• Title, Summary, Keyword: detoxification enzyme

Search Result 98, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

Evaluation of Biological and Physico-chemical Detoxification Methods for the Removal of Inhibitors in Lignocellulose Hydrolysate (목질계 바이오매스 가수분해물 중 발효저해 물질에 대한 생물학적 및 물리화학적 무독화 방법의 평가)

  • Cho, Dae-Haeng;Kim, Yong-Hwan
    • KSBB Journal
    • /
    • v.24 no.5
    • /
    • pp.415-419
    • /
    • 2009
  • In this study, the detoxification methods were evaluated for the removal of fermentation inhibitors from synthetic solution containing the composition similar to the lignocellulosic hydrolysate. The enzyme peroxidase and laccase were used as a biological treatment method. The physico-chemical methods such as adsorption and ion exchange were applied by using activated charcoal and ion exchange resins. The enzyme peroxidase showed a excellent removal of phenolic compounds. The 5-HMF and furfural were completely removed by activated charcoal. The anion exchange resin showed a good result for detoxification of acetic acid. The activated charcoal and ion exchange resins lead to a loss of sugars more or less. The choice of detoxification method must be made after considering the composition and inhibitors in hydrolysates.

Enzymatic and Genetic Aspects of Glyoxalase I in Microorganisms (미생물에 있어서 글리옥살라아제 I의 효소학적, 유전학적 고찰)

  • 이해익
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-108
    • /
    • 1990
  • The enzymatic studies on the methylglyoxal metabolism in yeast and bacterial cells indicated that organisms are equipped with the common and manifold systems for the detoxification of methylglyoxal. Among these systems, the glyoxalase I is the most important route for methylglyoxal detoxification. The molecular structure of glyoxalase I is apparently distinct from the enzyme sources, and zinc ion is an essential cofactor in enzyme activity. The gene for Pseudomonas putida glyoxalase I functioned as a scavenger of methylglyoxal and regulated the cell size of the bacterium. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the P. putida glyoxalase I gene with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme revealed that the N-terminal methionine residue was removed after translation. Possible physiological role of glyoxalase I was also discussed.

  • PDF

Detoxification of Sarin, an Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor, by Recombinant Organophosphorus Acid Anhydrolase

  • Kim, Seok-Chan;Lee, Nam-Taek
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.34 no.5
    • /
    • pp.440-445
    • /
    • 2001
  • Pesticide waste and chemical stockpiles are posing a potential threat to both Vie environment and human health. There is currently a great effort toward developing effective and economical methods for the detoxification of these toxic organophosphates. In terms of safety and economy, enzymatic biodegradation has been recommended as the most promising tool to detoxify these toxic materials. To develop an enzymatic degradation method to detoxify such toxic organophosphorus compounds, a gene encoding organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) from genomic DNA of Alteromonas haloplanktis C was subcloned and expressed. The enzyme consists of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 48 kDa. It demonstrates strong hydrolyzing activity on sarin, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Moreover, its high activity is sustained for a considerable length of time. It is projected that the recombinant OPAA can be applied as an enzymatic tool that can be used not only for the detoxification of pesticide wastes, but also for the demilitarization of chemical stockpiles.

  • PDF

Evaluation of a Schzandrin C Derivative DDB-mixed Preparation(DWP-04) on Acetaminophen Detoxification Enzyme System in the Animal Model (오미자 Schizandrin C 유도체 DDB 복합물 DWP-04가 Acetaminophen 해독계에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hee-Juhn;Lee, Myeong-Seon;Chi, Sang-Cheol;Lee, Kyung-Tae;Shin, Young-Ho;Choi, Jong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
    • /
    • v.36 no.2
    • /
    • pp.81-87
    • /
    • 2005
  • The effects of the DWP-04 [DDB:selenium yeast:glutathione (31.1 : 6.8 : 62.1 (w/w%)] on acetaminophen detoxification enzyme system were studied in rats. Treatment with DWP-04 was prevented againt acetaminophen-induiced hepatotoxicity in rat as evidenced by the decreased formation of lipid peroxide. Effect of DWP-04 on the activities of free radical-generating enzymes, free radical scavenging enzymes and glutathione-related enzymes as well as detoxification mechanism of DWP-04 against acetaminophen-treated was investigated in rat. Activities of cytochrome p450, cytochrome b5, aminopyrine demethylase and aniline hydroxylase as free radical-generating enzymes activities were decreased by the treatment with DWP-04 against acetaminophen treated. Although acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity results in the significantly decrease in the level of hepatic glutathione and activities of glutathine S-transferase, quinone reductase, glutathione reductase and ${\gamma}-glutamyl-$cysteine synthetase, these decreasing effects were markedly lowered in the DWP-04-treated rat. Therefore, it was concluded that the mechanism for the observed preventive effect of DWP-04 against the acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity was associated with the decreased activities in the free radical-generating enzyme system.

Chemopreventive effects of polysaccharides extract from Asterina pectinifera on HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells

  • Nam, Kyung-Soo;Shon, Yun-Hee
    • BMB Reports
    • /
    • v.42 no.5
    • /
    • pp.277-280
    • /
    • 2009
  • We examined the effects of polysaccharides extracted from Asterina pectinifera on the activities of quinone reductase (QR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and glutathione (GSH) levels in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. We found that the polysaccharides extract induced QR activity in a dose-dependent manner over a concentration range of $20-60\;{\mu}g/ml$ and increased GST activity as much as 1.4-fold over controls. GSH levels were increased 1.3- and 1.5-fold with the extract at 40 and $60\;{\mu}g/ml$, respectively. The activity and protein expression of ODC in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced colon cancer cells was inhibited by the extract. The polysaccharides suppressed TPA-induced prostaglandin (PG) production. These data indicate that polysaccharides from A. pectinifera increase phase II detoxification enzyme activity and inhibit ODC and COX-2 activities in HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Consequently, this effect may contribute to the protective effect of polysaccharides from A. pectinifera against colon cancer.

THE ROLE OF PANAX GINSENG IN DETOXIFICATION OF XENOBIOTICS (독성물질 해독작용에 미치는 인삼의 효능)

  • Lee F.C.;Park J.K.;Kim E.K.;Ko J.K.;Lee J.S.;Kim K.Y.
    • Proceedings of the Ginseng society Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.21-26
    • /
    • 1984
  • The balance between metabolic activation of xenobiotics and detoxification of their active metabolites may playa vital role in controlling mutagenic and carcinogenic processes. To assess the possible role of P. ginseng C.A. Meyer in detoxification of xenobiotics, we studied the effects of ginseng on several parameters of the monooxygenasd system, including benzo(a) pyrene monooxygenase(AHH) and benzo(a) pyrene epoxide hydratase(EH) as well as effects of ginseng on the conjugation system. Test animals receiving ginseng saponin-fraction induced epoxide hydratase activity to over $150\%$ (20mg/kg b.w.) of the control and increased glutathione transferase activity (GSH-T) up to $140\%$ (20mg/kg b.w.) of the control, whereas no significant changes were observed in the benzopyrene monooxygenase activity (AHH). Such a selective induction of the inactivation enzyme epoxide hydratase, combined with a marked elevation of the detoxifying enzyme glutathione transferase, without a concurrent induction of benzopyrene monooxygenase which is responsible for the formation of carcinogenic intermediates, demonstrates that ginseng has the potential to alter the metabolic course of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and thereby enhance detoxification. Thus, ginseng may play an important role in the prevention of tumors caused by carcinogens.

  • PDF

Study on the immobilization of plant glutathione S-transferase for development of herbicide detection kit (제초제 검출 키트 개발을 위한 식물 해독효소 고정화 연구)

  • Cho, Hyun-Young;Lee, Jin-Joo;Kong, Kwang-Hoon
    • Analytical Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.172-178
    • /
    • 2010
  • Glutathione S-transferase is known to play a crucial role in detoxification in many cases. To develop a herbicide detection biosensor, we in this study attempted to immobilize glutathione S-transferase enzyme on solid supports, polystyrene and agarose, and Na-alginate. These matrixes were attractive materials for the construction of biosensors and might also have utility for the production of immobilized enzyme bioreactors. We also compared the activities of glutathione-S-transferase immobilized OsGSTF3 and free OsGSTF3. The specific activity of the free enzyme in solution was 3.3 higher than the immobilized enzyme. These results suggest that 50% of the enzyme was bound with the catalytic site in polystyrene-alkylamine bead and immobilized enzymes showed 80% remaining activity until 3 times reuse.

Exploiting Gastrointestinal Microbes for Livestock and Industrial Development - Review -

  • Singh, Birbal;Bhat, Tej K.;Singh, Bhupinder
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.4
    • /
    • pp.567-586
    • /
    • 2001
  • Gastrointestinal tract of ruminants as well as monogastric animals are colonised by a variety of microorganisms including bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Gastrointestinal ecosystem, especially the rumen is emerging as an important source for enrichment and natural selection of microbes adapted to specific conditions. It represents a virtually untapped source of novel products (e.g. enzymes, antibiotics, bacteriocins, detoxificants and aromatic compounds) for industrial and therapeutic applications. Several gastrointestinal bacteria and fungi implicated in detoxification of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) can be modified and manipulated into promising system for detoxifying feed stuffs and enhancing fibre fermentation both naturally by adaptation or through genetic engineering techniques. Intestinal lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and butyrivibrios are being thoroughly investigated and widely recommended as probiotics. Restriction endonucleases and native plasmids, as stable vectors and efficient DNA delivery systems of ruminal and intestinal bacteria, are increasingly recognised as promising tools for genetic manipulation and development of industrially useful recombinant microbes. Enzymes can improve the nutrient availability from feed stuffs, lower feed costs and reduce release of wastes into the environment. Characterization of genes encoding a variety of commercially important enzymes such as cellulases, xylanases, $\beta$-glucanases, pectinases, amylases and phytases will foster the development of more efficacious and viable enzyme supplements and enzyme expression systems for enhancing livestock production.

Effects of Natural Products on the Induction of NAD(P)H: Quinone Reductase in Hepa 1c1c7 Cells for the Development of Cancer Chemopreventive Agents

  • Kim, Young-Mi;Chang, Il-Moo;Mar, Woong-Chon
    • Natural Product Sciences
    • /
    • v.3 no.2
    • /
    • pp.81-88
    • /
    • 1997
  • NAD(P)H:quinone reductase (QR) is one of the protective phase II enzymes against toxicity that accomplishes the capacity of detoxification by modulating the effects of mutagens and carcinogens. The detoxification mechanism is that quinone reductase promotes the 2-electron reduction of quinones to hydroquinones which are less reactive. This study is to search new inducers of quinone reductase from natural products, which can be used as cancer chemopreventive agents. Plant extracts were evaluated by using quinone reductase generating system With Hepa 1c1c7 murine hepatoma cell lines for enzyme inducing properties and crystal violet staining method for the measurement of cytotoxicity provoked. We have tested approximately 106 kinds of natural products after partition into n-hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous layers from 100% methanol extracts of natural products. The ethyl acetate fractions of Vitex rotundifolia $(fruits,\;2FC:\;12.7\;{\mu}g/ml)$, Cnidium officinale $(aerial\;parts,\;2FC:\;10.5\;{\mu}g/ml)$, Chrysanthemum sinese $(flowers,\;2FC:\;17.4{\mu}g/ml)$ and the hexane fractions of Angelica gigas $(roots,\;2FC:\;13.2\;{\mu}g/ml)$, Smilax china $(roots,\;2FC:\;l1.9\;{\mu}g/ml)$, Sophora flavescens $(roots,\;2FC:\;16.3\;{\mu}g/ml)$ revealed the significant induction of quinone reductase in a murine hepatic Hepa 1c1c7 cell culture system.

  • PDF

Comparison of Xenobiotic Metabolism and Antioxidative Status in Cultivated and Stocked Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli (양식산과 방류산 조피볼락(Sebastes schlegeli)의 간장 중 해독 및 항산화 효소계의 비교)

  • Lee, Ji-Seon;Byun, Hee-Guk;Jeon, Joong-Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
    • /
    • v.45 no.2
    • /
    • pp.97-103
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study compared the composition and texture of muscle and levels of detoxification and antioxidant enzymes in the livers of stocked and cultivated rockfish Sebastes schlegeli released after the primary culture stage in Tongyoung, South Korea. The crude lipid content of muscle was significantly higher ($P$<0.05) in cultivated rockfish than stocked rockfish, while the texture did not differ significantly ($P$>0.05). The condition factor (CF) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) did not differ significantly and the growth of stocked and cultivated rockfish was similar. The levels of the detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) were significantly lower in the livers of stocked rockfish, perhaps because of their reduced exposure to xenobiotic compounds. In addition, stocked rockfish had a significantly ($P$<0.05) lower CAT and higher GR than cultivated rockfish, but similar levels of tGPx, SOD, GSH, and GSSG. The present study shows that the growth rates of stocked and cultivated rockfish are similar and that stocked rockfish are exposed to fewer xenobiotic compounds and less oxidative stress.