• Title, Summary, Keyword: developing countries

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Rethinking the Innovation Approach in Developing Countries

  • Nur, Yoslan
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.107-117
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    • 2012
  • As reflected in the title, the main objective of the paper is to explore an appropriate approach to promote technological innovation for developing countries. Aiming to this goal, the paper studies three main innovation system approaches, whose implantation is being attempted in developing countries: first, national innovation systems (NIS), which was developed in OECD countries; second, the system of innovation for development (SID), which is a concept that tries to adapt NIS to developing countries; and third, inclusive innovation which is a pro-poor innovation system. Based on the strengths and the weaknesses of each concept and their potential adaptation in developing countries, the paper proposes an integrated approach of innovation system for developing countries. Compared to developed countries, the concept of innovation system in developing countries should be more complex because it involves not only the formal sector such as enterprises, universities, research institutes, government, and financial system but it also involves NGOs, informal companies, grassroots inventors, local and indigenous knowledge, etc. The last part of the paper discusses the ideas that innovation stakeholders in developing countries can use to promote their proper innovation system.

Construction Delays in Developing Countries: A Review

  • Islam, Muhammad Saiful;Trigunarsyah, Bambang
    • Journal of Construction Engineering and Project Management
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2017
  • Construction delay is one of the basic constrains to achieve the project objectives in developing countries. This study aims to find the causes and effects of construction delays in developing countries. A thorough literature review has been done following the content analysis method. The relevant literature of 28 developing countries was collected from the scholarly journals published in the period of 2006 to 2016. The different developing countries are grouped into three geographic regions, i.e. South and Southeast Asia, Middle East, and Africa. In these regions, total 53 potential causes of delay under 8 major groups are identified. Frequency and ranking of these factors have been done. The factors, delay in progress payment by owner, contractors' cash flow problem, improper planning and scheduling, poor site management, and change order by owner during construction, are acknowledged as critical causes of delay in developing countries. This study will assist both academic and professional experts providing more insight about the construction delays and project management in developing countries.

A Review on the Atmospheric Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Asia Since 2000 - Part II: Data from Developing Countries

  • Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana;Seo, Young-Kyo;Cha, Yoon-Chang;Baek, Sung-Ok
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.169-191
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    • 2012
  • This review paper describes the ambient air PAH concentrations in different developing Asian countries, including China, Afghanistan, India, Malaysia, Turkey, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Cambodia. In this study, more than 75 research papers published in the English literature were reviewed with respect to the seasonal and locational concentrations of PAHs in each of 9 different Asian countries. This study compared, discussed and tabulated the PAH concentrations in developing Asian countries over a one decade (2000-2011) period. The PAH concentrations measured in developing countries highlights the necessity to improve the air quality in those countries. Compared to the developed nations in Asia, developing countries are almost one decade away from implementing environmental policies, such as Euro standards. This review discusses the reasons for the high PAH concentrations in developing nations particularly in China and India. Based on the literature available, some suggestions are made to reduce the concentrations of PAHs in the ambient air of developing nations. The total data obtained from the literature survey is tabulated and presented as supplementary information at the end of the manuscript.

Applying Gerschenkron Model to Shipping Industry in Developing Country

  • Van Le, Thanh;Kim, Sung-june
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • pp.56-61
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    • 2014
  • Standing in front of the huge benefits that shipping industry brings about in economy, politics and society of a country, many countries, especially the developing countries have strived hard to invest and develop their shipping industry (if any) by many methods such as economic reform act, tax allowance or even raising capital from domestic and foreign resources which seems very difficult to implement in the 21st century. According to analysis of A. Gerschenkron - a Russian economic historian at around 60 years ago, developing countries, who regarded shipping as an industry of strategic value with multi-dimensional affects for economic development, had utilized their backward advantages and imported modern technology, capital and skillful labor from more advanced countries in the course of fast industrialization in their countries. In fact, Gerschenkron model has applied in shipping industry of many backward countries. Korea's industrialization in shipping analyzed by Tae-Woo Lee (1996) could considered as a good example, in which the country makes use of policies on capital of tonnage finance, ideology, labor management in order to develop the industry. In this paper, the authors try to find the applicability of the Gerschenkron model to the shipping industry in developing countries, especially in Vietnam. And some questions which are necessary for the author's next paper about developing strategies to shipping industry in developing countries will be asked.

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Comparative Analysis of Environmental Impact Assessment System in Developing Countries (개발도상국의 환경영향평가제도 비교분석)

  • Lim, Gill-Chin;Chung, Jae-Chun
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 1994
  • The choice of economic development over environmental protection has been used to explain the decline in the quality of the environment in developing countries. The authors reject this explanation and propose a theory of negligence to explain this decline. They point to the advantages of environmental impact assessments in dealing with the problem of negligence and presents case studies from four countries. Organizational models for Environmental Impact Assessments in Developing Countries are proposed as useful policy measures.

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Relative Effectiveness of Various Development Finance Flows: A Comparative Study

  • LEE, KYE WOO;HONG, MINJI
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.91-115
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to identify the most effective mode of development finance flows for the economic growth of middle-income developing and least developed countries, separately. It also attempts to confirm whether governance has any significant role in the causal relationship between development finance flows and economic growth. Policymakers in each developing country should select the most effective modality of development finance inflows among the different modalities (such as Official Development Assistance (ODA) grants, Official Development Assistance (ODA) loans, FDI, and international personal remittances) and expand it for their economic growth. Dynamic panel regression models were used on 48 least developed countries and 89 middle-income developing countries, respectively, during the Millennium Development Era: 2000-2015. The empirical analysis results show that ODA grants and remittances were most effective in promoting economic growth for least developed countries, while FDI was most effective for middle-income developing countries. These findings were not affected by the status of governance of the individual country.

A Cost-Efficient LTE Network Design and Deployment Methodology for Developing Countries (개도국 LTE 망의 비용-효율적인 구축을 위한 요구사항 도출과 기술 분석)

  • Ko, Kiyoung;Lee, Jaiyong
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.140-148
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    • 2017
  • This paper focused on finding a cost-effective LTE mobile network design methodology, suitable for socio-economic circumstances of developing countries. Developing countries have different requirements and circumstances compared with those of developed countries that had deployed LTE networks in advance, thus a differentiated way of design and deployment methods are necessary. This paper analyzed LTE design-related attributes of developing countries, identified relevant technological requirements and appropriate technologies, and suggested design methodologies. These suggestions were verified through the case studies of several developing countries that a Korean telecommunication company (Korean telecom company A) had participated in the LTE design and deployment for future reference by other developing countries.

Open Source Software (OSS) and Strategy for Software Industries in Developing Countries (오픈 소스 소프트웨어와 개발도상국의 소프트웨어산업 발전전략)

  • Jang Seungk-Won;Ko Kyung-Min;Lee Hee-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technology Innovation Society
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    • v.8 no.spc1
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    • pp.297-322
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    • 2005
  • The paper aims to analyze the logic and power of open source software (OSS), and to show the ways in which Korean government and companies support developing countries in the field of software development. Many developing countries are considering software industry to be a strategic industry due to the fact that software industry seems to be labor-intensive, or rather knowledge-intensive industry. In this regard, developing countries without huge financial investment can achieve certain level of economic development while leveraging software industry. Concerning software development tools, among recent trends OSS has been regarded as a viable alternative software development tool for developing countries. In developing countries, OSS is believed to resolve some difficulties caused by proprietary software such as Microsoft Windows, which is too expensive to buy for users and developers in low-income developing countries. In this sense, OSS has been considered as only solution for software developing because OSS is able to reduce the cost of software development and to enhance the technological capabilities of developing countries. In addition to the benefit of low cost, we have to shed light on the business model of OSS that is not to sell software licence, but to provide technical support and services. In order to use OSS as much as they can, developing countries have to invest for educating human resources who can develop and implement software system using OSS. These OSS-related policies can lead developing countries to developed countries.

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ECONOMIC AND SOCIOLOGICAL ISSUES OF THE TRANSITION TO COMPUTER BASED ENGINEERING EDUCATION

  • Bordia Surek
    • Journal of Engineering Education Research
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2002
  • It is proposed to raise the debate on Engineering and Technical Education at the global economic level and to examine some of the issues facing developing and poorer countries in managing and improving the quality of engineering education in their countries, especially in the context of internet and IT culture After the fall of the Berlin Wall, the world is now divided in two realigned blocks: one of developed(rich or advanced) countries which have a social security safety net for their population and another of developing(or poor) countries which have no such luxuries for their population. For the general public in the developing countries, any engineering or technical degree/diploma is a passport to lifelong wellbeing of an individual and his/her extended family. Therefore, the demand for such qualifications is very high and it is almost a rat race amongst school leavers to get into engineering/technical colleges. In view of this booming demand, there are hundreds of privately funded engineering/technical colleges in countries like Philippines, India, Thailand, etc., besides state funded ones. It is extremely difficult to ensure good quality in this mushrooming scenario. There are also many very small poorly resourced developing countries where there is only one engineering school and/or two-three technical colleges. Products of these schools/colleges work only in their own country and education globalization have little or no meaning for them. Besides highlighting the aforementioned general issues, the Paper also presents a few case studies on problems of accreditation and quality assessment in larger developing countries like India and the Philippines. The Paper also discusses the effects of commercialization on the quality of education and social impacts of IT revolution on educational processes.

Distribution and Determinants of Low Birth Weight in Developing Countries

  • Mahumud, Rashidul Alam;Sultana, Marufa;Sarker, Abdur Razzaque
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.18-28
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health concern, especially in developing countries, and is frequently related to child morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to identify key determinants that influence the prevalence of LBW in selected developing countries. Methods: Secondary data analysis was conducted using 10 recent Demography and Health Surveys from developing countries based on the availability of the required information for the years 2010 to 2013. Associations of demographic, socioeconomic, community-based, and individual factors of the mother with LBW in infants were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of LBW in the study countries was 15.9% (range, 9.0 to 35.1%). The following factors were shown to have a significant association with the risk of having an LBW infant in developing countries: maternal age of 35 to 49 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 3.1; p<0.01), inadequate antenatal care (ANC) (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.8; p<0.01), illiteracy (aOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; p<0.001), delayed conception (aOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.5; p<0.001), low body mass index (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.1; p<0.001) and being in the poorest socioeconomic stratum (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.8; p<0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that delayed conception, advanced maternal age, and inadequate ANC visits had independent effects on the prevalence of LBW. Strategies should be implemented based on these findings with the goal of developing policy options for improving the overall maternal health status in developing countries.