• Title, Summary, Keyword: dietary factors

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Gene-Diet Interaction on Cancer Risk in Epidemiological Studies

  • Lee, Sang-Ah
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.360-370
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    • 2009
  • Genetic factors clearly play a role in carcinogenesis, but migrant studies provide unequivocal evidence that environmental factors are critical in defining cancer risk. Therefore, one may expect that the lower availability of substrate for biochemical reactions leads to more genetic changes in enzyme function; for example, most studies have indicated the variant MTHFR genotype 677TT is related to biomarkers, such as homocysteine concentrations or global DNA methylation particularly in a low folate diet. The modification of a phenotype related to a genotype, particularly by dietary habits, could support the notion that some of inconsistencies in findings from molecular epidemiologic studies could be due to differences in the populations studied and unaccounted underlying characteristics mediating the relationship between genetic polymorphisms and the actual phenotypes. Given the evidence that diet can modify cancer risk, gene-diet interactions in cancer etiology would be anticipated. However, much of the evidence in this area comes from observational epidemiology, which limits the causal inference. Thus, the investigation of these interactions is essential to gain a full understanding of the impact of genetic variation on health outcomes. This report reviews current approaches to gene-diet interactions in epidemiological studies. Characteristics of gene and dietary factors are divided into four categories: one carbon metabolism-related gene polymorphisms and dietary factors including folate, vitamin B group and methionines; oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms and antioxidant nutrients including vegetable and fruit intake; carcinogen-metabolizing gene polymorphisms and meat intake including heterocyclic amins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; and other gene-diet interactive effect on cancer.

Relationship between Dietary Habits, Life Stress and Nutrition Knowledge of High School Students in Gyeonggi Area (경기지역 일부 고등학생의 식습관, 생활스트레스 및 영양지식과의 관계)

  • Park, Kyung Ae;Lee, Hongmie;Song, Kyunghee
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.126-136
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: This study was performed to examine dietary habits, life stress, and nutrition knowledge among high school students in Gyeonggi area. Methods: A total of 431 high school students (210 males, 221 females) in Gyeonggi area participated in this study from November to December of 2011. The study was a questionnaire-based survey that included dietary habits, dietary attitudes, life stress, and nutrition knowledge. Results: Body weight, height, and body mass index were all higher in male students than in female students (P < 0.001, respectively). For dietary habits, the average score (P < 0.01) and scores for considering combination of food groups (P < 0.05), eating green and orange vegetables (P < 0.05), eating meat, fish, eggs, or beans everyday (P < 0.05), drinking milk (P < 0.001), and eating seaweed (P < 0.01) were higher in male students than in female students. For dietary attitudes, the average score (P < 0.05) and scores for the five items were significantly different between male and female students. Male students showed a significantly lower nutrition knowledge score than female students (P < 0.05). Life stress score of students largely was attributable to academic factors, and female students showed higher stress score for academic, personal, and surrounding environmental (P < 0.05, respectively) factors than male students. Dietary habit score (P < 0.01) and nutrition knowledge score (P < 0.05) in female students as well as dietary attitude score (P < 0.05) in male students were negatively correlated with life stress score. Dietary habit scores in male and female students were positively correlated with dietary attitude score (P < 0.01, respectively). Need for nutrition education was significantly higher in female students than in male students (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides basic information on dietary habits, dietary attitudes, life stress, and nutrition knowledge according to sex and suggests gender-specific practical nutrition education programs to address undesirable dietary habits and attitudes in students with higher stress levels.

Comparison of Normal Weight vs Obese Children in Terms of Family Factors, Eating Habits and Sociocognitive Factors (정상체중군과 비만군 아동의 가족요인과 식습관, 사회인지적 요인 비교)

  • Kim Hyeon Ah
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.300-310
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: To compare normal weight children with obese children in terms of family factors, eating habits, and sociocognitive factors. Method: This study compared 217 obese children with 231 normal standard weight children of 4th-6th graders from 7 elementary schools in Kangwon province. The study also surveyed 817 their parents using questionnaires in which familial factors, eating habits, and sociocognitive factors such as dietary self-efficacy, locus of control and self-esteem were included. Result: Obese children had more obese family members, more family members with chronic metabolic disease, and lower breast-feeding rate than normal weight group. Dietary self-efficacy was positively correlated with eating habits and locus of control while no correlation was found with obesity index.. Self-esteem was negatively correlate with obesity index. Both the parents and the childrens eating habits showed significant positive correlation to the obesity index. Conclusion: These results implied familial factors, eating habits, and sociocognitive factors influenced childhood obesity. Thus, further research targeting to positive attitude toward familial dietary practices combined with significant sociocognitive factors, may lead to prevention and effective management of childhood obesity.

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Effect of dietary protein and fiber on the lead and protein metabolism in lead poisoning rats (식이 단백질 및 섬유질이 납중독 흰쥐의 단백질과 납대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김지희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 1991
  • This study wa performed to investigate the effects of dietary protein and fiber on the lead and protein metabolism in lead poisoning rats. Seventy male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain weighing 172$\pm$2g were blocked into 14 gropus according to body weight. Protein(casein) was given at levels of 15 or 40%, and fibers(pectin, cellulose and CMC) were given at levels of 0, 4 or 10%. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Food intake, weight gain and food efficiency ratio(FER) in groups fed high protein diets were higher than those in low protein groups. Liver weight in groups fed no dietary fiber was higher than that of animals fed fiber. Kidney and femur weights were greater in high protein groups. Tibia and femur lengths, and tibia weight were not significantly different among groups. 2. Hemoglobin content and hematocrit values showed no significant differance with dietary factors. 3. Total protein contents of serum and liver showed no significant difference, but tended to increase with increasing dietary protein level. Both daily urinary and fecal nitrogen excretions in high protein groups were higher than those in low protein groups. Especially daily fecal nitrogen excretions in high dietary fiber groups were significantly high. Body nitrogen absorption rate was the highest in animals fed no fiber. 4. Pb levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone tended to decrease with high dietary protein and fiber levels. Especially Pb level of kidney was high in all groups. Daily urinary Pb excretion showed no significant difference with dietary factors, but fecal Pb excretion increased significantly in high protein and fiber groups.

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Relationship between Dietary Behaviors and Life Stress of Middle School Students in Gyeonggi Area (경기지역 일부 중학생의 식행동과 생활스트레스와의 관계)

  • Park, Kyung Ae;Lee, Myoung Sook;Song, Kyung Hee
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.384-394
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The study was performed to examine the dietary behaviors and life stress of middle school students in the Gyeonggi area. Methods: A total of 580 middle school students (295 males, 285 females) in the Gyeonggi area participated in the study between July and August in 2011. The study was a questionnaire-based survey that included dietary habits, dietary behaviors, and life stress. Results: For dietary habits, the score for drinking milk was higher in male students than in female students, whereas the score for eating fruits was higher in female students compared to male students. There were significant differences in foods eaten and preferred under stress between male and female students. Male students showed significantly less changes in the number of meals, amount of meal intake, number of snacks, snack intake, frequency of overeating, and appetite during stress than female students. Life stress score of students largely came from academic factors, and female students showed higher stress levels in personal and surrounding environment factors than male students. Life stress score was significantly lower in students with high and moderate levels of dietary habits than in students with a low level of dietary habits. Total score for dietary habits and scores for eating adequate amounts of foods for each meal, considering a combination of food groups at each meal and eating green and orange vegetables, were significantly negatively correlated with life stress score. Life stress score was significantly negatively correlated with meal regularity and positively with the level of overeating. Conclusions: This study may provide basic information on dietary habits and life stress according to gender and the relationship between dietary behaviors and life stress of middle school students, and it suggests gender-based nutrition education programs to solve undesirable dietary habits and dietary behaviors in students with higher stress.

Nutrition and feed approach according to pig physiology

  • Park, Sangwoo;Kim, Byeonghyeon;Kim, Younghoon;Kim, Sheena;Jang, Kibeom;Kim, Younghwa;Park, Juncheol;Song, Minho;Oh, Sangnam
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.750-760
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    • 2016
  • The use of antibiotics in Korean swine production has been changing to a restricted use of in-feed antibiotics. These antibiotics, which are also growth promoters, are powerful for disease control. Due to this issue, the swine industry is consistently looking for any kind of alternatives to antibiotics such as new feed ingredients, feed additives, feed formulation practices, or feeding methods to improve pig health and performance. In general, dietary factors provide bioavailable nutrients and/or affect physiological activity to modify the physiological condition, immune system, or microbial population of pigs to improve their performance and health. Thus, it is suggested that dietary factors may be important components in the growth and health management of pigs. Using an alternative grain feed such as rice, barley, and oats, low protein diets or low-high energy diets can be used as solutions to manage the effect of stress factors that cause growth and health problems at specific time points during the stages of pig production. Several studies support that these alternative feeds and dietary factors may improve pig growth and health by changes in intestinal conditions, immunity, or other physiological conditions compared with typical feed ingredients and diet management in pig production. Therefore, feed ingredients, low protein levels, and different energy contents in swine diets were reviewed to better understand how these dietary factors can contribute to improved pig performance and health under different physiological conditions.

Worsens Actual Condition and Formative Factors of Dietary Habits (주부들의 식생활실태와 그 형성요인에 관한 조사연구)

  • Han, Yang-Il;Nam, Gung-Seok;Seol, Min-Yeong
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1989
  • This investigation revealed not only the women's actual condition of dietary habits, but also the factors related to the formation of them. The subjects were 400 women at Seoul area. The results were as follows. 1. It was observed that their home descipline, the school education and consciousness were all related to the formation and their dietary habits, And that the practice and experience of preparing mea Is were most important in order to cultivate their good dietary habits 2. Actual condition of dietary habits were generally not satisfactory.

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Relationship of Acculturation to Demographics and Dietary Habits Among Korean Americans (재미 한인의 문화 적응도에 미치는 인구통계학적 요인과 식생활 습관과의 관련성)

  • 김정선;심영자
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.243-249
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    • 2001
  • This study investigated how acculturation varies with demographic variables and is related to dietary habits among Korean Americans. The respondents were 162 Korea Americans aged at least 18 years old residing in the Greater New York metropolitan area. The level of acculturation was measured using a modified Suinn-Lew Asian Self-Identity Acculturation(SL-ASIA) scale. Acculturation was operationally defined to be composed of 6 factors, which are language, media use, friendship, food, pride, and ethnic self-identity. Each factor in the level of acculturation was identified by how it is related to demographics and dietary habits in the method of correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regressions analyses. The reliability of the modified SL-ASIA scale was high as measured by Cronbach alpha of .92. The level of acculturation was related to place of birth, age, length of residence in the U.S., and education. The younger, the longer they had lived in the U.S., and the more they were educated, the more acculturated. Acculturation could be predictable for 52% of its variance with all demographic variables. Among the 6 factors in the level of acculturation, five of them, language, media use friendship, food, and ethnic self-identity were correlated with dietary habit changes after immigration and type of meals. All 6 acculturation factors could predict 21% of change in dietary habits. the information from this study can be used to describe usual describe usual dietary habits according to various aspects of acculturation to better understand the dynamics among acculturation, demographics, and dietary habits.

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Comparison of Dietary Habit and Food Consumption among Elementary School Students with or without Rhinitis and Sinusitis

  • Kwon, Ji-Hyun;Ju, Jihyeung
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.847-856
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    • 2012
  • Rhinitis and sinusitis are among the most common medical conditions in Korea, as well as Western societies. Environmental factors may influence both rhinitis and sinusitis; however, the role of dietary factors in rhinitis and sinusitis is not clear. The present study aims to compare the dietary habit, food consumption frequency, and food preference of elementary school students with or without rhinitis and sinusitis. The demand of their parents for an education program for the dietary prevention against rhinitis and sinusitis was also examined. The survey was conducted with a total of 200 subjects recruited from two elementary schools located in Gyeonggi area of Korea. The subjects consisted of 101 students with rhinitis and/or sinusitis (RS group) and 99 without rhinitis and sinusitis (control group). The students of the RS group were more likely to have habits of eating-out and street food use, to consume bean, peanut, walnut, almond, yogurt, egg, snack, and French fries frequently, and to prefer the types of foods prepared by stir-frying and deep-frying than the control group. The parents who recognized 'school nutrition teachers or food/nutrition-majored specialists' as the most appropriate educator for the dietary education program in the RS group (48.5% of their parents) were less than those in the control group (67.7% of their parents). The present study suggest that students with rhinitis and/or sinusitis may be different from those without the disease(s) in their dietary habit, frequently consumed foods, and preferred type of foods. More epidemiological, intervention, and laboratory studies are needed in order to elucidate the role of dietary factors in the development and prevention of rhinitis and sinusitis, which will have a significant implication to public health.

Dietary Habits and Related Factors of Adults in Urban Community (일 도시지역 성인의 식이습관 행태 및 영향 요인)

  • Lee, Chung-Yul;Lee, Kyung-Ja;Kim, Eui-Sook;Kim, In-Sook;Lee, Tae-Hwa;Kim, Gwang-Suk;Cho, Yoon-Hee;Hyun, Soo-In;Chung, Ja-Ne;Lee, Hyun-Jung;Won, So-Young
    • Journal of Korean Public Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.5-17
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: To understand the dietary habits and factors influencing the dietary habits in adults of an urban community. Method: The data were collected via questionnaires that investigated dietary habits, health behaviors, health-related factors, and general characteristics. A total of 302 subjects were selected from those who had visited an urban public center over a 2-week period. The data of 294 subjects were analyzed using descriptive analysis, t-test, ANOVA, and multiple regression, after 8 questionnaire were excluded due to incomplete data. Results: The degree of dietary habits was in the middle range. The most positive dietary habit was 'intake fibers from vegetables, fruits, and cereals', followed by 'not enjoy salty food and salt' and 'eating breakfast everyday'. The significant predictors influencing dietary habits were age, present smoking behavior, perceived health status, and drinking frequency, and these variables accounted for 27.3% of the variance in the dietary habits score. Conclusion: Health care providers should focus on health promotion planning regarding dietary habits and other health-related behaviors in combination and use integrated strategies regarding the factors that influence dietary habits and other health-related behaviors.

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