncertain system to an equivalent discrete-time system have proper reason. Sufficiently conditions for the state-matching of the digitally controlled system are formulated in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs).

Distribution System Reconfiguration Using the PC Cluster based Parallel Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithm

  • Mun Kyeong-Jun;Lee Hwa-Seok;Park June Ho;Hwang Gi-Hyun;Yoon Yoo-Soo
    • KIEE International Transactions on Power Engineering
    • /
    • v.5A no.3
    • /
    • pp.269-279
    • /
    • 2005
  • This paper presents an application of the parallel Adaptive Evolutionary Algorithm (AEA) to search an optimal solution of a reconfiguration in distribution systems. The aim of the reconfiguration is to determine the appropriate switch position to be opened for loss minimization in radial distribution systems, which is a discrete optimization problem. This problem has many constraints and it is very difficult to find the optimal switch position because of its numerous local minima. In this investigation, a parallel AEA was developed for the reconfiguration of the distribution system. In parallel AEA, a genetic algorithm (GA) and an evolution strategy (ES) in an adaptive manner are used in order to combine the merits of two different evolutionary algorithms: the global search capability of GA and the local search capability of ES. In the reproduction procedure, proportions of the population by GA and ES are adaptively modulated according to the fitness. After AEA operations, the best solutions of AEA processors are transferred to the neighboring processors. For parallel computing, a PC-cluster system consisting of 8 PCs·was developed. Each PC employs the 2 GHz Pentium IV CPU, and is connected with others through switch based fast Ethernet. The new developed algorithm has been tested and is compared to distribution systems in the reference paper to verify the usefulness of the proposed method. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust for distribution system reconfiguration in terms of the solution quality, speedup, efficiency, and computation time.

Parallel Genetic Algorithm-Tabu Search Using PC Cluster System for Optimal Reconfiguration of Distribution Systems

  • Mun Kyeong-Jun;Lee Hwa-Seok;Park June-Ho
    • KIEE International Transactions on Power Engineering
    • /
    • v.5A no.2
    • /
    • pp.116-124
    • /
    • 2005
  • This paper presents an application of the parallel Genetic Algorithm-Tabu Search (GA- TS) algorithm, and that is to search for an optimal solution of a reconfiguration in distribution systems. The aim of the reconfiguration of distribution systems is to determine the appropriate switch position to be opened for loss minimization in radial distribution systems, which is a discrete optimization problem. This problem has many constraints and it is very difficult to solve the optimal switch position because of its numerous local minima. This paper develops a parallel GA- TS algorithm for the reconfiguration of distribution systems. In parallel GA-TS, GA operators are executed for each processor. To prevent solution of low fitness from appearing in the next generation, strings below the average fitness are saved in the tabu list. If best fitness of the GA is not changed for several generations, TS operators are executed for the upper 10$\%$ of the population to enhance the local searching capabilities. With migration operation, the best string of each node is transferred to the neighboring node after predetermined iterations are executed. For parallel computing, we developed a PC-cluster system consisting of 8 PCs. Each PC employs the 2 GHz Pentium IV CPU and is connected with others through switch based rapid Ethernet. To demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed method, the developed algorithm was tested and is compared to a distribution system in the reference paper From the simulation results, we can find that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust for the reconfiguration of distribution system in terms of the solution quality, speedup, efficiency, and computation time.

Optimum Design of Pitch Reducer for Wind Turbine Using Genetic Algorithm (유전 알고리즘을 이용한 풍력발전기용 피치감속기의 최적 설계)

  • Kim, Jeong Gil;Park, Young Jun;Lee, Geun Ho;Nam, Yong Yun;Yang, Woo Yeoul
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
    • /
    • v.38 no.2
    • /
    • pp.185-192
    • /
    • 2014
  • Planetary gear design is complex because it involves a combination of discrete variables such as module, integer variables such as the number of teeth, and continuous variables such as face width and aspect ratio. Thus, an optimum design technique is needed. In this study, we applied a genetic algorithm to the design optimization of a planetary gear. In this algorithm, tooth root strength and surface durability are assessed with fundamental variables such as the number of teeth, module, pressure angle, and face width. With the help of this technique, gear designers could reduce trial and error in the initial design stages, thus cutting the time required for planetary gear design.