• Title, Summary, Keyword: dilution plating

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Evaluation of Metal Oxide Semiconductor and Electrochemical Gas Sensor Array Characterization for Measuring Wastewater Odor (폐수의 악취측정을 위한 금속산화물 반도체 및 전기화학식 가스센서 어레이 특성 평가)

  • Yim, Bongbeen;Lee, Seok-Jun;Kim, Sun-Tae
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to evaluate the characterization of a metal oxide semiconductor and electrochemical gas sensor array for measuring wastewater odor. The sensitivity of all gas sensors observed in sampling method by stripping was 6.7 to 20.6 times higher than that by no stripping, except sensor D (electrochemical gas sensor). The average reduction ratio of sensor signal as a function of initial dilution rate of wastewater was in the order of food plant > food waste reutilization facility > plating plant. The sensitivity of gas sensors was dependent on both the type of wastewater and the dilution rate. The sensor signals observed by the gas sensor array were correlated with the dilution factor (OU) calculated by the air dilution sensory test with several wastewater ($r^2=0.920{\sim}0.997$), except the sensor signals of sensor D measured in the plating plant wastewater. It seems likely that the gas sensor array plays a role in the evaluation of odor in wastewater and is useful tool for on-site odor monitoring in the wastewater facilities.

Detection of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines and Survey on Seed Contamination in Soybean Seeds Using PCR Assay (PCR Assay 이용 콩 종자에서 Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines 검출 및 종자오염 조사)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Hong, Yeon-Kyu;Lee, Bong-Choon;Lim, Mi-Jung;Yoon, Young-Nam;Hwang, Jae-Bok;Song, Seok-Bo;Park, Sung-Tae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2007
  • Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines is the causal agent of bacterial pustule of soybean(Glycine max. (L.) Merr), which is one of the most prevalent bacterial diseases in Korea. In this study, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay was applied to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines and to survey on seed contamination in 36 soybean cultivars of Korea. And we have to compare PCR assay with dilution-plating assay of detection and identification. We confirmed detection of pathogen from artificial infected seeds and natural Infected seeds using PCR assay. This assay gave results similar to a seed-wash dilution plating assay and proved more effective than classical methods. Results of survey on seed contamination by X. axonopodis pv. glycines from 36 cultivar seeds showed that the pathogen was detected from Pungsan-namulkong, Mallikong, Taekwangkong, Daemangkong, Ajukkarikong using PCR assay. Therefore, The PCR assay provides a sensitive, rapid tool for the specific detection of X. axonopodis pv. glycines in soybean seeds.

Development of Soil Dilution Planting Method for Ecological Studies of Pythium Populations (Pythium Population 의 생태적 특성 고찰을 위한 Soil Dilution Planting Method의 개발)

  • Lee, Youn-Su
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 1994
  • The number of colonies often decreased more than would be expected in a dilution from 1:50 to 1:100; however, a lack of agreement between the dilution series and the number of colonies obtained also occurred at higher dilutions. In the experiments with each soil subsample, there was sometimes poor agreement between the number of colonies obtained at the same dilution from the A and B subsamples. However, repeated 1:50 dilutions of soil suspensions of subsamples A and B yielded similar numbers of colonies. In the second experiment series conducted with a second composite soil sample, the number of colonies obtained from each soil subsample decreased following air drying. The results suggest that it was difficult to obtain a uniform distribution of Pythium propagules in the two sugarcane field soils tested. The high number of propagules detected at the 1:50 dilution could have been due to hyphal fragments or connected hyphal swellings that separated during the final mixing or during plating.

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Analysis of the Bacterial Community during the Storage of Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) Sap (고로쇠 수액의 저장 중 세균군집 분석)

  • Oh, Jung-Hwan;Seo, Sang-Tae;Oh, Hye-Young;Hong, Jin-Sung;Kang, Ha-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.492-496
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    • 2009
  • The composition of the bacterial populations in Gorosoe(Acer mono Max.) sap was characterized during storage with different heat treatments($63^{\circ}C$ for 30 min and $73^{\circ}C$ for 15 sec). The saps were aseptically collected at 0, 15 and 30 days of storage and analyzed by dilution plating and 16S rDNA PCR-DGGE analysis. There were significant differences in the total number of colony forming units(CFUs) of bacteria between heated and nonheated saps. Bacteria of nonheated sap were present at a level of $3.4{\times}10^7CFU/m{\ell}^{-1}$, whereas living bacteria were not detected in the heated sap. According to the 16S rDNA sequence and DGGE analysis, Pseudomonas sp. was the most abundant bacterial strain in the samlpes, and the bacterial community structures become more simplified with time and were composed of the Chryseobacterium sp. with time. These results allowed us to characterize the dominant bacteria involved in Gorosoe sap and to better understand their dynamics throughout storage.

Effect of Diluent Salt Concentration and pH on the Enumeration of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by Direct Plating on Selective Agar

  • Lee, Jong-Kyung;Jung, Da-Wa;Yoon, Ki-Sun;Yoon, Sun-Kyung;Kwak, No-Seong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.866-870
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    • 2006
  • The maintenance of physiological activity during dilution is very critical for the accurate enumeration of Vibrio spp. in marine samples. We investigated the effect of various diluents on the recovery of Vibrio parahaemolyticus using the direct plate counting and most probable number (MPN) methods. The effects of NaCl (0.85 and 3%) and pH (from 6.6 to 7.4) in diluents based on distilled water or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated with three V. parahaemolyticus strains. PBS-3% NaCl (pH 6.6), as opposed to PBS, was the most effective diluent at maintaining viable cell numbers up to 2 log CFU/g during dilution for direct plate counting using on thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) selective agar, as well as minimizing the difference in cell numbers between TCBS and non-selective nutrient agar. It also increased counts of V parahaemolyticus inoculated into oysters relative to PBS (p<0.01), suggesting that PBS-3% NaCl (PH 6.6) can reduce the problem of underestimating V. parhaemolyticus counts using PBS alone.

Confirmation of Two Undescribed Fungal Species from Dokdo of Korea Based on Current Classification System Using Multi Loci

  • Lee, Hye Won;Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong;Yeon, Hye;Lee, Haengsub;Kim, Changmu;Lee, Hyang Burm
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.392-401
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    • 2015
  • Using dilution plating method, 47 fungal isolates were obtained from a soil sample collected from Dokdo in the East Sea of Korea in 2013. In this study, two fungal isolates, EML-MFS30-1 and EML-DDSF4, were confirmed as undescribed species, Metarhizium guizhouense and Mortierella oligospora in Korea based on current classification system using multi loci including rDNA internal transcribed spacer, large subunit, small subunit, and ${\beta}$-tubulin (BTUB) genes. Herein, detailed morphological descriptions on characters of the undescribed fungal species as well as their molecular phylogenetic status are provided with comparisons to related species.

Optimization of Electrolysis Using Sacrificial Electrode for the Treatment of Electroless Nickel Plating Wastewater (희생전극을 이용한 무전해 니켈 도금 폐수의 전기분해처리 최적화)

  • Kim, Young-Shin;Jeon, Byeong-Han;Cho, Soon-Haing
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.204-209
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    • 2015
  • The effluent limit of nickel from electroplating wastewater has been strengthened from 5 mg/L to 3 mg/L from 2014. However, currently applied treatment process for nickel plating wastewater is unable to meet the effluent limit, most of the treatment concept conducted by treatment plant is dilution with other metal bearing wastewater. This can cause very significant impact to the environment of nickel contamination. With this connection, the feasibility test has been conducted with the use of electrolysis by using sacrificial electrodes. Experiments were conducted in synthetic and electroless nickel plating wastewater. Optimal condition of current density, pH were derived from the synthetic wastewater. It was found that the removal efficiency of nickel exceeded 94% at the operation condition of at pH 9 and the current density of $1{\sim}2mA/cm^2$. At this conditions, the iron sludge was generated very low amount. However, it was unsuccessful to meet the effluent limit by applying these treatment conditions to the real electroplating wastewater. This can be explained due to the matrix effect of other metals and anions contained real electroplating wastewater. From the result of further study, the optimal conditions for the real wastewater treatment were found out to be at pH 9, current density $6{\sim}7mA/cm^2$, for 5 minutes of operating time. At these conditions, 88% removal of nickel was achieved, which results the residual nickel concentration was below 3 mg/L.

Sensitivity of Escherichia coli to Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) Phlorotannins and Terrestrial Tannins

  • Wang, Yuxi;Xu, Z.;Bach, S.J.;McAllister, T.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.238-245
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    • 2009
  • Pure culture experiments were conducted to assess the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of phlorotannins (PT) isolated from Ascophyllum nodosum (brown seaweed) on Escherichia coli O157:H7. In Exp. 1, one non-O157:H7 strain (25922) and three strains of E. coli O157:H7 (3081, EDL933 and E318N) were cultured in M9 medium with PT included at 0 (control), 25, 50 or $100{\mu}g/ml$ (n = 3). Bacterial growth was monitored by $OD_{600}$ at 0, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, and by dilution plating at 0, 4, 6 and 24 h. All strains were inhibited (p<0.001) by PT to varying degrees. At 50 or $100{\mu}g/ml$, PT prevented growth of all four strains. At $25{\mu}g\;PT/ml$, growth of 25922, 3081, E318N and EDL933 was inhibited for 6, 12 and 24 h, respectively, but 25922 and 3081 resumed growth by 12 and 24 h. Direct plating confirmed bactericidal effects of PT on all four strains at $100{\mu}g/ml$, and on EDL933 and E318N at $50{\mu}g/ml$. In Exp. 2, strains 25922 and 3081 were incubated with no tannins or with $50{\mu}g/ml$ of PT, purified condensed tannins (CT) from Quebracho (Schinopsis balansaei), or purified tannic acid from Rhus semialata (Anacardiaceae) as hydrolysable tannins (HT). Strain 3081 was unaffected by HT or CT, but was completely inhibited (p<0.001) by PT at 4, 6 and 24 h. Strain 25922 was unaffected by HT, slightly inhibited by CT, and almost eradicated by PT at 4 and 6 h. Transmission electron microscopy revealed tannin-mediated alterations to bacterial cell walls. Phlorotannins from A. nodosum exhibit growth-inhibiting and bactericidal effects in vitro against the strains of E. coli O157:H7 investigated. Anti-E. coli efficacy of A. nodosum PT is superior to that of terrestrial tannins purified from Quebracho and from Rhus semialata.

A Study on Protection Plan of Eutrophication in Fresh Water Environment by Development of Methods for Algal Growth Potential test (I) -Morphology and Growth Characteristics of Isolated algae- (조류생산잠재력조사 방법개발에 의한 육수환경의 부영양화 방지대책에 관한 연구(I) -순수분리종의 형태 및 증식특성-)

  • 위인선;나철호;이종빈;주현수
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.18-27
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    • 1997
  • The isolation, morphological study and growth characteristics of the algae were investigated from Lake Chuam. The isolated algae were applied the Agal Growth Potential test. The method of isolation and purification of the algae were used to Agar plating(AP), nutrient enrichment(NE), dilution(DI) and micro capillary technique(MC). Total isolated algae were 21 species. They were composed of Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Chlorophyceae. The numbers of algal strain by isolation technique were highest in dilution(21 species), and those of the rests were showed in order of NE > MC > AP. The sizes of isolated Selenastrum and Scenedesmus were $1.8\pm 1.4 \mu m$, $3.3\pm 0.9 \mu m$ in diameter and $6.4\pm 2.3 \mu m$, $13.6\pm 1.9 \mu m$ in length respectively. The morphology of isolated algae and NIES-collection strain was very similar each other, but the size was smaller isolated algae than that of NIES-collection. The optimum culture condition of isolated Selenastrum and Scenedesmus was about 30$\circ$C(25$\circ$C-35$\circ$C) in temperature and the maximum growth was appeared between 7,000 lux and 8,000 lux in the light intensity. The comparison of $\mu$(specific growth rate) on the concentration of nutrients such as nitrate and phosphate, isolated Selenastrum was appeared maximum it at 1.0 mg $NO_3-N/l$ but NIES-collection strain was showed 95% of maximum it at same nitrate concentration. Maximum g of isolated algae and NIES-collection strain in Scenedesmus onto nitrate concentration were very similar with the result of selenastrum. The specific growth rates of isolated algae and NIES-collection strain on the gradient concentration of phosphate were showed 0.72/day and 0.70/day at 0.02 mg $PO_4-P/l$ in Selenastrum but those of Scenedesmus were appeared 0.61/day and 0.57/day at same concentration $PO_4-P$.

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Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Edwardsiella tarda at Flounder Farms in Jeju (제주도 넙치 양어장의 Edwardsiella tarda균의 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Su;Rho, Sum;Heo, Moon-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.173-181
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    • 2001
  • To find the appearance period and distribution of Edwardsiella tarda which causes severe damage to flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) farms in Jeju-do, the rearing seawater (inflow, rearing water, outflow) and internal organs of flounders from 5 flounder farms were examined from June, 1997 to May, 1998. The number of bacteria in seawater was counted by plating the seawater on DSSS (Double Strength Salmonella-Shigella) agar plates or by plating after cultivation of bacteria. Bacteria in internal organs were counted by plating series of dilution of homogenized organ. The results are summarized as follows. E. tarda was detected in inflow seawater of five flounder farms in July, September and November, 1997 and February, March, April of 1998. In the rearing water and outflow water, the bacterium was detected throughout the year and the number of bacteria was much higher in summer than any other seasons. A large number of E. tarda in the internal organs were detected at farm B where a track-shaped tank was used, which has the characteristics of low circulation rate and bad discharge of excrement and residuals. In contast, none of E. tarda was detected at farm A where high circulation rate and good discharge of organic materials were applied. A few number of E. tarda at farm E were detected at the same condition as the farm A. A large number of E. tarda was observed in liver and intestines among the internal organs, and the number was higher from June to September in summer.

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