The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of variables which were known to be related to blood pressure for discriminating between hypertensive and normotensive groups. Variables were obesity, serum lipids, life style-related variables such as smoking, alcohol, exercise, and stress, and demographic variables such as age, economical status, and education. The data were collected from 400 male clients who visited one university hospital located in Incheon, Republic of Korea, from May 1996 to December 1996 for a regular physical examination. Variables which showed significance for discriminating systolic blood pressure in this study were age, serum lipids, education, HDL, exercise, total cholesterol, body fat percent, alcohol, stress, and smoking(in order of significance). By using the combination of these variables, the possibility of proper prediction for a high-systolic pressure group was 2%, predicting a normal-systolic pressure group was 70.3%, and total Hit Ratio was 70%. Variables which showed significance for discriminating diastolic blood pressure were exercise, triglyceride, alcohol, smoking, economical status, age, and BMI (in order of significance). By using the combination of these variables, the possibility of proper prediction for a high-diastolic pressure group was 71.2%, predicting a normal-diastolic pressure group was 71.3%, and total Hit Ratio was 71.3%. Multiple regression analysis was performed to examine the association of systolic blood pressure with life style-related variables after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables. First, the effect of demographic variable alone on the systolic blood pressure was statistically significant (p=.000) and adjusted $R^2$was 0.09. Adding the variable obesity on demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted $R^2$to 0.11 (p=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of obesity on the systolic blood pressure was 2.0%. On the next step, adding the variable serum lipids on the obesity and demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted R2 to 0.12(P=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of serum lipid on the systolic pressure was 1.0%. Finally, adding life style-related variables on all other variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$to 0.18(p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of life style-related variables on the systolic blood pressure after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables was 6.0%. Multiple regression analysis was also performed to examine the association of diastolic blood pressure with life style-related variables after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables. First, the effect of demographic variable alone on the diastolic blood pressure was statistically significant (p=.01) and adjusted $R^2$was 0.03. Adding the variable obesity on demographic variables resulted in raising adjusted $R^2$to 0.06 (p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of obesity on the diastolic blood pressure was 3.0%. On the next step, adding the variable serum lipids on the obesity and demographic variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$ to 0.09(p=.000) ; therefore, the contribution rate of serum lipid on the diastolic pressure was 3.0%. Finally, adding life style-related variables on all other variables resulted in raising the adjusted $R^2$ to 0.12 (p=.000) : therefore, the contribution rate of life style-related variables on the systolic blood pressure after adjustment for obesity, serum lipids, and demographic variables was 3.0%.
For the purposes of analyzing the distribution and the change in blood pressure according to age and determining the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, a follow-up study had been conducted for 6 years from 1986 to 1991 for 430 primary school children aged 6 years old in 1986 in Kangwha County, Korea. The mean blood pressure increased according to age. Specifically mean systolic blood pressure increased from 97.3 mmHg for male and 96.4mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 108.8mmHg fur male and 112.1mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). Mean diastolic blood pressure increased from 60.0mmHg for male and 61.8mmHg for female (at 6 years of age) to 72.9mmHg for male and 73.8mmHg for female (at 11 years of age). The average annual increase in blood pressure was 2.3mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.6 mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for male : and 3.1mmHg (in systolic blood pressure) and 2.4mmHg (in diastolic blood pressure) for female, respectively. To determine the factors affecting the change in blood pressure, the stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Children were divided into the three groups(low, middle, and upper) according to the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure at the age of 6, and the regression analysis was performed in each group. For the change in systolic blood pressure, the changes in weight and skinfold thickness or initial skinfold thickness fer male, and the change in weight for female were selected as significant factors for children in middle and upper group. For the change of blood pressure in diastolic blood pressure, no variables was significant.
Park, Young-soo;Kim, Eun-mi;Kim, Young-il;Hong, Kwon-eui;Lee, Hyun
Journal of Acupuncture Research
Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the depressive effect of Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) in stroke patients. Methods: We measured the blood pressure of the patients who were admitted in the Oriental Medical hospital of Dae-Jeon University from June. 2003. to September. 2003. If systolic blood pressure was over 160mmHg or diastolic blood pressure was over 100 mmHg, 40 patients were treated by Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) and the other 20 patients were taken a rest in bed. Then 30 minutes and 60 minutes later, systolic, diastolic blood pressure were measured. Results: After 30 minute treatment, Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) significantly depressed the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, but bedrest can't do it. After 60 minute treatment, both Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) and bedrest significantly depressed the systolic and diastolic bood pressure. Conclusion: These results suggest that Sa-am Acupuncture(膀胱正格) is effective in depressing the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.
This study investigated the effect of changing position from supine to standing upright on the circulation of young men and women. Healthy men and women ranging from age of 18 to 24 were examined. Two minutes before standing, the baseline heart rate and blood pressure were measured. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. Differences in heart rate and blood pressure between supine and standing upright position were evaluated. The results were summarized as follows : 1. Heart rate increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. 2. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 4 minutes after standing upright. 3. Diastolic and mean blood pressure increased significantly immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright. 4. Pulse pressure immediately and at every minute for 10 minutes after standing upright was significantly narrower than that of supine position. 5. There was no significant difference of heart rate between men and women after standing upright. 6. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure of men after standing upright was significantly greater than those of women. From these results, it may be concluded that heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and pulse pressure increase after standing upright, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men is greater than those of women after standing upright.
The body mass index, blood pressures and blood profiles of adults, who worked at three colleges in the Daejeon area, were evaluated for use in developing well-balanced menus at their workplace cafeterias and/or in creating nutrition education programs tailored to their health statuses. The data analyzed were from physical examinations performed in 2002 and in 2004 by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Overall, levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum cholesterol were lower in the 2004 samples than in those of 2002, but most samples in 2004 showed higher levels of SGOT. In 2002, statistical differences occured in the levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol among age groups, but not in 2004. And in 2004, the older the age group, the higher the BMI. Among subjects in their twenties, three variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and serum cholesterol) showed statistical differences; this increased to four variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and serum cholesterol) among subjects in their thirties and to six variables (Hb, SGOT, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose and serum cholesterol) among those in their forties, followed by a decline to four variables (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Hb and serum cholesterol) among subjects in their fifties. In general, the results of physical examinations showed improvements in blood pressure and blood profiles in 2004 in comparison with results in 2002. The level of SGOT was the exception. Despite these improvements, of those employees who had physical examinations in 2004, $5.2\%$ had high blood glucose and $18.1\%$ hypertension, $27.9\%$ hypercholesterolemia, $8.3\%$ registered abnormal liver functions, and $31.3\%$ were classified as overweight and obese. Moreover, because some vulnerable blood profiles were found in the older age groups, various programs, including nutrition education, and/or development of healthful diets as well as excercise activities, may be needed within their workplaces.
Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
Purpose of this study was to investigate correlation between blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and dietary sodium, potassium intake pattern in the family members of normal cerebrovascular (CVA) disease, excluding patients themselves. Both mean values of systolic (125.8$\pm$23.7 vs 119.3$\pm$19.2mmHg) and diastolic(76.1$\pm$16.7 vs 71.6$\pm$12.5mmHg) bllood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients were significantly higher than those of normal subjects. Systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weibght, sodium in soybean paste, potassium in hotpepepr paste, soybean paste and meats in normal subjects group. In the family members of cerebrovascular patient, systolic blood pressure was possively correlated with age, weight, sodium in soy sauce, drinking water and potassium in soups. Interestingly, table salt intake was positively correlated with systosolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Diastolic bolld pressure was positively correlated with age, weight, table salt intake potassium in hotpepper paste and soybean paste in normal subjects group. Diastolic blood pressure was positively correlated with age, weight and table salt intake in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients. Urinary potassium excretion was negatively correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the family members of cerebrovascular disease patients.
Blood pressure was predicted from photoplethysmography (PPG). To obtain PPG, backscattered light from a fingertip was measured and its waveform was analyzed. Systolic upstroke time and diastolic time in the pulse waveform were used as parameters to predict blood pressure. The experiment was carried out with five subjects on five different days. The systolic upstroke time had a correlation coefficient of -0.605 with respect to systolic blood pressure and the diastolic time had a correlation coefficients of -0.764 for diastolic pressure. This PPG method does not require an air-cuff installation on the arm and can predict blood pressure continuously. This simple LED/photo detector setup can be a good candidate for nonconstrained monitoring of blood pressure variations.
This study was done to examine the correlations between weight, BMI and risk factors of coronary heart disease in men and women in their forties and fifties. The subjects were 412 adults. who had regular health examinations between January and December of 1996 at S-Hospital in Seoul. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Scheffe test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. The results are as follows : 1. The men between 50 and 59 years of age had higher levels for BMI, weight, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood sugar, plasminogen activator-1, and hemoglobin A,C than the group of women in their forties. Yet. HDL-cholesterol was lower than in the former group. 2. In the group of men in their forties, weight was significantly correlated to diastolic blood pressure(r=.22), LDL-cholesterol(r=.20), plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1(r=.35) HDL-cholesterol(r=-.19). Their BMI was significantly correlted to systolic blood pressure(r=.27), diastolic blood pressure (r=.33), total cholesterol(r=.23), LDL-cholesterol (r=.26), plasminogen activator-1(r=.36) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-.25). 3. As for the group of women in their forties weight was significantly correlated to systolic blood pressure(r=.20), diastolic blood pressure(r=.22), triglyceride(r=.32) , plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (r=.30) and HDL-cholesterol(r= -.37). Their BMI was significantly correlated to diastolic blood pressure (r=.25) triglyceride(r=.47), plasminogen activator-1 (r=.35), fibrinogen(r=.27) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-.47). 4. In the group of men in their fifties. weight was significantly correlated to total cholesterol (r=32), LDL-cholesterol(r=.29). plasminogen activator inhibitor-1(r=.26). Their BMI was significantly correlated to systolic blood pressure(r=.24), diastolic blood pressure (r=.22), total cholesterol (r=.34), LDL-cholesterol (r=.32), and plasminogen activator-1(r=.25). 5. In the group of women in their fifties, weight was significantly correlated to diastolic blood pressure(r=.33), total cholesterol(r=.21), LDL-cholesterol(r=.20), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (r=.43) and HDL-cholesterol(r=-.21). Their BMI was significantly correlated to systolic blood pressure(r=.25), diastolic blood pressure(r=.40), total cholesterol(r=.24), LDL-cholesterol(r=.24), triglyceride(r=22), and HDL-cholesterol (r=-.30). The above findings indicate that the BMI was more predictive than weight as a risk factor for coronary artery disease for men and women in their forties and fifties.
The purpose of this study is to find the tracking of blood pressure in primary school-age children. A follow-up study was conducted from 1986 to 1990 on 330 first grade children attending primary schools in Kangwha County, Kyungki-Do. Basically we employed a linear regression model with random coefficients to figure out the relation between blood pressure changes and initial blood pressure. We obtained the following results ; 1. The mean blood pressures were increased grade went up in both sexs and were generally higher in female than male except for the systolic blood pressure at first grade. The size of difference was about 0.8 mmHg in mean systolic blood pressure and 1.5 mmHg in mean diastolic blood pressure. 2. The average annual increasing rates of systolic blood pressure were 2.5 mmHg in male and 3.1 mmHg in female respectively. For the diastolic blood pressure IV the average annual increasing rates were observed to be 3.0 mmHg in male and 2.9 mmHg in female respectively. Increasing rate of systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in female than male. 3. The adjusted regression coefficient of systolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.11 in male and -0.13 in female and that coefficient of diastolic blood pressure change on initial value was -0.01 in male and -0.11 in female. This result shows that children with higher initial blood pressure do not pick up their blood pressure faster than others with lower initial blood pressure. There is no evidence of tracking of blood pressure in children. It is essential to find the earliest age having the tracking of blood pressure and we leave it for the further study.
Purpose: This study aimed to identify the differences in blood pressure among adults in the community according to age and time of the blood pressure measurement. Methods: This was a secondary analysis study, using data from a 2015 community health survey, conducted by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The data of three-time-measured blood pressure were collected from 337 subjects, 25, 35, 45, 55, 65, 75 years old, which are median ages by each age group. Results: The primary systolic pressure was significantly higher than the secondary systolic pressure (t= 3.46, p= .001) and the tertiary systolic pressure (t= 4.83, p= .001). The secondary systolic pressure was higher than the tertiary measurement (t= 2.05, p= .041). There was no significant difference between the three-time-measured values for diastolic pressure. There was a significant interaction between measurement times and age in the systoic blood pressure readings (F= 1.95, p= .036). However, there was no significant interaction between measurement times and age in the diastolic blood pressure readings (F= 1.03, p= .418). Conclusion: The findings suggest that attention must be paid to the use of blood pressure values in studies or one-time-measured clinical blood pressure values. In particular, the differences in systolic pressure readings taken at different times in the older age groups were significant. Therefore, it is more important to carefully assess blood pressure in adults over the age of 45 compared to other age groups.
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