• Title, Summary, Keyword: dietary pattern

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Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

  • Lee, Yeo Do;Kim, Kyung Won;Choi, Kyung-Suk;Kim, Misung;Cho, Yeo Jin;Sohn, Cheongmin
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS: The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field.

Dietary Patterns and Acculturation of Korean American Adults and Adolescents Living in California

  • Park, Song-Yi;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to define dietary patterns among 227 Korean American adults and 151 teenagers living in California using frequency of intake of major food groups and to examine associations of dietary patterns with selected demographic and acculturation variables. Three dietary patterns, 'healthful', 'Korean', and 'western', were identified using factor analysis. For both groups, 'healthful' pattern was characterized by high loading on milk/milk products, fruit, fruit juice, and bean/bean products. 'Korean' pattern had high loading on rice and kimchi. 'Western' pattern was characterized by high loading on meat/meat products, soda, and noodle/pasta. Among Korean American adults, women tended to have higher scores of 'healthful' pattern but lower scores of 'western' pattern, while there was no association of 'Korean' pattern with gender. The older adults were likely to have higher 'Korean' pattern score. Length of stay in the US and English levels were negatively associated with 'Korean' pattern. Korean American female adolescents had lower 'western' pattern scores than did male adolescents. Age was inversely associated with 'healthful' pattern in adolescents. The adolescents who had felt more proud of being a Korean descendant had higher scores on 'Korean' dietary pattern. The study findings support that dietary patterns are associated with acculturation variables such as length of residence in the US, English fluency, and particularly pride in ethnicity for adolescents. Further studies are needed to understand associations of dietary patterns and acculturation with health risk of ethnic groups.

The association between dietary pattern and depression in middle-aged Korean adults

  • Park, Seon-Joo;Kim, Myung-Sunny;Lee, Hae-Jeung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.316-322
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The association between dietary patterns and depression has been reported but the results have been inconsistent. This study was conducted to investigate the association between dietary patterns and depression in middle-aged Korean adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The participants were selected from a community-based cohort, a subset of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Depression was assessed using the Korean version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and those with a BDI score ${\geq}16$ were defined as having depression. The subjects' food intakes over the year preceding the survey were estimated by using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were identified by using factor analysis. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of dietary pattern with depression. RESULTS: Among 3,388 participants, 448 (13.2%) were identified as having depression. We identified two major dietary patterns: 'Healthy' dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of vegetables, soybeans, mushroom, seaweeds, white fish, shellfish and fruits and a low intake of white rice. 'Unhealthy' dietary pattern was characterized by high intakes of white rice, meats, ramen, noodles, bread and coffee and a low intake of rice with other grains. Compared with subjects in the lowest quartiles, those in the highest quartiles of the healthy dietary pattern had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.42-0.82, P for trend = 0.0037) after adjusting for potential confounders. In contrast, the unhealthy dietary pattern was negatively associated with depression (OR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.19-2.28, P for trend = 0.0021). CONCLUSION: This results suggest that a healthy dietary pattern (rich in vegetables, soybeans, mushroom, seaweeds, white fish, shellfish, and fruits) is associated with low risk of depression. Whereas an unhealthy dietary pattern (rich in white rice, meats, ramen, noodles, bread, and coffee) is associated with a high risk of depression in middle-aged Korean adults.

The Quality of a Traditional Dietary Pattern in Relation to Metabolic Syndrome in Elderly South Koreans

  • Oh, Chorong;No, Jaekyung
    • Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.254-261
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    • 2018
  • Background: The most beneficial dietary pattern in managing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the elderly has not been ascertained. The aim of this study is to classify dietary patterns and to examine associations between dietary pattern, MetS and body composition in elderly Koreans. Methods: This study was conducted among Koreans 65 years or older using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. A total of 1,567 study subjects were included. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS version 20.0 and dietary patterns were classified by cluster analysis. Results: There were three dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis in this study. We observed that most South Korean elderly still maintain a traditional dietary pattern. Dietary patterns were classified as balanced (31%), imbalanced (40%), or very imbalanced (30%), with the majority of subjects having an unbalanced diet pattern in which their total energy and nutrient intake was insufficient compared with the Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans. Those in the very imbalanced group had a ratio of macronutrients (carbohydrates:fats:protein) of 81.15:7.18:11.50 and a 54% higher likelihood of having hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.025) compared with those in the balanced group. Conclusion: The current findings indicate that the diets of South Korean elderly are nutritionally imbalanced, including high carbohydrate consumption, which confers a high risk hypertriglyceridemia. These findings highlight the effect of nutritional imbalance in elderly with MetS.

Dietary patterns are associated with physical growth among school girls aged 9-11 years

  • Noh, Hwa-Young;Song, Yoon-Ju;Lee, Jung-Eun;Joung, Hyo-Jee;Park, Min-Kyung;Li, Shan Ji;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to identify dietary patterns among Korean elementary school girls based on the change in body mass index (BMI), body fat, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content (BMC) during 22 months and to explore the characteristics of dietary patterns identified. Girls aged 9-11 years were recruited and 3-day dietary data were collected four times. Subjects with a diet record of 8 or more days and anthropometric data measured at baseline and 22 months later were included (n = 198). Reduced rank regression was utilized to derive dietary patterns using a change in BMI, body fat, and calcaneus BMD and BMC as response variables. Two dietary patterns were identified: the "Egg and Rice" dietary pattern and "Fruit, Nuts, Milk Beverage, Egg, Grain" (FNMBEG) dietary pattern. Subjects who had high score on the FNMBEG pattern consumed various food groups, including fruits, nuts and seeds, and dairy products, whereas subjects in the "Egg and Rice' dietary pattern group did not. Both dietary patterns showed a positive association with change in BMI and body fat. However, subjects who had a higher score on the "Egg and Rice" dietary pattern had less of a BMC increase, whereas subjects who had a higher score on the FMBEG dietary pattern had more increased BMC over 22 months after adjusting for age, body and bone mass, and Tanner stage at baseline. Our results provide evidence that a well-balanced diet contributes to lean body mass growth among young girls.

Assessment on Dietary Diversity According to Korean Dietary Pattern Score of Korean Adolescents and Children: Using 2007~2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) Data (아동·청소년의 한식 패턴 점수에 따른 식생활 평가: 국민건강영양조사 2007~2013년 데이터를 이용하여)

  • Kwon, Yong-Suk;Kim, Yangsuk
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.660-675
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to assess the nutrient intake and dietary diversity of Korean children and adolescents using the Korean dietary pattern index developed in previous studies. For this study, 6,462 children and adolescents aged 7~18y who participated in the dietary intake survey (24h recall method) of the 2007~2013 KNHANES were sampled. The food items included in the Korean dietary index were jusik-ryu, guk/tang-ryu, gui/jjim-ryu, namul-ryu, yeomjangchaeso-ryu, jang-ryu and mitbanchan-ryu. All the subjects and both age groups (7~12y, 13~18y) were divided into quartiles. According to the results of this study, the range of the Korean dietary pattern score was 0~58 for all of the subjects and also in the 13~18 age group, and was 0~52 in the 7~12y age group. When the pattern score for each food group was compared across the quartiles of the Korean dietary pattern score, in all the subjects as well as in the 7~12y and 13~18y age groups, the pattern score for jusik-ryu and yeomjangchaeso-ryu was highest in Q1~Q4. or all the food groups, the mean pattern score was highest in Q4. These results suggested that the Korean dietary pattern score is highly associated with jusik-ryu including rice and yeomjangchaeso-ryu including kimchi. Accordingly, it is considered necessary to develop an index that reflects the characteristics of Korean cuisine and, at the same time, assesses the nutritional status and food consumption tendency of Korean children and adolescents.

Dietary patterns associated with hypertension among Korean males

  • Kim, Young-Ok
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.162-166
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    • 2009
  • The objectives of this study were to identify the dietary patterns associated with hypertension among Korean males. Data from the 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey of 1,869 men aged 20-65 years were used for the analysis. As an initial analysis, a factor analysis was applied to identify major dietary patterns among the subjects. Then logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the pattern related with hypertension. As a result of the initial analysis, three major dietary patterns were identified. Dietary pattern 1 (traditional) was heavily loaded with vegetables, fish and cereal. Dietary pattern 2 (Western) was loaded with fast foods, bread, meats and dairy products. Dietary pattern 3 (Drinker) was loaded with mostly pork, beer and soju (Korean liquor). From the second stage of the analysis, there was a tendency of positive association between traditional patterns and hypertension risks. However, the tendency did not meet statistical significance level (p<0.05). In summary, unlikely findings from European and American studies, vegetables rich traditional dietary patterns did not show any protective effect on hypertension in Korean males. The Korean dietary practice, which is consuming salted vegetables instead of fresh vegetables, might have played a role in these findings. However, the full explanation of the findings remained to be answered with further investigation since none of the dietary patterns identified showed any statistical significance.

Comparison of Dietary Patterns by Sex and Urbanization in Different Economic Status (한국인의 경제수준에 따른 성별.지역별 식사패턴 비교 -1998, 2001 국민건강영양조사 자료 분석-)

  • Choi, Ji-Hyun;Moon, Hyun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.346-358
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study is to find differences in dietary patterns through menu analysis by economic status. The data was obtained from the 1998 and 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey of Korea. The main variables were economic status, sex, and area by urbanization. The economic status was classified into low, middle, high, and top classes using a poverty line based on the 1998 and 2001 minimum standard cost of living. The areas were divided into metropolis, small city, and rural areas. The dishes of 3 meals were classified into 29 categories by cooking method. The most frequent pattern was "rice + soup + kimchi". The frequency of this Korean basic dietary pattern was the lowest in the top income class and metropolis areas, while the highest in the low income class and rural areas. The frequency of Korean recommended dietary pattern, that is, "rice + soup or stew + kimchi + side dish" was the highest in the top income class. The metropolis group preferred side dishes using meat and a cooking method that saved time, but the rural group preferred side dishes using vegetables and cooking methods that take a longer time. In comparison of dietary pattern between male and female by economic status, the higher economic status, the male's dietary patterns showed more side dishes than those of female. But the main side dish was kimchi in male low class. Consequently, the major dietary pattern in Korea is rice-style, though the western pattern is increasing in the top income class, especially in metropolis areas. Therefore, to make a better dietary pattern, we should develop and spread low-priced recipes of various side dishes and teach financial skills such as ability to make a food budget for lower income classes. Also, we should emphasize the importance of the balance between meat and vegetables and traditional diet and western diet for the top income class, especially in the metropolis areas.

Effects of Daily Stress on Dietary Pattern among Elementary School Children in Seongnam City (성남지역 초등학생들의 일상생활 스트레스 정도가 식품섭취패턴에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sunra;Kye, Seunghee
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.475-484
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between several stress measures in everyday life, emotional eating behavior, and dietary pattern (snacks, fatty foods, sweet beverages, fruits and vegetables) in school-aged children. Methods: One hundred and ninety-four students of an elementary school located in Seongnam City participated in the study. The students responded to the survey questionnaire by self-report, which consisted of items regarding general characteristics, height, weight, dietary habits, frequency of consuming healthy (fruits and vegetables) and unhealthy foods (snacks, fatty foods, and sweet beverages), emotional eating behavior, and daily stress. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between stress, emotional eating behavior, and dietary pattern, and Poisson and logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of stress on dietary pattern. Results: Positive correlations were found between all stress factors and emotional eating behavior and between the friend and personal factor (one of the stress factors) and the consumption of sweet beverages. The frequency of consuming sweet beverages was 2.6 times higher in the high stress group than in the low stress group (95% CI). Conclusions: Children's daily stress was associated with emotional eating behavior and undesirable dietary pattern such as consumption of sweet beverages.

Secular Trend in Dietary Patterns in a Korean Adult Population, Using the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (우리나라 성인의 식사패턴 변화 추세 - 1998, 2001, 2005년도 국민건강영양조사자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Kang, Min-Ji;Joung, Hyo-Jee;Lim, Jeong-Hyun;Lee, Yeon-Sook;Song, Yoon-Ju
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.152-161
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    • 2011
  • Koreans have undergone many changes in dietary patterns with economic growth. The purpose of this research was to examine changes in dietary patterns using data from the 1998, 2001, and 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study included 21,525 subjects (8,295 from 1998, 6,880 from 2001, and 6,350 from 2005) who were 20 years or older and who participated in a 24-h diet recall. The percentage energy intake from 22 food groups was calculated, and a cluster analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns. Two dietary patterns emerged; the first pattern was characterized by high intake of white rice, legumes, vegetables, kimchi, and seaweeds, the so-called "traditional" pattern (53%), whereas the other pattern was characterized by high intake of other grains, noodle dumplings, floured bread, pizza, hamburgers, cereals and snacks, potatoes, sugared sweets, nuts, fruits, meat·its products, eggs, fish, milk and dairy products, oils, beverages and seasoning, or the so-called "modified" pattern. The modified pattern comprised a higher proportion of younger aged, metropolitan residents with more education and higher incomes. However, the gender distribution was not significantly different. The modified pattern had a significantly higher intake of all nutrients except carbohydrates and had a higher proportion of energy from fat and protein. No association with a risk for metabolic syndrome was found for either dietary pattern. After age was standardized, the traditional pattern included 52% of the respondents in 1998, 54% in 2001, and 50% in 2005. However, the modified pattern was significantly more prevalent in the younger age group (20-29 yr), whereas the traditional pattern increased significantly in the older age group (${\geq}$ 65 yr). In conclusion, a secular trend was found for dietary pattern by age group, suggesting that it is necessary to monitor the changes in dietary pattern by age group and to develop appropriate dietary education and guidelines.