• Title, Summary, Keyword: diagnostic utility

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A Study on Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Female Pelvic Cavity using Enteral MRI Contrast Media (Enteral MRI contrast media를 이용한 여성골반 자기공명영상의 유용성)

  • Kim, Ham-Gyum
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 1997
  • For radiological test in soft tissue or neighboring part with same signal intensity, proper test method and equipment shall be selected as needed. In case of female pelvic cavity, ultrasonography or computed tomography alternatively used, but MRI can be more usefully applied to design treatment method or operation plan by improving the diagnostic accuracy and careful observation of lesion characteristics. Magnetic Resonance Imaging using recently developed Enteral MRI contrast media can acquire more diagnostic information than using only intravenous contrast media. Thus this study attempted to examine the utility of anatomic structure and diagnostic acquisition by imaging the female pelvic cavity using Enteral MRI contrast media. As a result of analyzing magnetic resonance Imaging after administering Enteral MRI contrast media to pelvic cavity suspect patients, more diagnostic information media could be acquired than only using Intravenous contrast. Expecially, in the diagnosis of lesion position, shape, distinction from neighboring tissues it is thought that external Enteral MRI contrast media should be used.

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THE DIAGNOSTIC UTILITY OF THE RORSCHACH SCHIZOPHRENIA/DEPRESSION/COPING DEFICIT INDEX IN CHILD-ADOLESCENT PARENT GROUPS (아동 및 청소년 환자군의 Rorschach검사 Schizophrenia/Depression/Coping Deficit Index의 진단적 유용성에 관한 연구)

  • Seo, Soo-Gyoon;Shin, Min-Sup;Kim, Zoong-Sool
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 1998
  • Objectives:This study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic utility of the Rorschach schizophrenia/depression/coping deficite index in child-adolescent parent groups(schizophrenia, depression,depressive conduct disorder). Methods:Three child-adolescent parent groups(schizophrenia(18), depression(20), depressive conduct disorder(19)) were individyally assessed using the Rorschach test and schizophrenia/depression/coping deficite index scores were analyzed. Results:The results showed significant difference among three groups on only SCZI and significantly higher SCZI score of schizophrenia group than other two groups. When the critical value of SCZI was 4, diagnostic hit rate was 96.5%, and when the critical value of DEPI was 3, diagnostic hit rate was 57.9%, and when the critical value of CDI was 4, diagnostic hit rate was 66.6%.

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Fuzzy Inference in Medical Diagnosis

  • Kim, Soon-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems Conference
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    • pp.92-97
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    • 1995
  • In medical diagnostic process we are dealing with the preliminary diagnosis based on the interview chart. We will quantify the qualitative information of a patient by dual scaling and establish both prototypes of fuzzy diagnostic sets and the fuzzy linear regressions. Its utility is shown in the diagnosis of headache and CAFDDH.

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Evaluation of the Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Kit in Ganghwa County (강화군에서 시행한 말라리아 신속진단킷트의 유용성 평가)

  • Kweon, Su-Jung;Kweon, Oh-Jun;Youn, Sung-Tae;Yim, Jun;Im, Jeong-Soo
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: Early diagnosis and treatment is the most important strategy to control malaria effectively. Microscopic examination of blood films is a traditional and standard method for diagnosing malaria, which takes a long time and needs expertise, Therefore, the alternative method, rapid diagnostic kit has been used for quick diagnosis in some counties, a highly infectious region by P. vivax. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of malaria rapid diagnostic kit in Ganghwa county. Methods: The utility was evaluated by mean diagnosis time and sensitivity and specificity. For monitoring mean diagnosis time, 942 cases which were diagnosed for P. vivax were collected between 1998 and 2005, And for calculating sensitivity and specificity, 434 whole bloods in EDTA which were presented for P. vivax by microscopy and rapid diagnostic kit were collected between 2004 and 2005. Results: After malaria rapid diagnostic kit was used in 2003, mean diagnosis time has decreased to 3.36-3.14 day. The sensitivity and specificity of the rapid diagnostic kit was 98.2% and 98,5% and comparable to that of microscopic examination. Conclusions: The malaria rapid diagnostic kit is useful tool in a highly infectious region like Ganghwa county.

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Utility of Nuclear Morphometry in Effusion Cytology

  • Ambroise, Marie Moses;Jothilingam, Prabhavati;Ramdas, Anita
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6919-6922
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    • 2014
  • Background: The cytological analysis of serous effusions is a common investigation and yields important diagnostic information. However, the distinction of reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells can sometimes be difficult for the cytopathologist. Hence cost-effective ancillary methods are essential to enhance the accuracy of cytological diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine the utility of nuclear morphometry in differentiating reactive mesothelial cells from malignant cells in effusion smears. Materials and Methods: Sixty effusion smears consisting of 30 effusions cytologically classified as malignant (adenocarcinomas) and 30 benign effusions showing reactive mesothelial cells were included in the study. ImageJ was used to measure the nuclear area, perimeter, maximal feret diameter, minimal feret diameter and the circularity. A total of ten representative cells were studied in each case. Results: Significant differences were found between benign and malignant effusions for the nuclear area, perimeter, maximal feret diameter and minimal feret diameter. No significant difference was found for circularity, a shape descriptor. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that nuclear area, perimeter, maximal feret diameter, and minimal feret diameter are helpful in discriminating benign and malignant effusions. Conclusions: Computerised nuclear morphometry is a helpful ancillary technique to distinguish benign and malignant effusions. ImageJ is an excellent cost effective tool with potential diagnostic utility in effusion cytology.

Profile of Lymphadenopathy in Kashmir Valley: a Cytological Study

  • Qadri, Sumyra Khurshid;Hamdani, Nissar Hussain;Shah, Parveen;Lone, Mohammad Iqbal;Baba, Khalil Mohammad
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3621-3625
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    • 2012
  • Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest and significant manifestations of local as well as systemic ailments, especially malignancies. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) helps in diagnosing the disease itself, in general, but more importantly ruling out malignancy, in particular. Hence it saves much of the cost and use of resources incurred with excision biopsy of such lymph nodes. This prompted us to study the cytologic patterns of lymphadenopathy in our setting and the diagnostic utility of FNAC in the evaluation of lymphadenopathy. In this retrospective observational study, 1,579 patients (953 males and 626 females) with lymphadenopathy who were subjected to FNAC over a period of three years (January 2009 to December 2011) were studied. The cervical region was involved in most of the cases (76%) followed by the axillary region (17.5%). Metastatic malignancy (38.2%) was the commonest cause of lymphadenopathy followed by reactive lymphoid hyperplasia (36.9%), tuberculosis (9.1%) and lymphomas (8.6%). Squamous cell carcinoma (32.2%) followed by adenocarcinoma (21.9%) were the most frequent metastatic tumors. FNAC is a useful diagnostic tool in the management of patients presenting with lymphadenopathy and should be considered before more invasive and costly procedures are performed, particularly in developing countries.

Clinical Utility of CT-Based Bronchial Aspirate TB-PCR for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pleural Tuberculosis

  • Lee, Jaehee;Lee, So Yeon;Choi, Keum Ju;Lim, Jae Kwang;Yoo, Seung Soo;Lee, Shin Yup;Cha, Seung Ick;Park, Jae Yong;Kim, Chang Ho
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.75 no.4
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2013
  • Background: Thoracoscopic pleural biopsy is often required for rapid and confirmative diagnosis in patients with suspected pleural tuberculosis (PL-TB). However, this method is more invasive and costly than its alternatives. Therefore, we evaluated the clinical utility of the chest computed tomography (CT)-based bronchial aspirate (BA) TB-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in such patients. Methods: Bronchoscopic evaluation was performed in 54 patients with presumptive PL-TB through diagnostic thoracentesis but without a positive result of sputum acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear, pleural fluid AFB smear, or pleural fluid TB-PCR test. Diagnostic yields of BA were evaluated according to the characteristics of parenchymal lesions on chest CT. Results: Chest radiograph and CT revealed parenchymal lesions in 25 (46%) and 40 (74%) of 54 patients, respectively. In cases with an absence of parenchymal lesions on chest CT, the bronchoscopic approach had no diagnostic benefit. BA TB-PCR test was positive in 21 out of 22 (95%) patients with early-positive results. Among BA results from 20 (37%) patients with patchy consolidative CT findings, eight (40%) were AFB smear-positive, 18 (90%) were TB-PCR-positive, and 19 (95%) were culture-positive. Conclusion: The BA TB-PCR test seems to be a satisfactory diagnostic modality in patients with suspected PL-TB and patchy consolidative CT findings. For rapid and confirmative diagnosis in these patients, the bronchoscopic approach with TB-PCR may be preferable to the thoracoscopy.

Use of Likelihood Ratios in Evidence-based Clinical Decision Making

  • Kim, Eu-Tteum;Pak, Son-Il
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 2008
  • During the clinical decision making practitioners are often faced with performing diagnostic tests to solve the presenting problems seen in the patients. The diagnostic utility of a test has traditionally been described by technical terms such as sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Although well known, clinicians are frequently unclear about the concept and application of these terms in everyday evidence-based clinical decision making. Sensitivity and specificity, which are intrinsic properties of diagnostic tests, summarizes the characteristics of the test over a population. The PPV and NPV are greatly dependent on the population prevalence of disease, and thus they do not transferable to different patients or clinical settings. Besides, considering the fact that clinicians more often interested in knowing the extent to which a test result could confirm or exclude of a condition under consideration (posttest probability), these measures do not provide answers on this question. The likelihood ratios (LR) using the information contained in sensitivity and specificity are becoming increasingly popular for reporting the usefulness of diagnostic tests because this term provide an indication of posttest probability as a function of the pretest probability. In this article, clinical applications of LR are illustrated with some practical examples. Discussion is also included of the inherent limitations regarding diagnostic test characteristics.

A Preliminary Study for a Korean Version of the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-Children's Revision (아동용 Luria-Nebraska 신경심리검사의 한국 표준화를 위한 예비연구)

  • Kang, Cha Yeun
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.203-216
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    • 1992
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of the Luria-Nebraska Battery-Children's Revision (LNNB-CR) in the clinical situation in Korea: LNNB-CR was applied clinically in order to examine how well it differentiates brain damaged children from normals. Subjects were 30 children with the average age of 10 years. Among them 15 were diagnosed as the 'brain damaged' group, and the remaining 15 were normal. All subjects of the two groups were tested on all items in accordance with LNNB-CR manual. Data were analyzed by percentage, correlation coefficient, and t-test. The results were (1) the degree of consistency between testers averaged 97.2% which confirmed the stability of the scoring system. (2) Split-half reliability was ranged from .75 on the Tactile Scale (C3) to .95 on the Memory Scale (C10). Thus, consistency of items within the scales appeared high. (3) Internal consistency reliability ranged from .74 on the Visual Scale (C4) to .98 on the Reading Scale (C9). Thus, the homogenity of items within the scales appeared high. (4) In the diagnostic discriminative power test between the two groups, both individual scales and total scores showed significant differences at the level of p<.001. (5) The discriminative power test between two groups on all items showed significant differences at the level of p<.05 or better in 126(85%) out of 149 items. These results are supportive of the diagnostic utility of the application of LNNB-CR to the clinical situation in Korea. However, extensive additional research is needed in order to prove its worth.

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Tumor-associated autoantibodies as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers

  • Heo, Chang-Kyu;Bahk, Young Yil;Cho, Eun-Wie
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.12
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    • pp.677-685
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    • 2012
  • In the process of tumorigenesis, normal cells are remodeled to cancer cells and protein expression patterns are changed to those of tumor cells. A newly formed tumor microenvironment elicits the immune system and, as a result, a humoral immune response takes place. Although the tumor antigens are undetectable in sera at the early stage of tumorigenesis, the nature of an antibody amplification response to antigens makes tumor-associated autoantibodies as promising early biomarkers in cancer diagnosis. Moreover, the recent development of proteomic techniques that make neo-epitopes of tumor-associated autoantigens discovered concomitantly has opened a new area of 'immuno-proteomics', which presents tumor-associated autoantibody signatures and confers information to redefine the process of tumorigenesis. In this article, the strategies recently used to identify and validate serum autoantibodies are outlined and tumor-associated antigens suggested until now as diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers in various tumor types are reviewed. Also, the meaning of autoantibody signatures and their clinical utility in personalized medicine are discussed.