• Title, Summary, Keyword: disaccharidase activities

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Effects of Silkworm Extract on Disaccharidase Activities of Small Intestine and Blood Glucose-Lowering in C57BL/6J Mice

  • Ahn, Jung-Mo;Hong, Jung-Hee;Kim, Mi-Lim;Lee, In-Seon;Rhee, Soon-Jae
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.34-39
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    • 2005
  • This study examined the anti-diabetic effect of a silkworm extract in C57BL/6J mice, an ob/㏈ model, fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks. The body weight was not significantly different with the silkworm-extract supplement, nor did food intake and body weight gains also did not differ significantly among the high-fat diet groups. However, the water intake by the silkworm-extract supplemented groups increased significantly compared with that by the distilled-water supplement group, nonetheless, the FER did not differ significantly. For all groups, the blood glucose increased the most after 30 minutes and yet returned to a fasting level within 90 minutes. The fasting time and resulting glucose tolerance for the silkworm-extract supplemented groups were significantly decreased compared to that for the high fat diet with distilled water supplement group, while the level of blood glucose in silkworm-extract supplemented groups was significantly decreased compared with than in the diabetic control group. The HbA1c and insulin levels were no different among the groups. The sucrase and lactase activities in the proximal small intestine were significantly decreased in the silkworm-extract supplement groups compared to that in the diabetic control group. There was no significant difference in the glycogen contents in the liver and muscle among the groups. In conclusion, it was found that the silkworm-extract supplement repressed the disaccharidase activity in the small intestines mucosa of the C57BL/6J mice.

Effect of Dioscorea rhizome on the Activity of Intestinal Disaccharidases in Diabetic db/db mice (Diabetic db/db Mice에 산약추출물(DA-9802) 투여에 따른 소장내의 Disaccharidases 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Tae-Ho;Son, Mi-Won;Choi, Sang-Zin;Ha, Sang-Keun;Lee, Pyeong-Jae;Kang, Dong-Ho;Kim, Sun-Yeou
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.302-307
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    • 2009
  • The present study was designed to clarify the antidiabetic activity and mechanism of Dioscorea rhizome in diabetic db/db mice. Mice were administered Dioscorea rhizome and rosiglitazone orally for 7 weeks and the effects of these compounds on fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and intestinal disaccharidase activity in db/db mice were evaluated. The fasting serum glucose of the D. rhizome treated group was reduced when compared with that of the db/db control group. In addition, the disaccharidase activities in homogenates of the proximal, middle and distal segment of the small intestine were significantly decreased response to D. rhizome treatment, especially in the middle segment. These results suggest that D. rhizome decreases blood glucose via a decrease in the activity of disaccharidase in the mucosa of the middle region of the small intestine in db/db mice.

Effects of Petroleum Ether Extract of Ginseng Root on Some Enzyme Activity in Human Colon Cancer Cells (고려인삼중 지용성 성분이 인체암 세포의 수종 효소활성에 미치는 영향.)

  • 황우익;오수경
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.27-35
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    • 1986
  • This study was devised to observed the growth inhibition and change of disaccharidase activities of human colon cancer cells cultured in medium containing the ginseng extract. Three species of human colon cancer cell lines, HRT-18, HCT-48 and HT-29, were used for the experiment. The activities of sucrease, lactase, maltase and trehalase in the cancer cells were determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1. The doubling times of the HRT-18, HT-29 and HCT-48 were about 20,22 and 24 hours, respectively. 2. The growth rates of the HRT-18 and HCT-48 in culture medium containing the ginseng extract were inhibited gradually according to increase of the concentration of ginseng extract and extension of the incubation time. 3. The activities of disaccharidase in HRT-18 and HCT-48 cultured in the medium containing the ginseng extract were increased compared with control group as follows;

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Effects of Nutritional Level on Digestive Enzyme Activities in the Pancreas and Small Intestine of Calves Slaughtered at Same Body Weight

  • Wang, X.B.;Ogawa, T.;Suda, S.;Taniguchi, K.;Uike, H.;Kumagai, H.;Mitani, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 1998
  • Six Holstein heifer calves weaned at 45 days-of-age were randomly allocated into high daily gain (1.1 kg/d, HDG) and low daily gain (0.56 kg/d, LDG) groups, and were slaughtered at 170 kg of live weight. Energy intake level in the feeding period was 2.4 $\times$ maintenance in 105 days for HDG and 1.4 $\times$ maintenance in 216 days for LDG calves. Total length of the small intestine was identical between groups, but both weights of the pancreas and of the small intestinal mucosa were greater (p < 0.01) for HDG calves. Alpha-amylase, lipase, proteinase, and trypsin activities of the whole pancreas were higher (p < 0.05) in HDG calves. Disaccharidase activity of the whole small intestinal mucosa was also higher (p < 0.10) for HDG than for LDG calves. However, the enzymatic activities, expressed as per gram or per protein of the pancreas and the small intestinal mucosa, were not affected (p > 0.10) by the plane of nutrition. These results suggest that the digestive enzyme activity in the small intestine varies primarily with the weight of tissues synthesizing the enzyme.

Effects of Mulberry Juice and Cake Powders on Blood Glucose and Lipid Lowering and Erythrocytic Antioxidative Enzyme Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (오디즙 및 오디박 분말이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐의 혈당 및 혈청지질 강하와 적혈구 항산화 효소계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Eun-Hye;Jang, Hyun-Seo;Kim, Sang-Woon;Choi, Sang-Won;Rhee, Soon-Jae;Cho, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.199-210
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    • 2007
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mulberry juice and cake powder on blood glucose and lipid status along with intestinal disaccharidase and erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme system in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing $100{\pm}10g$ were randomly assigned to one normal group, and eight STZ-induced diabetic groups: control diet group without mulberry juice and cake powders (DM-C), three mulberry juice powder groups (0.5%: DM-0.5J, 1%: DM-1J, 2%: DM-2J) and low mulberry cake powder groups (0.25%: DM-0.25C, 0.5%: DM-0.5C, 1%: DM-1 C, 2%: DM-2C). After three-week feeding of each experimental diet, diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of 50 mg/kg body weight of STZ in sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.3) via tail vein of eight DM groups. Rats were sacrificed at the 9th day of diabetic states. Level of blood glucose was 505 mg/dl in DM-C group but it was 28% and 39% lower in mulberry juice and cake powder fed groups, respectively, than the DM-C group. Activities of maltase, sucrase and lactase in proximal part of small intestine were significantly lower in the mulberry juice and cake powder groups by $42{\sim}47%$ than those of DM-C group. Erythrocytic superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were significantly reduced by STZ but increased close to normal levels along with less accumulation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Serum levels of triglyceride and total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol by STZ-DM were reduced and increased respectively, to the norma] levels by the mulberry juice and cake powder. Except the levels of TBARS, the effects on the other measurements by the various dietary levels of mulberry juice and cake powder were almost same and the effect of the cake powder was most significant at the lowest level. These results indicate that mulberry juice and cake powders have consityerable hypoglycemic effect and strengthening antioxidant defense systems at the low levels in diabetic state and may be able to reduce diabetic complications.

Effects of Fructans on Blood Glucose, Activities of Disaccharidases and Immune Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice (당뇨 유발 생쥐에서 Fructan이 혈당과 이당류분해효소 활성 및 면역능에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Hyun-Jin;Sung, Hye-Young;Choi, Young-Sun;Cho, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.1188-1194
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of fructans (chicory inulin, fructooligosaccharide and chicory inulin oligosaccharide) on blood glucose, activities of disaccharidases in small bowel and kidneys, and splenocyte proliferation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Sixty ICR male mice were divided into one normal group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozotocin after 2 weeks of experimental diets feeding. Experimental diets based on AIN93G diet were control diet, 6$ \%$ fructooligosaccharide (FOS) diet, 6$\%$ chicory inulin oligosaccharide (CIOS) diet, 6$\%$ chicory inulin (Cl) diet, and given for 25 days after streptozotocin injection. Plasma glucose was lower in Diabetic-Cl group as compared to Diabetic-control group. Plasma insulin level was not different among diabetic groups. Specific activities of jejunal maltase and sucrase in diabetic groups were about double as that of Normal group. Jejunal maltase activity and plasma glucose were positively correlated (r=0.643). However, specific activity of renal maltase in diabetic groups was not significantly different as compared to Normal group. Stimulation index of splenocyte proliferation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was significantly increased in Diabetic-CIOS as compared to Diabetic-control. Stimulation index of splenocyte proliferation by Concanavalin A (ConA) tended to be higher in Diabetic-CIOS group. Concentrations of interleukin-2 and interferon- $\gamma$ secreted from splenocytes induced by ConA were not significantly different among all groups. In conclusion, fructans may be effective for lowering plasma glucose, possibly by lowering disaccharidase activity and for increasing immune responses in diabetic con-ditions, where their effects can be different depending on degree of polymerization.

Effects of YK-209 Mulberry Leaves on Disaccharidase Activites of Small Intestine and Blood Glucose-Lowering in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (YK-209뽕잎이 Streptozotocin 유발 당뇨쥐 소장의 이당류분해 효소 활성과 혈당강하에 미치는 영향)

  • 유수경;김미지;김진원;이순재
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.1071-1077
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was investigated the effects of YK-209 mulberry leaves on disaccharidase activites of small intestine and blood glucose-lowering in diabetic rats induced with streptozotocin (STZ). Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100$\pm$10 g were randomly assigned to one normal and four STZ-induced diabetic groups; YK-209 0% mulberry leaves diet (DM group),0.1% YK-209 mulberry loaves diet (DM-0.1Y group),0.2% YK-209mulberry leaves diet (DM -0.2Y group), and 0.4% YK-209 mulberry leaves diet (DM -0.4Y group). Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of 55 mg/kg body weight of STZ in sodium citrate buffer (pH 4.3) via tail vein after 3 weeks feeding of experimental diets. Rats were sacrificed at the 9th day of diabetic states. The functional ingredients in the mulberry leaves, the 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves was higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves. ${\gamma}$ -Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and rutin contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves were 1.3 and 1.4 times higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves, respectively, and vitamin C contents of YK-209 mulberry leaves were also higher than those of the Cheongil mulberry leaves. Intestine index was increased in all diabetic groups, compared with normal group but not significantly different among all diadetic groups. Level of blood glucose was decreased in diadetic rats by supplementation YK-209 mulberry leaves. The disaccharidase activities in proximal part of intestine such as maltase, sucrase, and lactase in YK-209 mulberry leaves supplementation groups were significantly lower than those of DM group, In conclusion, this research indicated that the functional ingredients of YK 209 mulberry leaves were higher than those of the Cheongil leaveses, and YK-209 mulberry leaves has the hypoglycemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

Hypoglycemic Effects of Pills Made of Mulberry Leaves and Silkworm Powder in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats (뽕잎과 누에가루 혼합환의 Streptozotocin유발 당뇨쥐에서의 혈당강하 효과)

  • Jang, Mi-Jin;Rhee, Soon-Jae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.10
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    • pp.1611-1617
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to examine the effects of pills made of mulberry leaves and silkworm powder on lowering blood glucose level. Experimental animals were Sprague-Dawley male rat weighing 100$\pm$10 g and pills were supplemented with 0.4% (4 g/kg) diet. Experimental groups were assigned to diabetic group (DM group) and pill supplemented groups. Pill supplemented groups were classified 100% mulberry leaves (M group), mixing 25% silkworm powder to mulberry leaves (25SM group), mixing 50% silkworm powder to mulberry leaves (50SM group), mixing 70% silkworm powder to mulberry leaves (75SM group) and 100% silkworm powder (100S group). Experimental diets and water fed ad libitum, and streptozotocin was injected to induce diabetic state after 3rd weeks and sacrificed on the 9th day. The contents of 1-deoxynojirimycin(DNJ) were increased with adding the silkworm powder. The contents of GABA and rutin were increased with adding the mulberry leaves. In vitro, intestinal mucosa $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activities were significantly increased in pills which mixed with silkworm powder by 50%. Blood glucose levels were high in groups which mixed with silkworm powder by 50% compared to DM group. Intestinal mucosa maltase activity in proximal part was significantly reduced in pill supplemented group compared to DM group and pill supplemented groups were no significant difference. Enzyme activity in middle part was no significant difference in experimental groups. Enzyme activity in distal part was decreased in pill supplemented groups, especially in 50SM, 75SM and 100S groups were significantly reduced compared to DM group. Sucrase and lactase activities in pill supplemented groups were significantly reduced at proximal part, and there was no significant difference in middle and distal parts. In conclusion, pills made of mulberry leaves and silkworm powder increased the $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro and reduced the blood glucose levels by controlling the disaccharidase activities of intestinal proximal part in STZ-induced diabetic rat. The synergistic effect was the highest when mulberry leaves was mixed with silkworm powder by the ratio of 50 : 50.

Effects of Rice Bran and Wheat Bran on Intestinal Physiology and Small-bowel Morphology in Rats

  • Park, Young-Sun;Jang, Jae-Hee;Bae, Bok-Sun;Seo, Jung-Sook
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.3-10
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    • 2000
  • The present study was aimed at investigating the nutritional and physiological significance of rice bran as a source of dietary fiber as compared to pectin and wheat bran. The parameters for comparison included hypertrophy and morphology of intestines, stool weights and villus marker enzyme activity. For 6 weeks, 10 Sprague Dawley male rats were given one of six experimental diets: 1% cellulose control (CC), 5% pectin (P5), 5% rice bran(RB5), 10% rice bran(RB10), 5% wheat bran (WB5) or 10% wheat bran (WB10) based on the level of dietary fiber. Among experimental groups, food efficiency ratio and body weight gain was comparable. RB10 increased cecal and colonic tissue weights and content weights of cecum and colon as much as P5 did. Stool weight was positiviely correlated with colonic tissue weight (r=0.727, P<0.001), with colonic content weight(r=0.647, P<0.001). Small intestine length increased most in the P5 group, followed by the RB10 group. The scanning electron micrograph of jejunal villi from rice bran groups showed a leaf-shaped, smooth and regular pattern, whereas that of CC group produced a rather long shape. The wheat bran groups showed an irregular leafshaped pattern, and the pectin group typically produced leaf-shaped villi with surface damage. The activities of villus marker enzymes (maltase and sucrase) were higher in the bran-fed rats than in the control or pectin-fed rats. The results indicate than not only dietary fiber amounts but also fiber sources are closely related to the physiology and morphology of the large and small intestines in rats. Rice bran exerted effects on fecal output and trophic effects on the intestines similar to those of pectin.

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Dietary Effects of Fiber Produced from G\ulcorneruconocacetobacter hansenii on Digestive Tract and Lipid Metabolism in Rats (Gluconoacetobacter hansenii에 의해 생산된 섬유소 섭취가 흰쥐의 소화기관과 지질대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 조성희;이지연;최경호;최영선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.802-807
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to see effects of dietary bacterial fiber produced by Gluconoucetobacter hansenii on gross structure, and disaccharidase activities of small intestine and body lipid status in rats. Bacterial fiber was prepared by drying and alkali treatment of floating membrane produced IS days after the bacterial culture using coconut juice media. Male Sprague-Dawely rats of 320+10 g were grouped into three and fed 0.5% (w/w) cholesterol diets with three different dietary fibers, i .e. cellulose, and pectin and bacterial fiber, at the level of 2% (w/w). During four-week experimental period, food intakes and body weight gains were not different among three groups. Total lengths and jejunal fragment weights of small intestine did not differ among the three groups but cecal weight was higher in bacterial fiber groups than those of the other two groups. Colon content and fecal dry weight were lower in bacterial fiber group. Sucrase activity of the jejunal mucosa was lower in bacterial fiber group but maltase activity was not different from those of the other two groups. Plasma total cholesterol level was lower and that of HDL-cholesterol higher in pectin group than those of cellulose and bacterial fiber groups, the latter of which did not differ. Both in plasma and liver triglyceride levels were lower in bacterial fiber group than cellulose and pectin groups, and liver cholesterol level was lower in pectin group. Relative liver weights and Plasma activities of GOT md GPT were not different among three groups. It is concluded that bacterial fiber used in the present study had hypotriglyceridemic effect that help improve lipid status in the body.