• Title, Summary, Keyword: digestive tract cancers

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Meta-analysis of Association Studies of CYP1A1 Genetic Polymorphisms with Digestive Tract Cancers Susceptibility in Chinese

  • Liu, Chang;Jiang, Zheng;Deng, Qian-xi;Zhao, Ya-nan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4689-4695
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    • 2014
  • Background: A great number of studies have shown that cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) genetic polymorphisms, CYP1A1 Msp I and CYP1A1 Ile/Val, might be risk factors for digestive tract cancers, including esophageal cancer (EC), gastric cancer (GC), hepatic carcinoma (HC), as well as colorectal cancer (CC), but the results are controversial. In this study, a meta-analysis of this literature aimed to clarify associations of CYP1A1 genetic polymorphisms with digestive tract cancers susceptibility in Chinese populations. Materials and Methods: Eligible case-control studies published until December 2013 were retrieved by systematic literature searches from PubMed, Embase, CBM, CNKI and other Chinese databases by two investigators independently. The associated literature was acquired through deliberate search and selection based on established inclusion criteria. Fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95%CIs). The meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 12.0 softwares with stability evaluated by both stratified and sensitivity analyses. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and publication bias diagnostics confirmed the reliability and stability. Results: Eighteen case-control studies with 1,747 cases and 2,923 controls were selected for CYP1A1 MspI polymorphisms, and twenty case-control studies with 3, 790 cases and 4, 907 controls for the CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphisms. Correlation associations between CYP1A1 Ile/Val polymorphisms and digestive tract cancers susceptibility were observed in four genetic models in the meta-analysis (GG vs AA:OR= 2.03, 95%CI =1.52- 2.72; AG vs AA: OR=1.26, 95%CI =1.07-1.48; [GG+AG vs AA] :OR =1.42, 95%CI=1.20-1.68, [GG vs AA+AG]:OR=1.80, 95%CI =1.40-2.31). There was no association between CYP1A1 Msp I polymorphisms and digestive tract cancers risk. Subgroup analysis for tumor type showed a significant association of CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms with EC in China. However, available data collected by the study failed to reveal remarkable associations of GC or HC with CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms and EC, GC or CC with CYP1A1 MspI genetic polymorphisms. Conclusions: Our results indicated that CYP1A1 Ile/Val genetic polymorphisms, but not CYP1A1 Msp I polymorphisms, are associated with an increased digestive tract cancers risk in Chinese populations. Additional well-designed studies, with larger sample size, focusing on different ethnicities and cancer types are now warranted to validate this finding.

Emerging and Established Global Life-Style Risk Factors for Cancer of the Upper Aero-Digestive Tract

  • Gupta, Bhawna;Johnson, Newell W.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.5983-5991
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    • 2014
  • Introduction: Upper aero-digestive tract cancer is a multidimensional problem, international trends showing complex rises and falls in incidence and mortality across the globe, with variation across different cultural and socio-economic groups. This paper seeks some explanations and identifies some research and policy needs. Methodological Approach: The literature illustrates the multifactorial nature of carcinogenesis. At the cellular level, it is viewed as a multistep process involving multiple mutations and selection for cells with progressively increasing capacity for proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis. Established and emerging risk factors, in addition to changes in incidence and prevalence of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract, were identified. Risk Factors: Exposure to tobacco and alcohol, as well as diets inadequate in fresh fruits and vegetables, remain the major risk factors, with persistent infection by particular so-called "high risk" genotypes of human papillomavirus increasingly recognised as also playing an important role in a subset of cases, particularly for the oropharynx. Chronic trauma to oral mucosa from poor restorations and prostheses, in addition to poor oral hygiene with a consequent heavy microbial load in the mouth, are also emerging as significant risk factors. Conclusions: Understanding and quantifying the impact of individual risk factors for these cancers is vital for health decision-making, planning and prevention. National policies and programmes should be designed and implemented to control exposure to environmental risks, by legislation if necessary, and to raise awareness so that people are provided with the information and support they need to adopt healthy lifestyles.

Patterns of Upper Aero-digestive Tract Cancers in Kamrup Urban District of Assam: A Retrospective Study

  • Sharma, Jagannath Dev;Kalita, Manoj;Barman, Debanjana;Sharma, Arpita;Lahon, Ranjan;Barbhuiya, Jamil Ahmed;Deka, Barsha;Kataki, Amal Chandra
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7267-7270
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    • 2014
  • Background: The incidence of upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers, including C00-C14, C30-C32, C15 and C16, is increasing rapidly in Kamrup Urban District (KUD) of Assam, North East (NE) India. According to the NCRP (2013) report 37.6% of all cancers in both sexes are UADT cancers in the NE region, accounting for 53.3% in males and about 27.5% in females of the total cases. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted for patient information from the period of 2008-2011. Age-standardized or age-adjusted rates (ASR or AAR) (per 100,000 person-years) were calculated using the World Standard Population as proposed by Segi and modified by Doll et al. The registry population area at risk was estimated using the 1991 and 2001 census population by sex, as well as the growth rate during that interval using the difference distribution method. Results: There were 5,638 cases registered during the last four years of the study (2008-2011) accounting for 56.7% (3,198/5,638) of the total in males and 43.3% (2,440/5,638) in females. The male: female ratio was 1.31:1.00. The overall age adjusted rates (AAR) were 179.4 and 153.8 per 100 000 males and females respectively. Cancer of the oesophagus was most common in both sexes, with most appreciable gender variation for tongue and hypopharynx, presumably reflecting differential expsoure to risk factors.

Cyclooxygenase-2 Promoter 765C Increase of Digestive Tract Cancer Risk in the Chinese Population: a Meta-analysis

  • Xu, Yan-Song;Zhao, Bo;Long, Chen-Yan;Li, Hui;Lu, Xing;Liu, Gang;Tang, Xiao-Zhun;Tang, Wei-Zhong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4563-4566
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    • 2014
  • Background: To evaluate relationship between the cyclooxygenase-2 promoter 765G/C polymorphism and digestive cancer risk in China. Materials and Methods: A literature search through February 2014 was performed using PubMed, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, and a meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.2 software for odds ratios and 95%CIs. Results: In total, 9 articles with 3,263 cases and 4,858 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled OR (95%CIs) in the co-dominant model (GC vs GG) was 1.56 [1.19, 2.06], and in the dominant model ((CC+GC) vs GG), the pooled OR was 1.59 [1.21, 2.09] in overall cancers. In the subgroup analysis, stratified by cancer type, significant associations were found that the-765C allele had increased pancreatic cancer and gastric risk. No significant liver cancer and colorectal cancer risk of COX-2 -765G/C polymorphism was found. Conclusions: These findings suggest that COX-2-765*C is related to cancer susceptibility and may increase gastric and pancreatic cancer risk.

MiR-34b/c rs4938723 Polymorphism Significantly Decreases the Risk of Digestive Tract Cancer: Meta-analysis

  • Ji, Tian-Xing;Zhi, Cheng;Guo, Xue-Guang;Zhou, Qiang;Wang, Guo-Qiang;Chen, Bo;Ma, Fei-Fei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.14
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    • pp.6099-6104
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    • 2015
  • Background: Previous studies investigating the association between miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and cancer risk showed inconclusive. Here, we performed meta-analysis to investigate the association between miR- 34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and digestive cancer risk. Materials and Methods: Literature database including PubMed, OVID, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for publications concerning the association between the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism and digestive cancer risk. Results: A total of 6 studies consisting of 3246 cases and 3568 controls were included in this meta-analysis. The combined analysis suggested the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism significantly reduced digestive cancer risk under allelic model, homogeneous co-dominant model and recessive model (C vs T: OR=0.88, 95%CI=0.82-0.95, p-value=0.001; CC vs TT: OR =0.67, 95%CI=0.57-0.80, p-value=0.000; CC vs TT/TC: OR=0.68, 95%CI=0.58-0.80, p-value=0.000). Q-test and I2 test revealed no significant heterogeneity in all genotype comparisons. The Begger's funnel plot and Egger's test did not show significant publication bias. Conclusions: The current evidence supports the conclusion that the miR-34b/c rs4938723 polymorphism decreases an individual's susceptibility to digestive cancers.

Association between Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer Risk in South Korea: an 11-year Nationwide Population-Based Study

  • Lee, Ji Eun;Kim, DongWook;Lee, Jun Hong
    • Dementia and Neurocognitive Disorders
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.137-147
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    • 2018
  • Background and Purpose: Previous studies have suggested a decreased cancer risk among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). There remains a lack of data on the specific types of cancer and risk factors for developing cancer in AD. We evaluated the association between AD and cancer risk, and we examined specific types of cancer. Methods: A population-based longitudinal study was conducted using the National Health Insurance Service-Senior cohort for 2002-2013. A total of 4,408 AD patients were included in the study, as were 19,150 matched controls. Potential associations between the risk of cancer and AD were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: Cancer developed in 12.3% of the AD group patients and in 18.5% of control group subjects. AD was associated with a reduced risk of cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence intervals, 0.64-0.78). The risk of head and neck cancers was significantly reduced (HR, 0.49), as were risks for cancers of the digestive tract, including stomach cancer (HR, 0.42), colorectal cancer (HR, 0.61), liver and biliary tract cancers (HR, 0.68), and pancreatic cancer (HR, 0.55). Lung and prostate cancer risks were also significantly lower for the AD group (HR, 0.52 and HR, 0.72, respectively). Conclusions: Our results showed an inverse association between AD and cancer. Further research involving a large number of patients in a hospital based-study is needed to address the biological associations between cancer development and dementia, including AD.

Population Based Study of the Association Between Binge Drinking and Mortality from Cancer of Oropharynx and Esophagus in Korean Men: the Kangwha Cohort Study

  • Jung, Sang Hyuk;Gombojav, Bayasgalan;Park, Eun-Cheol;Nam, Chung Mo;Ohrr, Heechoul;Won, Jong Uk
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3675-3679
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    • 2014
  • We assessed the association between frequency of heavy binge drinking and mortality from oropharynx and esophagus cancer after controlling for the total volume of alcohol intake among Korean men. The cohort comprised 2,677 male residents in Kangwha County, aged 55 or older in March 1985, for their upper digestive tract cancer mortality for 20.8 years up to December 31, 2005. For daily binge drinkers versus non-drinkers, the hazard ratios (95% Cls) for mortality were 4.82 (1.36, 17.1) and 6.75 (1.45, 31.4) for oropharyngeal and esophageal cancers, respectively. Even after adjusting for the volume of alcohol intake, we found the hazard ratios for frequency of binge drinking and mortality of oropharyngeal or esophageal cancer to not change appreciably: the hazard ratios were 4.90 (1.00, 27.0) and 7.17 (1.02, 50.6), respectively. For esophageal cancer, there was a strong dose-response relationship. The frequency of heavy binge drinking and not just the volume of alcohol intake may increase the risk of mortality from upper digestive tract cancer, particularly esophageal cancer in Korean men. These findings need to be confirmed in further studies with a larger sample size.

Medical review of Insurance claims for GIST and MALToma (기스트와 말토마의 보험의학적 악성도 판단)

  • Lee, Sin-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Life Insurance Medical Association
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2008
  • Medical verification of cancer diagnosis in insurance claims is a very important procedure in insurance administrations. Claims staffs are in need of medical experts' opinions about claim administration. This procedure is called medical claim review (MCR) and is composed of verification and advice. MCR verification evaluates the insured’s physical condition by medical records and compares it with product coverage. It is divided into assessment of living assurance benefit, verification of cancer, and assessment of the cause of death. Actually cancer verification of MCR is applicable to coding because the risk ratio in product development is usually coded data. There are some confusing neoplastic diseases in assessing the verification of cancer. This article reviews gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue tumors (MALToma) of the stomach. The second most common group of stromal or mesenchymal neoplasms affecting the gastrointestinal tract is GIST. Nowadays there are many articles about the pathophysiology of GIST. However there are few confirmative theories except molecular cell biology of KIT mutation and some tyrosine kinase. Therefore, coding the GIST, which has previously been classified as an intermediate risk group according to NIH2001 criteria, for cancer verification of MCR is suitable for D37.1; neoplasm of uncertain or unknown behavior of digestive organs and the stomach. The gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. B-cell lymphomas of the MALT type, now called extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT type in the REAL/WHO classification, are the most common primary gastric lymphomas worldwide. Its characteristics are as follows. First, it is different from traditional stomach cancers such as gastric adenocarcinoma. Second, the primary therapy of MALToma is the eradication of H. pylori by antibiotics and the remission rate is over 80%. Third, it has a different clinical course compared to traditional malignant lymphoma. Someone insisted that cancer verification is not possible for the above reasons. However, there have been findings on pathologic mechanism, and according to WHO classification, MALToma is classified into malignant B-cell lymphoma and it must be verified as malignancy in MCR.

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Sutureless Gastroduodenostomy (무봉합 위십이지장 문합술)

  • Lee, Jong-In;Kim, Jin-Young;Jeong, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2002
  • A gastroduodenostomy is the most physiological reconstruction after a distal gastrectomy. However, a gastroduodenostomy with either sutures or staples has many complications. These include bleeding, leakage and stenosis. A sutureless gastroduodenostomy with a biofragmentable anastomosis ring (BAR) in was used adenocarcinoma patients to prevent these complications from 1999. A BAR is composed of polyglycolic acid and Barium sulfate to allow for X-ray visualization. Hardy in first introduced the BAR in 1985. Since then, it has been used in an anastomosis of the colon or small bowel surgery but its use in a gastroduodenostomy is the first trial in the world. A 70 year male patient, old who received a subtotal gastrectomy (Billroth I), underwent a A sutureless gastroduodenostomy with a BAR. The gastroduodenostomy with the BAR was watertight and maintained the initial burst strength in the gastrografin X-ray study performed at the postoperative 1 week. The BAR began to fragment 3 weeks after the operation and disappeared from the digestive tract completely. The diameter of the anastomosis site was sufficient for passed foods. No other secondary changes from remained foreign bodies were found in the endoscopic examination. In a second operation to treat a primary hepatoma, there was no adhesive changes around the gastroduodenostomy site. In conclusion, a sutureless gastroduodenostomy with BAR is a safe, easy and efficient reconstructive method after a distal gastrectomy.

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Evaluation of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Colorectal Cancer in Asian Populations

  • Rai, Vandana
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.18
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    • pp.8093-8100
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    • 2016
  • Background: Genetic and environmental factors play important roles in pathogenesis of digestive tract cancers like those in the esophagus, stomach and colorectum. Folate deficiency and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) as an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism are considered crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFR variants may cause genomic hypomethylation, which may lead to the development of cancer, and MTHFR gene polymorphisms (especially C677T and A1298C) are known to influence predispositions for cancer development. Several case control association studies of MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) have been reported in different populations with contrasting results, possibly reflecting inadequate statistical power. Aim: The present meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the association between the C677T polymorphism and the risk of colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A literature search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, Springer link and Elsevier databases was carried out for potential relevant articles. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated to assess the association of MTHFR C677T with the susceptibility to CRC. Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) were used to check study heterogeneity. Egger's test and funnel plots were applied to assess publication bias. All statistical analyses were conducted by with MetaAnalyst and MIX version 1.7. Results: Thirty four case-control studies involving a total of 9,143 cases and 11,357 controls were retrieved according to the inclusion criteria. Overall, no significant association was found between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and colorectal cancer in Asian populations (for T vs. C: OR=1.03; 95% CI= 0.92-1.5; p= 0.64; for TT vs CC: OR=0.88; 95%CI= 0.74-1.04; p= 0.04; for CT vs. CC: OR = 1.02; 95%CI= 0.93-1.12; p=0.59; for TT+ CT vs. CC: OR=1.07; 95%CI= 0.94-1.22; p=0.87). Conclusions: Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that the C677T polymorphism is not associated with CRC risk in Asian populations. Further investigations are needed to offer better insight into any role of this polymorphism in colorectal carcinogenesis.