• Title, Summary, Keyword: discoloration

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Teeth discoloration during orthodontic treatment

  • Baik, Un-Bong;Kim, Hoon;Chae, Hwa-Sung;Myung, Ji-Yun;Chun, Youn-Sic
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.334-339
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Teeth discoloration is a rare orthodontic complication. The aim of this study was to report the clinical progression of discoloration during orthodontic treatment. Methods: Discolored teeth, detected during orthodontic treatment between January 2003 and December 2012 by a single dentist using similar techniques and appliances, were analyzed. Results: The total number of teeth that showed discoloration was 28. Progression of discoloration was evaluated in only 24 teeth that were observed without any treatment. During the observation period, the discoloration "improved" in 8 of the 24 teeth (33.3%) and was "maintained" in 16 (66.6%). The electric pulp test performed at the time of initial detection of discoloration showed 14.3% positivity, which improved to 21.4% at the final follow-up. None of the initial and final follow-up radiographic findings showed any abnormalities. Conclusions: When teeth discoloration is detected during orthodontic treatment, observation as an initial management is recommended over immediate treatments.

Discoloration of Woods (2) - 36 Commercial Hardwoods Grown in Korea - (목재(木材)의 오염(汚染)에 의한 변색(變色) (2) - 한국산(韓國産) 활엽수재(闊葉樹材)의 화학적(化學的) 변색(變色) -)

  • Ahn, Kyung-Mo;Kong, Young-To;Jo, Jae-Myeong
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 1986
  • Discoloration sensitivities of woods grown in this country haven't reported yet. Therefore we examined discoloration sensitivities of domestic wood specimens to iron (0.1 %, $FeCl_3.6H_2O$), alkali (pH 12.0, NaOH). acid (pH 1.0, $C_2H_2O_4$) and exposing to sunlight (40 hrs), Thirty-six hardwood species were collected and examined. All specimens were prepared from heartwoods of the collected species. But the specimens of 4 Betula species were divided into sapwoods and heartwoods. By iron stain, the color differences (${\Delta}E$) of 21 wood specimens including one Betula sapwood showed above 12.0, which means strong discoloration sensitivities, and of 3 specimens including one Betula sapwood showed below 2.5, which means weak discolorations. The most strong iron discoloration species was Jungkukgulpi-namu (Pterocarya stenoptera). By alkali stain, the color differences (${\Delta}E$) of 3 wood specimens showed above 9.0, which means strong discoloration sensitivities, and of 18 wood specimens including 4 Berula sapwoods showed below 2.5, which means weak discolorations. By acid stain, the color differences (${\Delta}E$) of 6 wood specimens showed above 10.0 which means strong discoloration sensitivities, and of 12 wood specimens including one Betula sapwoods showed below 2.5, which means weak discolorations. By exposing to sunlight, the color differences (${\Delta}E$) of 31 wood specimens including one Betula sapwoods showed below 6.5, which means, strong discoloration sensitivities, and of only one specimens showed below 2.5, which means weak discoloration. The most strong discoloration species by exposing to sunlight was Guirung-namu (Prunus padus). In general, it was shown that hardwoods grown in Korea were most subject to change of color by exposing to sunlight and next were by iron stain. Domestic hardwoods showed some differences in discoloration sensitivities from domestic softwoods previously reported.

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Effects of Strong Wind at Heading Stage on Glume Development and Yield Components of Rice (벼 출수기 강풍이 영화발육과 수량형질에 미치는 영향)

  • 최상진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 1981
  • Strong wind of 6.5m/s from electric fan was applied to rice at heading stage to find out the nature of wind damage to panicle. Damaged panicles caused by typhoon were sampled out of field to measure the yield and milling components. Wind-treated glumes were developed into two forms, fertile and sterile, and each of them showed all degree of glume discoloration. The number of fertile grains were higher than sterile grains in a damaged panicle. Averagesdegree of glume discoloration was higher in not flowered glume than in flowered glume. The more recently flowered glumes resulted the higher degree of discoloration among flowered glume. The percent of sterile grain to total number of grains was the highest at stage of just flowering. The glume discoloration representing wind damage at heading state advanced in degree in ten days after treatment compared to that just after treatment. Grain length and grain width were decreased with the increased degree of glume discoloration, while grain thickness was not changed greatly. Chalkiness was a little higher in damaged grain than in normal grain without definite trends by degree of discoloration. Ripening ratio, 1000 grain weight and yield decreased with increased degree of glume discoloration in damaged panicle by typhoon. Decreasing order in yield was white rice, rough rice and brown rice. Ratio of brown rice to rough rice increased, white rice to brown rice decreased, and milling recovery was not changed greatly with increased degree of 히ume discoloration.

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Iron-loaded Natural Clay as Heterogeneous Catalyst for Fenton-like Discoloration of Dyeing Wastewater

  • Xu, Huan-Yan;Ha, Xiu-Lan;Wu, Ze;Shan, Lian-Wei;Zhang, Wei-Dong
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.30 no.10
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    • pp.2249-2252
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    • 2009
  • The clay-based Fe-bearing catalyst was successfully prepared through ion-exchange reaction and applied as heterogeneous catalyst for discoloration of acid fuchsine (AF) in an aqueous solution by Fenton-like reaction. Experimental results demonstrated that the AF discoloration ratios increased by increasing Fe-loaded clay dosage and initial $H_2O_2$ concentration, and by decreasing the pH, respectively. The lower the initial AF concentration, the shorter the reaction time needed to achieve complete discoloration of AF. Comparative studies indicated that AF discoloration ratios were much higher in presence of Fe-loaded clay and $H_2O_2$ than those in presence of $H_2O_2$, raw natural clay or Fe-loaded clay only and raw natural clay and $H_2O_2$ jointly. After AF discoloration, there existed no new phases in the clay samples detected by XRD and no change in the clay crystal morphology observed by SEM. A mechanism proposed suggested adsorption and Fenton-like reaction were responsible for discoloration of AF.

Studies on the Nitrogen Effect in Red Discoloration of Rice IR 667 (수도 IR 667의 적고현상에 미치는 질소의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 곽병화
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 1971
  • Pot and paddy field tests were conducted to study red discoloration of rice var. IR 667 leaves with reference to the leading Korean native variety Jinhung and Paldal, with the following results: 1. Minor elements such as Mn, Fe, B, Al, Ca and Si had no influence on the discoloration, but a supply of various soluble nitrogen compounds completely restricted it. The more prosperous the growth of IR 667 with nitrogen, the more severe the discoloration appears when nitrogen absorptin becomes limited. 2. Chlorotic pigments extracted from both IR 667 and Jinhung were compared spectrophotometrically, and found to have different spectral peaks. IR 667 had peak closer to red than Jinhung, indicating the characteristic of the variety. IR 667 was observed to be more sensitive to nitrogen deficiency than Jinhung or the other japonica variety. 3. It was concluded that all the factors limiting nitrogen supply for IR 667 growth, such as low nitrogen application, restriction of root respiration (low temperature, poor drainage, toxic gases or substances in the root zone, etc.) and pest injuries, would result in the appearance of the so-called red discoloration, because of the reduction in nitrogen uptake. Since, the discoloration of IR 667 is varietal characteristic when grown in Korea, control of it may be beneficial cultural practice in increasing grain yield, although the increased succeptibility to pests and a drop in the rate of maturity due to relatively high nitrogen level in the leaves may result in an unexpected drop in yield. It is anticipated that further exploration conducted from practical point of view will establish the relatioknships between the extent of red discoloration, nitrogen availability and grain yield in IR 667.

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THE CHANGE IN SURFACE CONVERSION AND DISCOLORATION IN DENTAL RESTORATIVE COMPOSITE RESIN UNDER DIFFERENT POLISHING METHODS; THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SURFACE CONVERSION AND SURFACE DISCOLORATION (수복용복합레진의 표면처리방법에 따른 표면중합률 및 변색정도의 변화와 그 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Park, Sung-Ho;Noh, Byung-Duk;Kim, Mo-Ran;Ahn, Hyun-Jung
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.482-486
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study was first, to evaluate the relationship between composite surface conversion and surface discoloration, second, to know if there was difference in surface discoloration between celluloid-strip-finished composite surface and polished surface. In addition, the discoloration of composite surface was also evaluated with visual inspection or digital camera with high resolution monitor, Z100, Tetric Ceram, Spectrum, and Aelitfil were used. The composite surfaces were celluloid-strip finished (group 1), polished (group 2), celluloid-strip finished under nitrogen gas purging (group 3) or only light cured without finishing or polishing under nitrogen gas purging (group 4). The microhardness of each samples were also measured in each group. The samples of each group were also divided into 4 subgroup whether they were immediately placed in disclosing solution (0.2% Elythrosin, pH 7.0) (subgroup1), 1 day after light curing(subgroup 2), 3day after light curing(subgroup 3) or 7 day after light curing(subgroup 4). The computer controlled spectrophotometer was used to determine CIELAB coordinates ($L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$). The amounts of color difference were compared. The results were as follows; 1. There was no difference in discoloration between celluloid strip finished composite surface and polished surface. 2. The samples discolored more when they were placed in disclosing solution immediately after polymerization than other groups. 3. When the samples were light cured under nitrogen gas purging and without polishing process, they discolored more than other groups even though they showed higher micro hardness. 4. With visual inspection or digital camera, only a limited information was available in detecting composite surface discoloration.

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Soil Chemical Property and Leaf Mineral Nutrient of Ginseng Cultivated in Paddy Field Occurring Leaf Discoloration (인삼 논재배에서 황증이 발생한 토양과 식물체의 무기성분 함량 특성)

  • Lee, Sung Woo;Park, Kee Choon;Lee, Seung Ho;Park, Jin Myeon;Jang, In Bok;Kim, Ki Hong
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.289-295
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    • 2013
  • This study was carried out to investigate the cause of leaf discoloration occurring frequently in paddy cultivation. Chemical property of soil and inorganic nutrient component of leaf were analyzed on abnormal fields of 7 regions where leaf discoloration occurred severely and normal fields of 7 regions among ginseng garden. The pH of abnormal fields was strong acidic condition (pH 5.51) compare to normal fields of slightly acid condition (pH 6.42). Calcium and magnesium content in abnormal fields were lower distinctly than that of normal fields, while EC, organic matter, phosphate, and potassium content showed not distinct difference between abnormal and normal fields. Whereas calcium and magnesium content were distinctly high in normal fields, both of potassium and iron content of ginseng leaf were distinctly high in abnormal fields. In particular, iron content of abnormal fields was more 1.94 times in soil, and 3.03 times in leaf than that of normal fields. In soil chemical property, there were significant negative correlation between leaf discoloration ratio and soil pH, and there were also significant positive correlation between leaf discoloration ratio and iron content. In ginseng leaf, there were highly significant negative correlation between leaf discoloration ratio and calcium content, and there were also highly significant positive correlation between leaf discoloration ratio and iron content.

Removal of discoloration materials by water mains cleaning on water distribution pipes (관 세척에 따른 색도성 물질의 제거 효과)

  • Lee, Ho-Min;Choi, Tae-Ho;Yun, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Dong-Hong;Bae, Cheol-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.267-276
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    • 2020
  • In this study, air scouring cleaning was selected and applied among 5 small blocks (S1~S5) in domestic S cities to analyze the cleaning effect of particles causing discoloration. In order to identify the cleaning effect, 10 locations were selected as water quality investigation point, such as the stagnant or water mains ends. Removal of solids, variation of particle components, weight and concentration were analyzed. And the level of the cleanness of the surface inside water mains using endoscope was investigated. As a result of analysis, the solids discharged after cleaning were mainly sand and gravel, pieces related to pipe materials, and corrosion products. As a result of analyzing the concentrated particles of the filter before and after cleaning, it was found that the change in discoloration on the filter was large. In addition, as a result of comparing the weight and the concentration of the particles, it was found that the particles causing discoloration were significantly removed after cleaning. From the results of the endoscopy, it was confirmed that most of the precipitated and accumulated dark yellow discoloration matters inside water mains were removed through cleaning. Therefore, it seems that the particles causing discoloration in water decreased after cleaning. Therefore, it is expected that, if properly cleaning was applied, matters that cause discoloration can be removed from the water mains, and customer's complaints can also be reduced through water quality improvement.

Discoloration Pattern of Lettuce Leaf Disks as Influenced by Sulfur Dioxide (아황산에 의한 상치 잎구조의 변색패턴)

  • 이미순
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 1975
  • Development of a model system for mode of action studies of $SO_2$ was attempted with a plant tissue. Leaf disks, 1.0cm diameter, cut from the lamina of lettuce leaves, were floated on the testing medium and placed in light or dark condition to investigate the discoloration pattern with various sources of $SO_2$. Discoloration of leaf disks tended to be more serious with higher concentrations of $SO_2$ and on exposure to the light. Leaf disks were more severely discolored at lower pH with constant SO2 concentration. These discoloration patterns were highly reproducible and similar in all sources of $SO_2$. Spectrophotometric evidence suggested that light-mediated discoloration of leaf disks in the presence of $SO_2$ might occur mainly through chlorophyll ${\alpha}$ degradation.

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The Impact of Total Radiation Flux on Organic Materials under LED Lighting

  • Kim, Ji Won;Lee, Jin Hwan;Kim, Kyu Lin;Ryu, Jae Hyung;Kang, Dai Ill
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.236-243
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    • 2020
  • In this study, an accelerated aging experiment for fabric and paper was conducted using two light emitting diode(LED) sources with different wavelength characteristics, and the discoloration under each lighting type was examined. Hanji(Korean traditional paper) and related textiles showed more discoloration under blue LEDs, while the blue wool standard showed more discoloration under white LEDs. This, indicated that the deterioration varied depending on the sample color. The the effect of the light source on artifact deterioration was primarily related to the total radiation flux(expressed in mill watts), rather than the total luminous flux(expressed in lumens). In addition, the discoloration of the investigated artifacts was dependent on the color rendering of the lighting.