• Title, Summary, Keyword: dietary fat

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Effects of Dietary Fat Levels on Lipid Parameters and Eicosanoids Production of Rats under Fixed N-6/N-3 and P/S Fatty Acid Ratios

  • Lee, Joon-Ho;Ikuo Ikeda;Michihiro Sugano
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.184-189
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    • 2002
  • The effects of dietary Int levels on lipid metabolism under fixed P/S (1.3) and n-6/n-3 (5.1) fatty acid ratios were examined in rats using palm oil, soybean oil and perilla oil. These ratios correspond to the recommended composition of dietary fat for humans. The range of dietary fat levels was 5-20% by weight (11.8-39.3% of total energy). The levels of dietary fat did not influence the concentrations of serum and liver cholesterol, whereas the level of triglycerides was gradually elevated with increasing levels of dietary fat, especially in the liver. The fatty acid composition of tissue phosphatidylcholine seemed to vary with the different levels of fat. The ratio of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid was increased more significantly in the heart than in the liver. In adipose tissue total lipids, the percentages of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids decreased, whereas the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid increased, with increasing dietary Int levels. In addition, though the level of aortic prostacyclin was not uniformly affected by increasing dietary fat levels, thromboxane A2 production by platelets tended to increase with higher levels of dietary fat, suggesting an increased risk of thrombosis in this situation. Thus, even though dietary fat may have desirable compositions of fatty acids, these excessive consumption can produce unfavorable metabolic responses.

Effects of Dietary Fat Level and P/S Ratio on HDL-cholesterol, Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride in Plasma and Selected Tissues of Rats (식이의 총지방량과 P/S Ratio가 Plasma HDL-Cholesterol과 혈장 및 조직내의 지질함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyun-Suh
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 1983
  • The present studies were designed to compare the effects of both dietary fat levels and P / S ratio on lipid components in plasma and tissues. Changes in plasma HDL-cholesterol, cholesterol and TG, and also in tissue cholesterol and TG were determined in young rats fed diets providing total dietary fat as 10%, 25% or 45% of calories and P / S ratio as 0.2 or 4.0. Plasma cholesterol levels were getting higher as dietary fat levels increased at P / S 0.2. Plasma cholesterol was lower in rats fed dietary fat either 25% or 45 %, each with P / S 4.0. But at 10% no change in plasma cholesterol were observed by P / S 4.0 because of a possible insufficiency of the absolute amount of PUFA. HDL-cholesterol was rather less sensitive to the modification of dietary fat level, but was reduced in rats fed diets of P / S 4.0 at either 25% or 45% fat, even though HDL-cholesterol were increased in the group of 10% with P / S 0.2. Total cholesterol per g- liver were significantly increased as dietary fat levels increased. Liver cholesterol levels were higher in rats fed diets of P / S 4.0 at higher fat levels (25% or 45%) which possibly suggested that a reduction of plasma cholesterol by high PUFA diet was not at least from a decreased synthesis of cholesterol in liver. However, in muscle no significant differences were found by feeding high P / S ratio at each levels of fat. At 10% fat level, compared to 25% or 45%, cholesterol level was lower in g-liver but higher in g- muscle. Plasma TG was decreased as more dietary fat were supplied at P / S ratio, but no consistant response obtained at low P / S ratio. TG per g-liver were reduced by feeding P / S 4.0 diet at 10% or 45% fat level but no differences were found in muscle. P / S 4.0 diet was more efficient in lowering plasma cholesterol TG and HDL-cholesterolt levels only if fat level was more than 25% of the total calories And young rats were more resistant to dietary fat modification.

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Dietary Fiber and Fat Intakes Related to Age in Adults Living in Taejon City (대전지역 성인의 연령별 식이섬유소와 지방 섭취 실태)

  • Hyun, Wha-Jin;Lee, Joung-Won;Kwak, Chung-Sil
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.477-486
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    • 1999
  • This study was performed to investigate the variation in dietary fiber and fat intakes, and the contribution of food groups to dietary fiber and fat consumption in relation to age and to examine the relationship between dietary fiber and fat intakes in 337 urban adults aged 20-49 year. Dietary intakes were evaluated with one-day 24-hour recall and two-day dietary record method. Significantly higher intakes of fat in males and saturated fatty acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and cholesterol in females were associated with younger age. The ratio of fat to the total energy intake slightly exceeded 20% at 20s and 30s in both males and females. The main source of dietary fiber was vegetables in all age groups of males and 30s of females, but grains in 20s and 40s of females. The main source of fat was meats in all age groups of males and 40s of females, but grains in 20s and 30s in females. The main source of cholesterol was eggs in both males and females. Dietary fiber intake was positively correlated with all fat-related parameters except cholesterol in 20s and 40s and was positively related with fat in 30s of males. For females dietary fiber intake was positively correlated with polyunsaturated fatty acid in 20s and with monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid in 40s. These findings show that there is considerable variation in intake of dietary fiber and fat in relation to age among adults and suggest that these factors should be considered at interventions aimed toward improvement of nutritional status.

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Metabolic Syndrome Risk by Dietary Fat Energy Ratio in Middle-aged Men - Using the 2012~2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data - (중년 남성의 지방 에너지비에 따른 대사증후군 위험도 비교 - 2012~2013년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용 -)

  • Her, Eun-Sil
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1030-1039
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to compare energy nutrient intake, health related factors, physical characteristics, blood biochemical indices, prevalence of metabolic syndrome and odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome based on dietary fat energy ratio. Subjects were 1,205 men aged 40~64 years. The average fat intake was 52.8 g. Subjects were divided into three groups (deficient, normal, excess) based on dietary fat energy ratio. The dietary fat energy rations of the three groups were 36.9%, 42.9% and 20.2%, respectively. Energy and protein intake were increased significantly with dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.001), whereas carbohydrate intake decreased (p<0.001). In health related factors, amount of smoking alone showed increase based on dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.001). In comparing physical characteristics, blood pressure and blood biochemical indices, excepting diastolic blood pressure, increased significantly based on dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.01~p<0.001). The rate that exceeded criteria in risk factors for metabolic syndrome was higher in the serum triglyceride (41.2%) and was lower in the waist circumference (22.2%). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 37.9%, and showed significant correlation to dietary fat energy ratio (p<0.05). The OR of metabolic syndrome was higher in deficient and excess group than in normal group, but it had no relationship between fat energy ratio and metabolic syndrome. The results of this study provide basic data to establish fat intake guidelines for prevention of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men.

Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows

  • Chen, Kuen-Jaw;Jan, Der-Fang;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg;Yang, Der-Wei
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.821-827
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat and heat-extruded soybean meal on the lactation performance of Holstein cows. Twenty-four cows, consisting of 20 lactating cows and 4 rumen-fistulated dry cows, were randomly allocated into four groups with 5 lactating cows and 1 fistulated cow in each group. A replicated 4${\times}$4 Latin square design with four 21 day periods, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 collection days within each period was employed. The experiment was a 2${\times}$2 arrangement, with or without heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat inclusion. The dietary treatments consisted of supplements of (a) soybean meal (the control), (b) heat-extruded soybean meal, (c) protected fat, and (d) heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed intake, milk yield, milk protein content, milk lactose content and body weight change between the dietary treatments. However, cows supplemented with protected fat showed a significantly increased (p<0.05) milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM and total solid yield. The increase in undegradable intake protein (UIP) via heat extruded soybean meal supplement significantly decreased the urea nitrogen concentration in the blood (p<0.05). Dietary fat inclusion significantly increased the blood cholesterol concentration (p<0.01) and decreased the ruminal pH value (p<0.01). Increased dietary UIP significantly decreased the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen (p<0.01), but did not significantly influence the pH and VFA molar percentage in the rumen. It appears that dietary protected fat inclusion could improve milk fat and solid content. Increased dietary undegradable intake protein through heat extruded soybean meal did not improve milk yield. But it could alleviate the adverse effect of decreased milk protein due to dietary fat supplementation. Increased UIP could also decrease the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen and plasma urea nitrogen concentration in the blood.

Quality and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-fat Chicken Patties with Pork Back Fat Replaced by Dietary Fiber from Wheat Sprout

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Sung, Jung-Min;Park, Jong-Dae;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Lee, Cheol-Won;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Young-Boong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 2016
  • The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 20% to 15% or 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with wheat sprout fiber in reduced-fat chicken patties were investigated. Approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, reduction in diameter, reduction in thickness, shear force, and sensory properties were determined. Moisture content, ash contents, yellowness of uncooked and cooked reduced-fat chicken patties with wheat sprout were higher than those in the control, while displaying fat content, calorie content, and pH of uncooked and cooked lower in reduced-fat chicken patties than in the control. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were the highest in the reduced-fat chicken patties with 10% fat level. Cooking loss, reduction in diameter, and reduction in thickness were decreased when fat levels and wheat sprout levels were increased. Control samples without wheat sprout dietary fiber had significantly (p<0.05) higher color and flavor scores compared to reduced-fat chicken patties containing wheat sprout dietary fiber. The overall acceptability of the control and treatment with 15% fat and 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber (T3) was the highest. Therefore, 15% fat level in reduced-fat chicken patties with the addition of 2% wheat sprout dietary fiber can be used to improve the quality and sensory characteristics of regular-fat chicken patties containing 20% fat level.

Dietary Fats and Cancer (식이 지방과 암)

  • Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 1991
  • Evidence from recent studies in several laboratories indicates a relationship between type or level of fat in the diet and occurance of tumor at specific sites. The essential fatty acids in fat and degree of their unsaturation are important to determine the influence of a dietary fats on carcinogenesis. Alteration of dietary fat can also change carcinogenesis of cell in several tissues. Dietary fats appear to be important in both initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis. Several possible mechanisms have been investigated how dietary fat could affect to carcinogenesis at cellular level. One potential mechanism of dietary fat on carcinogenesis is through modulation of protein kinase C activity in the cell.

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Study on Consequent Nutrient Intake Status , Body Mass Index , and Fat Distribution after Silk Amino Peptide and Dietary Fiber Supplementation (식이 섬유소 및 실크 펩타이드 보충이 영양소 섭취상태 , 체적지수 및 복부 비만에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Seong-Hui;Choe, Ae-Jin;Song, Su-Jin;Ryu, Jeong-Min;No, Suk-Ryeong;Hwang, Yeong-Hui
    • Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.175-184
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    • 2002
  • This study is to investigate consequent nutrient intake status, influence of body mass index(BMI), and fat distribution on the silk amino peptide(SAP) and dietary fiber supplementation. During 2 months of this research (January to March, 2002), 45 women aged 20yr – 30yr (average age 24.6yr) were selected as subjects. Nutrient intake was investigated by questionnaire, 24-hr recall method. Antropometric assessments of the subjects were investigated by SBIA method(Segmental bioimpedance assay, In body 3.0). The results are as follows: mean body weight 57.7kg, mean body height 161.9cm mean BMI 22.0, and mean food habit score was 8.47. Defecation frequency was increased by dietary fiber supplementation. Frequency of pain during defecation was significantly decreased by dietary fiber supplementation (p<0.01). Feeling of residual feces was significantly improved by dietary fiber supplementation(p<0.001). Status of energy and carbohydrate intakes significantly decreased after dietary fiber supplementation(P<0.05). Body fat and WHR(waist hip ratio) significantly decreased after dietary fiber supplementation(P<0.001), and percent body fat was decreased by dietary fiber supplementation, significantly(P<0.05). Above results of this study show that dietary fiber-added routine diet improves defecation condition, and lessens body fat, percent body fat without losing body muscle. Especially, declination of abdominal fat and WHR were notable. That meant decreased risk factor.

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Effect of dietary soluble fiber on neurohormonal profiles in serum and brain of rats

  • Shin, Dong-Soon
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.291-297
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary soluble fiber administration and/or high fat diet on serum and brain neurohormonal profiles, adipose tissue mass and body weight gain in Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of rats were respectively fed 10% fat diet (C), 10% fat plus pectin diet (P), 20% fat diet (HFC) and 20% fat plus pectin diet (HFP) for 4 weeks. In HFP group, the food and energy intake, body weight gain, FER including fecal excretion were the smallest (p<0.05). Serum HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose level were also the lowest in HFP group (p<0.05). The weight of brain, epididymal fat pad and adrenal gland except liver didn't show any significant differences among groups. Interestingly serum norepinephrine concentration of HFP group tended to be higher, but dopamine concentration tended to be lower than those of HFC group. However serum catecholamine concentration didn't show any significant differences among all groups. Norepinephrine and epinephrine contents of right portion of midbrain of P and HFP groups were remarkably lower than those of the C group. These results suggested that soluble fiber pectin consumption might affect neurohormonal profiles in serum and brain according to dietary fat level.

Effects of Dietary Zinc and Iron Levels on Serum Trace Minerals and Obesity Index in High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats (고지방 식이를 섭취한 흰쥐의 비만지수 및 식이 아연과 철분 수준에 따른 혈청 미량무기질 함량 변화)

  • 김현숙;승정자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the obesity index and effect of dietary zinc and iron levels on serum trace minerals status in the high fat diet-induced obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control and high fat diet groups. Ten weeks later, the control and high fat diet group were rearranged into six groups by zinc and iron levels. After 16 wk serum zinc, iron, copper and manganese was analyzed. Obesity index was significantly higher in the group fed high fat diet (20% lard) than that of control group (5% corn oil). Body fat content was 12.10$\pm$4.51g/100g BW in high fat diet group and 7.64$\pm$4.18g/100g BW in control group. So, the obese rats were successfully induced by high fat diet. The trace mineral concentration of obese rats in serum were affected by zinc levels. Serum zinc concentration was increased by dietary zinc overload, whereas the iron, copper and manganese were decreased. Specially the manganese concentration was significantly affected by zinc levels. In both groups, serum trace mineral concentration was not changed significantly by the dietary iron levels. There were positive correlations between zinc, iron and manganese concentration according to dietary zinc and iron levels.

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